• Title, Summary, Keyword: NonHDL cholesterol

Validity for Use of Non-HDL Cholesterol Rather than LDL Cholesterol

• Kwon, Se-Young;Na, Young-Ak
• Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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• v.45 no.2
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• pp.54-59
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• 2013
• NonHDL cholesterol values have been suggested as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. NonHDL cholesterol values were calculated, using a very simple measurement [nonHDL cholesterol=serum total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol]. This formula is very useful as a screening tool for identifying dyslipoproteinemias, risk assessment, and assessing the results of hypolipidemic therapy. The data from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Analysis was done for 1,992 subjects with lipid panels (Cholesterol, HDL, LDLdirect and Triglycerides) results. We studied the relationship between nonHDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. As a result, nonHDL cholesterol values were plotted against the LDL direct and calculated values. The linear regression equation for nonHDL cholesterol and direct LDL cholesterol was $nonHDLchol=23.60+1.03{\times}LDLdirect$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.80$) in all subjects. The subjects were classified into triglyceride values. When triglycerides are below 400 mg/dL, the linear fit to LDL direct is found to be $[nonHDLchol=17.34+1.07{\times}LDLdirect]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.88$) and to the Friedewald LDL calculation is $[nonHDLchol=23.10+1.02{\times}LDLcalc]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.82$). For triglycerides above 400 mg/dL, the linear fit equation is $[nonHDLchol=87.57+0.92{\times}LDLdirect]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.50$) and to the LDL calculated, it is $[nonHDLchol=142.70+0.50{\times}LDLcalc]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.32$). This study provides examples of the utility of nonHDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical medicine.

Significance of Non HDL-cholesterol and Triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol Ratio as Predictors for Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Elderly (한국 노인의 대사증후군 예측인자로서 혈중 Non HDL 콜레스테롤과 중성지방/HDL 콜레스테롤 비의 의의)

• Hong, Seung Bok;Shin, Kyung-A
• Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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• v.50 no.3
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• pp.245-252
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• 2018
• We evaluated the possible clinical application of Non HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio as a metabolic syndrome predictor for the elderly in Korea. 1,543 elderly persons aged 65 years or older who visited the health examination center of Gyeonggi Regional General Hospital from January 2015 to December 2017 and had a health checkup were enrolled in this study. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) standards. Abdominal obesity was assessed by the Asia-Pacific standards presented at the World Health Organization (WHO) West Pacific Region. Non-HDL-cholesterol was calculated as the difference between total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. The metabolic syndrome predictive power was higher for triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio than for Non HDL-cholesterol. After correcting for related factors, triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio was higher in the $4^{th}$ quartile, which had a higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome, than in the $1^{st}$ quartile. The optimal cutoff value for the triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio that predicts the onset of metabolic syndrome was 2.8. triglyceride to HDL-cholesterol ratio can be a simple and practical indicator of the risk of metabolic syndrome.

Comparison of Efficacy Between Micronised- and Non-micronised Fenofibrate in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Dyslipidemia (이상지혈증을 동반한 제2형 당뇨병환자에서 미세화된 fenofibrate)

• 신화연;오정미;강문호;신현택
• YAKHAK HOEJI
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• v.45 no.5
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• pp.468-475
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• 2001
• Fenofibrate is a fibric acid derivative that is a strong reducer of triglyceride. Micronozed formulation of fenofibrate has improved bioavailability compared to non-micrornized formulation. This study performed a retrospective comparison of micrornized and non-micrornized fenofibrate (28 in micronized and 51 in non-micronized group) by comparing the means of changes in total triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and TC/HDL ratio in type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia The result skewed that after 12 weeks of treatment both drugs produced a significant reduction in total triglyceride levels (62% with micronized, 37% with non-micronized). The mean decrease observed for total triglyceride levels were significantly lower for micronized fenofibrate (p<0.001). Both drugs showed a significant reduction for total cholesterol levels (-22% with micronized, -14% with non-micronized fenofibrate). The mean decrease observed for total cholesterol was not significantly different between the two drugs (p>0.05). HDL-cholesterol levels increased by 24% and 15%) with micronized and non-micronized, respectively and the differences from the baseline were statistically significant for both drugs (p<0.05). The mean change of HDL-cholesterol was not significantly different between the two drugs. There was a statistically significant reduction in TC/HBL-cholesterol ratio from baseline for both drugs (7.1 to 4.8 with micronized and 5.1 to 4.5 with non-micronized), and the reduction of TC/HDL-cholesterol ratio tended to be significantly greater with micronized fenofibrate (p<0.05). This study shows that short-term treatment with micronized fenofibrate is more effective than non-micronized fenosbrate in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia.

The Effects of Smoking on Nutritional Intake, Dietary Behaviors and Blood Lipid Profile of College Students in the Gyeonggi Area (경기지역 일부 남자대학생의 흡연여부가 영양섭취와 건강관련 생활습관 및 혈중 지질에 미치는 영향)

• Kim, Su-Ra;Song, Kyung-Hee
• Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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• v.18 no.5
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• pp.407-417
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• 2003
• This study was performed to investigate nutritional intake, the dietary behaviors and plasma lipid profile between smokers and non-smokers of college male students in the Gyeonggi Area. Dietary behaviors and attitude toward smoking were investigated by questionnaires. The result obtained were as follows: There was no significant difference in anthropometric measurements between smokers and nonsmokers. There was no significant difference in dietary behaviors. However, smokers tended to eat more snacks and desserts than nonsmokers. In plasma lipid levels, smokers had higher levels of plasma triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol than that of non-smokers(p<0.05). HDL-cholesterol level of smokers was a lower than that of non-smokers although the difference was not significant. AI(Atherogenic Index), Total /HDL cholesterol ratio and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio of smokers were significantly higher than that of non-smokers(p<0.01). BMI and SBP showed positive correlation with triglyceride(p<0.01) and VLDL-cholesterol(p<0.01). DBP showed positive correlation with triglyceride(p<0.001) and VLDL-cholesterol(p<0.01).

The Risk Factors Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Heavy Industry Workers (중공업근로자의 체질량지수 상승요인)

• Lee, Mi-Hwa
• Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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• v.42 no.3
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• pp.129-135
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• 2010
• This study was performed to determine the risk factors associated with increased body mass index (BMI) in 672 heavy industry men workers. Subjects were examined in March, 2010 to September, 2010 in Gyeongnam province. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. And fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured by Olympus AU 680, and their BMIs calculated. Age, smoking statue, and alcohol drinking of the workers were surveyed by questionnairs. The mean total cholesterol levels were $190.06{\pm}36.62mg/dL$, HDL-cholesterol $53.65{\pm}11.92mg/dL$, LDL-cholesterol $104.28{\pm}30.31mg/dL$, triglyceride $151.11{\pm}99.53mg/dL$, and fasting blood glucose $96.92{\pm}19.53mg/dL$. Mean systolic blood pressure was $126.08{\pm}13.78mmHg$, and diastolic blood pressure $71.88{\pm}10.45mmHg$. Subjects were categorized into two BMI groups, BMI ${\geq}23$ and BMI ${\leq}22.9$. The subjects with BMI of 23 or above had significantly higher levels of LDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride, with lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. BMI showed the highest level at the age of thirties, increasing with age. BMI of smokers was higher than BMI of non-smokers, not showing a link between alcoholics and non alcoholics. In conclusion, age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol are mostly relevant to the increase of BMI in this study.

Dietary Sesame Meal Increases Plasma HDL-cholesterol Concentration in Goats

• Hirano, Y.;Kashima, T.;Inagaki, N.;Uesaka, K.;Yokota, H.;Kita, K.
• Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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• v.15 no.11
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• pp.1564-1567
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• 2002
• Influence of dietary sesame meal on plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and urea concentrations in goats was examined. Goats were fed a control diet (50% timothy hay and 50% concentrates) (CD) or a sesame meal diet (50% timothy hay, 25% concentrates and 25% sesame meal) (SMD) during 12 days. Blood samples were taken after overnight fasting and afternoon every day. Body weight was not changed by feeding either CD or SMD. The concentrations of plasma triglyceride and urea were higher (p<0.05) in goats fed SMD than those fed CD. Plasma NEFA concentration was higher in plasma samples after overnight fasting. Plasma glucose concentration in plasma samples collected afternoon was higher than those after overnight fasting. Plasma total cholesterol concentration was significantly increased by feeding SMD but not by feeding CD, which was due to the remarkable increase of plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. In conclusion, dietary sesame meal brought about an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration accompanied with an increment in plasma HDL-cholesterol consentration in goats.

Distribution of the Fasting Lipid Levels and Validation of the Reference Interval in Korean Adolescents (우리나라 소아청소년의 공복 혈중 지질 농도의 분포 및 참고범위의 타당성 검증)

• Kwon, Seyoung;Na, Youngak
• Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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• v.50 no.3
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• pp.253-260
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• 2018
• With the growing prevalence of dyslipidemia in adolescents, its early detection and management is becoming increasingly important. This study overviewed the fasting lipid concentration distribution of adolescents according to the sex and age, and reviewed the percentile of its reference interval. This study targeted 2,713 adolescents aged between 10 and 19 (1,436 boys, 1,275 girls) based on the data from 2013 to 2016, Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The mean fasting lipid concentration of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride of girls was higher than those of boys. Although the $95^{th}$ percentile of the cholesterol value was 200 mg/dL in boys, which was equivalent to the diagnosis criterion, the mean value of girls was 208 mg/dL, staying between the $90^{th}$ and $95^{th}$ percentiles. The $95^{th}$ percentiles of the LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride value were 123, 148, and 147 mg/dL in boys, respectively, and 131, 149, and 139 mg/dL in girls, respectively. Most of the criteria of dyslipidemia were at the proper level, within the $90^{th}$ and $95^{th}$ percentile. While the criteria of LDL cholesterol (130 mg/dL) was higher in boys, the triglycerides was higher in girls. In conclusion, criteria more suitable to Korean adolescents will need to be established with further studies.

Some Factors Affecting Lipid Metabolism (지질대사(脂質代謝)에 관여하는 인자(因子))

• Nam, Hyun-Keun
• Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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• v.15 no.2
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• pp.191-200
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• 1986
• It is now generally accepted that individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease may be identified by certain traits or habbits. The factors such as high blood pressure, elevated blood cholestrol, age, sex and obesity are associated with increseaed frequency of disease. The blood cholesterol level lowering will decrease cardiovascular disease risk. The regression of atherosclerosis can be achieved by lowering the level of circulating cholesterol. Those things are connected with the quantity and quality of protein, fats, carbohydrates, especially soluble and non-soluble fiber, magnesium and calcium. The lipoprotein and lipid metabolism are connected with the lipid transport. The factors on lipid absorption and blood serum lipid pattern of human are exist. The factors have a variety of materials with different chemical and physical properties. The soluble fiber diet make a low blood and liver lipids. Many kind of soluble fiber results in a lowering of blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The cholesterol lowering effects of dietery fiber may be a results of alterations of in intestinal handling of fats, hepatic metabolism of fatty acid or triglyceride acid metabolism of lipoprotein. It is investigated that the high density lipoprotein (HDL) is inversely related to coronary artery disease. It has been postulated that HDL may be an important factor in cholesterol efflux from the tissues, therby reducing the amount of cholesterol deposited there. Alternatively, the HDL may pick up cholestyl ester and phospholipid during normal VLDL lipolysis in the plasma. The HDL levels are relatively insensitive to diet. At present time, the cause-and -diet effect of HDL's inverse relation to CHD remains unclear.

Effects of Isotlavones Supplemented Diet on Lipid Concentrations and Hepatic LDL Receptor mRNA Level in Growing Female Rats (성장기 암컷 흰쥐에서 이소플라본 첨가 식이가 지질 농도와 간 LDL 수용체의 유전자 발현정도에 미치는 영향)

• Choi Mi-Ja;Jo Hyun-Ju
• Journal of Nutrition and Health
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• v.38 no.5
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• pp.344-351
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• 2005
• The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of isoflavones on lipid concentrations and hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level in growing female rats. Twenty four rats (body weight $75\pm5g$) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, consuming control diet or isoflavones supplemented diet (57mg isoflavones/100g diet). All rats has been fed on experimental diet and deionized water ad libitum for 9 weeks. The concentration of triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured in serum and liver. Serum HDL cholesterol was measured. Hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level was tested by RT-PCR. Supplementation of isoflavones did not affect weight gain, mean food intake and food efficiency ratio. Serum total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol of isoflavones supplemented rats were significantly lower than those of control rats (p<0.05). But hepatic cholseterol was not influenced by supplementation of isoflavones. Hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level not significantly different between control group and isoflavones supplemented group. Therefore, isoflavones may be beneficial on serum cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol lowering in growing female rats.

The Effect of Antioxidant Vitamins Supplementation on Blood Pressure, Plasma Lipids, Folate, and Homocysteine Levels in Smokers and Non-Smokers of College Students in the Gyeonggi Area (항산화성 비타민 보충 급여가 경기지역 일부 대학생 흡연자와 비흡연자의 혈압과 혈장지질 및 엽산과 호모시스테인에 미치는 영향)

• 김수라;민혜선;하애화;현화진;송경희
• Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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• v.9 no.4
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• pp.472-482
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• 2004
• This study was performed to investigate the effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on blood pressure, plasma lipids, folate, and homocysteine levels in smokers and non-smokers of college male students in Gyeonggi Area. The nutrient intakes were determined by a 24hr-recall method. The subjects were divided into six groups: vitamin C sup-plementation group (n: smokers = 10, nonsmokers = 10), vitamin E supplementation group (n: smokers = 10, nonsmokers = 10), vitamin C and E supplementation group (n: smokers = 10, nonsmokers = 10), respectively. There were no significant differences between the smokers and nonsmokers in terms of anthropometric measurements. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in smokers than that of non-smokers. There was no significant difference in energy and other nutrients intakes between smokers and non-smokers. In plasma lipids levels, smokers had higher plasma triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol concentration than that of non-smokers (p < 0.05). HDL-cholesterol level of smokers had a tendency to be lower than that of non-smokers. In smokers, AI, TPH, LPH were significantly higher than that of non-smokers (p < 0.01). Plasma folate, homocysteine levels were not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers. The effect of antioxidant vitamins supplementation in smokers: In vitamin C supplementation group, HDL-cholesterol level was significantly in-creased (p < 0.01) and AI, TPH, LPH were significantly decreased (p < 0.01). In vitamin E supplementation group, HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased (p < 0.05). In vitamin C and E supplementation group, LPH was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The effect of antioxidant vitamins supplementation in non-smokers: HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased (p <0.05) and AI, TPH, LPH were significantly decreased (p <0.05) by vitamin C supplementation group. Plasma homocysteine level was decreased by vitamin E supplementation group in non-smokers (p < 0.01). The results of this study showed that smoking had a tendency to increase plasma lipids levels that factor into the risk of coronary heart disease. It is considered that antioxidant vitamin supplementation in smokers had a tendency to decrease cardiovascular disease than in nonsmokers.