• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nonselective cation channel

Search Result 26, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

Disappearance of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and $O_2$-Sensitive Nonselective Cationic Current in Arterial Myocytes of Rats Under Ambient Hypoxia

  • Yoo, Hae Young;Kim, Sung Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.17 no.5
    • /
    • pp.463-468
    • /
    • 2013
  • Acute hypoxia induces contraction of pulmonary artery (PA) to protect ventilation/perfusion mismatch in lungs. As for the cellular mechanism of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), hypoxic inhibition of voltage-gated $K^+$ channel (Kv) in PA smooth muscle cell (PASMC) has been suggested. In addition, our recent study showed that thromboxane $A_2$ ($TXA_2$) and hypoxia-activated nonselective cation channel ($I_{NSC}$) is also essential for HPV. However, it is not well understood whether HPV is maintained in the animals exposed to ambient hypoxia for two days (2d-H). Specifically, the associated electrophysiological changes in PASMCs have not been studied. Here we investigate the effects of 2d-H on HPV in isolated ventilated/perfused lungs (V/P lungs) from rats. HPV was almost abolished without structural remodeling of PA in 2d-H rats, and the lost HPV was not recovered by Kv inhibitor, 4-aminopyridine. Patch clamp study showed that the hypoxic inhibition of Kv current in PASMC was similar between 2d-H and control. In contrast, hypoxia and $TXA_2$-activated $I_{NSC}$ was not observed in PASMCs of 2d-H. From above results, it is suggested that the decreased $I_{NSC}$ might be the primary functional cause of HPV disappearance in the relatively early period (2 d) of hypoxia.

Buffering Contribution of Mitochondria to the $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ Increase by $Ca^{2+}$ Influx through Background Nonselective Cation Channels in Rabbit Aortic Endothelial Cells

  • Kim, Young-Chul;Lee, Sang-Jin;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.29-35
    • /
    • 2005
  • To prove the buffering contribution of mitochondria to the increase of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ level ($[Ca^{2+}]_i$) via background nonselective cation channel (background NSCC), we examined whether inhibition of mitochondria by protonophore carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) affects endothelial $Ca^{2+}$ entry and $Ca^{2+}$ buffering in freshly isolated rabbit aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). The ratio of fluorescence by fura-2 AM ($R_{340/380}$) was measured in RAECs. Biological state was checked by application of acetylcholine (ACh) and ACh ($10{\mu}M$) increased $R_{340/380}$ by $1.1{\pm}0.15$ ($mean{\pm}S.E.$, n=6). When the external $Na^+$ was totally replaced by $NMDG^+$, $R_{340/380}$ was increased by $1.19{\pm}0.17$ in a reversible manner (n=27). $NMDG^+$-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase was followed by oscillatory decay after $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ reached the peak level. The increase of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ by $NMDG^+$ was completely suppressed by replacement with $Cs^+$. When $1{\mu}M$ CCCP was applied to bath solution, the ratio of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was increased by $0.4{\pm}0.06$ (n=31). When $1{\mu}M$ CCCP was used for pretreatment before application of $NMDG^+$, oscillatory decay of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ by $NMDG^+$ was significantly inhibited compared to the control (p<0.05). In addition, $NMDG^+-induced$ increase of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was highly enhanced by pretreatment with $2{\mu}M$ CCCP by $320{\pm}93.7$%, compared to the control ($mean{\pm}S.E.$, n=12). From these results, it is concluded that mitochondria might have buffering contribution to the $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase through regulation of the background NSCC in RAECs.

Characteristics of CCh-activated Nonselective Cation Channel in Gastric Smooth Muscle Cells.

  • Kang, Tong-Mook;Kim, Young-Chul;Rhee, Poong-Lyul;So, In-Suk;Rhee, Jong-Chul;Uhm, Dae-Yong;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.26-26
    • /
    • 1997
  • In the present study, we recorded CCh-activated nonselective cation (NSC) current in guinea-pig gastric smooth muscle cells and investigated the characteristics of the current. In whole-cell voltage-clamp mode, CCh activated NSC current. The same NSC current could be activated by internal dialysis of GTP${\gamma}$S.(omitted)

  • PDF

Analysis of interaction between intracellular spermine and transient receptor potential canonical 4 channel: multiple candidate sites of negatively charged amino acids for the inward rectification of transient receptor potential canonical 4

  • Kim, Jinsung;Moon, Sang Hui;Kim, Taewook;Ko, Juyeon;Jeon, Young Keul;Shin, Young-Cheul;Jeon, Ju-Hong;So, Insuk
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.24 no.1
    • /
    • pp.101-110
    • /
    • 2020
  • Transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) channel is a nonselective calcium-permeable cation channels. In intestinal smooth muscle cells, TRPC4 currents contribute more than 80% to muscarinic cationic current (mIcat). With its inward-rectifying current-voltage relationship and high calcium permeability, TRPC4 channels permit calcium influx once the channel is opened by muscarinic receptor stimulation. Polyamines are known to inhibit nonselective cation channels that mediate the generation of mIcat. Moreover, it is reported that TRPC4 channels are blocked by the intracellular spermine through electrostatic interaction with glutamate residues (E728, E729). Here, we investigated the correlation between the magnitude of channel inactivation by spermine and the magnitude of channel conductance. We also found additional spermine binding sites in TRPC4. We evaluated channel activity with electrophysiological recordings and revalidated structural significance based on Cryo-EM structure, which was resolved recently. We found that there is no correlation between magnitude of inhibitory action of spermine and magnitude of maximum current of the channel. In intracellular region, TRPC4 attracts spermine at channel periphery by reducing access resistance, and acidic residues contribute to blocking action of intracellular spermine; channel periphery, E649; cytosolic space, D629, D649, and E687.

Effects of Samchulkunbi-tang in Cultured Interstitial Cells of Cajal of Murine Small Intestine

  • Kim, Jung Nam;Kwon, Young Kyu;Kim, Byung Joo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.112-117
    • /
    • 2013
  • We studied the modulation of pacemaker activities by Samchulkunbi-tang (SCKB) in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) from murine small intestine with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Externally applied SCKB produced membrane depolarization in the current-clamp mode. The pretreatment with $Ca^{2+}$-free solution and thapsigargin, a $Ca^{2+}$-ATPase inhibitor in endoplasmic reticulum, abolished the generation of pacemaker potentials and suppressed the SCKB-induced action. The application of flufenamic acid (a nonselective cation channel blocker) abolished the generation of pacemaker potentials by SCKB. However, the application of niflumic acid (a chloride channel blocker) did not inhibit the generation of pacemaker potentials by SCKB. In addition, the membrane depolarizations were inhibited by not only GDP-${\beta}$-S, which permanently binds G-binding proteins, but also U-73122, an active phospholipase C inhibitor. These results suggest that SCKB modulates the pacemaker activities by nonselective cation channels and external $Ca^{2+}$ influx and internal $Ca^{2+}$ release via G-protein and phospholipase C-dependent mechanism. Therefore, the ICC are targets for SCKB and their interaction can affect intestinal motility.

Higher Expression of TRPM7 Channels in Murine Mature B Lymphocytes than Immature Cells

  • Kim, Jin-Kyoung;Ko, Jae-Hong;Nam, Joo-Hyun;Woo, Ji-Eun;Min, Kyeong-Min;Earm, Yung-E;Kim, Sung-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.69-75
    • /
    • 2005
  • TRPM7, a cation channel protein permeable to various metal ions such as $Mg^{2+}$, is ubiquitously expressed in variety of cells including lymphocytes. The activity of TRPM7 is tightly regulated by intracellular $Mg^{2+}$, thus named $Mg^{2+}$-inhibited cation (MIC) current, and its expression is known to be critical for the viability and proliferation of B lymphocytes. In this study, the level of MIC current was compared between immature (WEHI-231) and mature (Bal-17) B lymphocytes. In both cell types, an intracellular dialysis with $Mg^{2+}$-free solution (140 mM CsCl) induced an outwardly-rectifying MIC current. The peak amplitude of MIC current and the permeability to divalent cation ($Mn^{2+}$) were several fold higher in Bal-17 than WEHI-231. Also, the level of mRNAs for TRPM7, a molecular correspondence of the MIC channel, was significantly higher in Bal-17 cells. The amplitude of MIC was further increased, and the relation between current and voltage became linear under divalent cation-free conditions, demonstrating typical properties of the TRPM7. The stimulation of B cell receptors (BCR) by ligation with antibodies did not change the amplitude of MIC current. Also, increase of extracellular $[Mg^{2+}]_c$ to enhance the $Mg^{2+}$ influx did not affect the BCR ligation-induced death of WEHI-231 cells. Although the level of TRPM7 was not directly related with the cell death of immature B cells, the remarkable difference of TRPM7 might indicate a fundamental change in the permeability to divalent cations during the development of B cells.

Characterization of the Stretch-Activated Channel in the Hamster Oocyte (햄스터난자에서 신전에 의해 활성화되는 통로의 성상)

  • Kim, Y.-M.;Hong, S.-G.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.89-99
    • /
    • 2004
  • Stretch-activated channels (SACs) responds to membrane stress with changes in open probability (Po). They play essential roles in regulation of cell volume and differentiation, vascular tone, and in hormonal secretion. SACs highly present in Xenopus oocytes and Ascidian oocytes are suggested to be involved in the regulation of pH and fluid transport to balance the osmotic pressure, but remain unclear in mammanlian oocytes. This study was investigated to find the presence of SACs in hamster oocytes and to examine their electrophysiological properties. To infer a role of SAC in relation to the development of early stage, we followed up to the stage of two-cell zygote with patch clamp techniques. Single channels were elicited by negative pressure (lower than ­15 cm$H_2O$). Interestingly, SACs were dependent on permeable cations such as $Na^+$ or $K^+$. As permeable cation removed from both sides across the membrane, SAC activity completely disappeared. When permeable cations present only in intracellular compartment, outward currents appeared at positive potentials. In contrast to this, inward currents occurred only at the negative voltage when permeable cation absent in cell interior. These result suggests that SAC carry cations through the nonselective cation channel (NSC channel). Taken together, we found that stretch activated channels present in hamster oocyte and the channel may carry cations through NSC channels. This stretch activated-NSC channels may play physiological role(s) in oocyte growth, maturation, fertilization and embryogenesis in fertilized oocytes to two-cell zygotes of hamster.

Reactive oxygen species increase neuronal excitability via activation of nonspecific cation channel in rat medullary dorsal horn neurons

  • Lee, Hae In;Park, Byung Rim;Chun, Sang Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.371-376
    • /
    • 2017
  • The caudal subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (medullary dorsal horn; MDH) receives direct inputs from small diameter primary afferent fibers that predominantly transmit nociceptive information in the orofacial region. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in persistent pain, primarily through spinal mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system, a known generator of superoxide anion ($O_2{^-}$), on membrane excitability in the rat MDH neurons. For this, we used patch clamp recording and confocal imaging. An application of X/XO ($300{\mu}M/30mU$) induced membrane depolarization and inward currents. When slices were pretreated with ROS scavengers, such as phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase, X/XO-induced responses decreased. Fluorescence intensity in the DCF-DA and DHE-loaded MDH cells increased on the application of X/XO. An anion channel blocker, 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), significantly decreased X/XO-induced depolarization. X/XO elicited an inward current associated with a linear current-voltage relationship that reversed near -40 mV. X/XO-induced depolarization reduced in the presence of $La^{3+}$, a nonselective cation channel (NSCC) blocker, and by lowering the external sodium concentration, indicating that membrane depolarization and inward current are induced by influx of $Na^+$ ions. In conclusion, X/XO-induced ROS modulate the membrane excitability of MDH neurons, which was related to the activation of NSCC.

Mechanism of Apoptosis Induced by Diazoxide, a $K^{+}$ Channel Opener, in HepG2 Human Hepatoma Cells

  • Lee, Yong-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
    • /
    • v.27 no.3
    • /
    • pp.305-313
    • /
    • 2004
  • The effect of diazoxide, a $K^{+}$channel opener, on apoptotic cell death was investigated in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells. Diazoxide induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and this was evaluated by flow cytometric assays of annexin-V binding and hypodiploid nuclei stained with propidium iodide. Diazoxide did not alter intracellular $K^{+}$concentration, and various inhibitors of $K^{+}$channels had no influence on the diazoxide-induced apoptosis; this implies that $K^{+}$channels activated by diazoxide may be absent in the HepG2 cells. However, diazoxide induced a rapid and sustained increase in intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration, and this was completely inhibited by the extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ chelation with EGTA, but not by blockers of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release (dantrolene and TMB-8). This result indicated that the diazoxide-induced increase of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ might be due to the activation of a Ca2+ influx pathway. Diazoxide-induced $Ca^{2+}$ influx was not significantly inhibited by either voltage-operative $Ca^{2+}$ channel blockers (nifedipinen or verapamil), or by inhibitors of $Na^{+}$, $Ca^{2+}$-exchanger (bepridil and benzamil), but it was inhibited by flufenamic acid (FA), a $Ca^{2+}$-permeable nonselective cation channel blocker. A quantitative analysis of apoptosis by flow cytometry revealed that a treatment with either FA or BAPTA, an intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ chelator, significantly inhibited the diazoxide-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that the observed diazoxide-induced apoptosis in the HepG2 cells may result from a $Ca^{2+}$ influx through the activation of $Ca^{2+}$-permeable non-selective cation channels. These results are very significant, and they lead us to further suggest that diazoxide may be valuable for the therapeutic intervention of human hepatomas.

Inhibitory Effect of Caffeine on Carbachol-Induced Nonselective Cationic Current in Guinea-Pig Gastric Myocytes

  • Kim, Sung-Joon;Min, Kyung-Wan;Kim, Young-Chul;Lee, Sang-Jin;So, In-Suk;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.2 no.3
    • /
    • pp.353-359
    • /
    • 1998
  • In gastrointestinal smooth muscle, muscarinic stimulation by carbachol (CCh) activates nonselective cation channel current ($I_{CCh}$) which is facilitated by intracellular [$Ca^{2+}$] increase. Caffeine is widely used in experiments to mobilize $Ca^{2+}$ from intracellular stores. This study shows a strong inhibitory effect of caffeine on $I_{CCh}$ in guinea-pig gastric myocyte. In this study, the underlying mechanism of the inhibitory effect of caffeine was investigated. $I_{CCh}$ was completely suppressed by the addition of caffeine (10 mM) to the superfusing solution. Inhibition of $I_{CCh}$ by caffeine was not related to the intracellular cAMP accumulation which was expected from the phosphodiesterase-inhibiting effect of caffeine. The blockade of $InsP_3-induced$ $Ca^{2+}$ release by heparin had no significant effects on the activation of $I_{CCh}$. When the same cationic current had been induced by intracellular dialysis of $GTP[{\gamma}S]$ in order to bypass the muscarinic receptor, the inhibitory effect of caffeine was significantly attenuated. The results of this study indicate that both intracellular signalling pathways for $I_{CCh}$, proximal and distal to G-protein activation, are suppressed by caffeine. A major inhibition was observed at the proximal level.

  • PDF