• Title, Summary, Keyword: Non-sea salt

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Characteristics of Aerosol Mass Concentration and Chemical Composition of the Yellow and South Sea around the Korean Peninsula Using a Gisang 1 Research Vessel (기상1호에서 관측된 한반도 서해 및 남해상의 에어로졸 질량농도와 화학조성 특성)

  • Cha, Joo Wan;Ko, Hee-Jung;Shin, Beomchel;Lee, Hae-Jung;Kim, Jeong Eun;Ahn, Boyoung;Ryoo, Sang-Boom
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.357-372
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    • 2016
  • Northeast Asian regions have recently become the main source of anthropogenic and natural aerosols. Measurement of aerosols on the sea in these regions have been rarely conducted since the experimental campaigns such as ACE-ASIA (Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) in 2001. Research vessel observations of aerosol mass and chemical composition were performed on the Yellow and south sea around the Korean peninsula. The ship measurements showed six representative cases such as aerosol event and non-event cases during the study periods. On non-event cases, the anthropogenic chemical and natural soil composition on the Yellow sea were greater than those on the south sea. On aerosol event cases such as haze, haze with dust, and dust, the measured mass concentrations of anthropogenic chemical and element compositions were clearly changed by the events. In particular, methanesulfonate ($MSA^-$, $CH_3SO_3^-$), a main component of natural oceanic aerosol important for sulfur circulation on Earth, was first observed by the vessel in Korea, and its concentration on the Yellow sea was three times that on the south sea during the study period. Sea salt concentration important to chemical composition on the sea is related to wind speed. Coefficients of determination ($R^2$) between wind speed and sea salt concentration were 0.68 in $PM_{10}$ and 0.82 in $PM_{2.5}$. Maximum wave height was not found to be correlated to the sea salt concentration. When sea-salt comes into contact with pollutants, the total sea-salt mass is reduced, i.e., a loss of $Cl^-$ concentration from NaCl, the main chemical composing sea salt, is estimated by reaction with $HNO_3$(gas) and $H_2SO_4$(gas). The $Cl^-$ concentration loss by $SO_4^{2-}$ and $NO_3^-$ more easily increased for $PM_{10}$ compared to $PM_{2.5}$. The results of this study will be applied to verifying a dust-haze forecasting model. In addition, continued vessel measurements of aerosol data will become important to research for climate change studies in the future.

Chemical Transformation of Individual Asian Dust Particles Estimated by the Novel Double Detector System of Micro-PIXE

  • Ma, Chang-Jin
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.106-114
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    • 2010
  • By the application of novel double detector system of micro-PIXE that can detect light elements (Z<14), we made an attempt to provide a thorough discussion on the aging processes of Asian dust (hereafter called "AD") particle by reaction with sea-slat. The elemental spectra and maps obtained from the microbeam radiation of micro-PIXE to individual AD particles were useful for fractionating AD particles into both internally and externally mixed particles. A spatial distribution of elements in a minute domain of single particle obtained by scanning the microbeam irradiation enabled us not only to estimate the chemical mixing state of individual AD particles but also to presume their aging processes in both ambient air and cloud. By calculating the normalized micro-PIXE net count of elements, it was possible to classify individual AD particles into three distinct groups (i.e., (1) Aging type 1: AD particle coated by the gaseous Cl evaporated by the reaction between artificial acids and sea salt; (2) Aging type 2: AD particle mixed with sea salt but no additional reaction with artificial acids; and (3) Non-aged type) A relatively high transformation rate (63.3-75.9%) was shown in large particles (greater than $5.1\;{\mu}m$ in diameter).

Influence upon electrical properties of outdoor insulators with non-uniformity contamination (국부오손이 옥외절연물의 전기적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이원영;최남호;박강식;한상옥
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of IIIuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Conference
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    • pp.203-206
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    • 2001
  • Since th three sides of korea peninsula are surrounded by the sea, electric apparatus are greatly contaminated by the salt generated by the typhoon, seasonal wind, sea wind and sea fog. This contamination causes electric power apparatus to fail. Thus in this paper, we investigated to influence upon electrical properties of outdoor insulators with non-uniformity contamination in the experimental condition because The contamination of outdoor insulator highly depended wind property In the service condition, insulator was not uniformly contaminated. From the flashover test for the 254 mm suspension insulator, we could determine the influence non-uniform contamination on the electrical property of insulators. Through the experiment, we convinced to occur flashover from non-uniform contamination region of outdoor insulator. Contaminated area and pattern has a close relationship with the electrical properties of outdoor insulator.

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Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter in the Downtown Area of Jeju City (제주시 도심지역 미세먼지의 화학적 조성 특성)

  • Hu, Chul-Goo;Lee, Ki-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.597-610
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    • 2018
  • This study observed particulate matter ($PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$) in the downtown area of Jeju City, South Korea, to understand the chemical composition of particulates based on an analysis of the water-soluble ionic species contained in the particles. The mass fraction of the ionic species in the sampled $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ was 44.3% and 42.2%, respectively. In contrast, in Daegu City and Suwon City, the mass fraction of the ionic species in $PM_{2.5}$ was higher than that in $PM_{10}$. The chloride depletion percentage of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ in Jeju City was higher than 61% and 66%, respectively. The contribution of sea-salt to the mass of $PM_{10}$ (5.9%) and $PM_{2.5}$ (2.6%) in Jeju City was similar to that in several coastal regions of South Korea. The mass ratio of $Cl^-$ to $Na^+$ in the downtown area of Jeju City was comparable to that in some coastal regions, such as the Gosan Area of Jeju Island, Deokjeok Island, and Taean City. The mass fraction of sea-salt in $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ was very low, and the concentration of sodium and chloride ions in $PM_{10}$ was not correlated with those in $PM_{2.5}$ ($R^2$ < 0.2), suggesting that the effects of sea-salt on the formation of particulate matter in Jeju City might be insignificant. The relationship between $NH_4{^+}$ and several anions such as $SO_4{^{2-}}$, $NO_3{^-}$, and $Cl^-$, as well as the relationship between the measurement and calculation of ammonium ion concentration, suggested that sea-salts may not react with $H_2SO_4$, and $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ may be a major secondary inorganic aerosol component of $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ in Jeju City.

Characteristics of Son Concentrations of PM2.5 Measured at Gosan: Measurement Data between 1998 and 2002 (고산에서 측정한 PM2.5 이온 농도 특성: 1998~2002년 측정자료)

  • 김나경;김용표;강창희;문길주
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.333-343
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    • 2003
  • The aerosol ionic composition of P $M_{2.5}$ measured at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, for 4 years between March 1998 and February 2002 are presented and discussed. The annual mean concentration of non- sea-salt sulfate (nss -S $O_4$$^{2-}$) and ammonium (N $H_4$$^{+}$) ions are high (0.094 $\mu$eq/㎥, and 0.085 $\mu$eq/㎥, respectively). Also, nss-S $O_4$$^{2-}$ and N $H_4$$^{+}$ show high correlation (0.892). The concentrations of most ions are high in springtime. As the result of factor analysis, Gosan area mainly affected by sea-salt, anthropogenic species, and crustal species.ies.

A Study on Ion Distribution and Behavior of Acidrain in Mokpo and Yeochon Area (목포, 여천지역 강수의 무기이온 성분농도와 거동에 관한 연구)

  • 오길영;양수인;이완진
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to investigate the constituents of inorganic ions of precipitation in Mokpo and Yeochon area from Jan. 1996 to Dec. 1997. The volume-weighted mean pH of precipitation was 5.7(4.8~7.8) at Mokpo, and 5.6(5.1~7.4) at Yeochon area, respectively. The non-seasalt(nss) anion concentrations were found in order of $nss-SO^{2-}_4>NO^-_3>nss-Cl^-$ at two areas. The portion of $nss-SO^{2-}_4;and;NO^-_3$ was 71~84% out of anions. The the non-seasalt cation concentrations were found in order of $NH^+_4>nss-Ca^{2-}>nss-Mg^{2+}>nss-K^-$ at two areas. The portion of $NH^+_4;and; nss-Ca^{2+}$ was 85~92% out cations. Compared regionally the year concentraton of $nss-SO^{2-}_4$, the result of Yeochon was 3 times higher than that of Mokpo in 1996, while the results of two regions were almost similar in 1997. The reason was that Yeochon was restricted area of the use of 0.5% sulfur B-C oil, controlled air pollution emission area, controlled semitotal amounts of air pollution emission area and partial operating of factories in 1997. There were no ions having high correlation with $H^+,;but;nss-SO^{2-}_4,;NO^-_3,;NH^+_4;and;nss-Ca^{2+}$ showed high correlation coefficient each other. It seems that these ions have little correlation with $H^+$ because they are washed out on binding state. Factor analysis showed that the first factor was complicated factor containing anthropogenic and soil resource, the second factor was sea-salt resource and the third factor was independent behavior of hydrogen at Mokpo. While, the first factor was complicated factor containing anthropogenic and sea-salt resource, the second factor was $Ca(NO_3)_2$ salt and the third factor was $NH^+_4;and;SO^{2-}_4$ synergied by resource and combination at Yeochon.

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Attachment Behavior of Fission Products to Solution Aerosol

  • Takamiya, Koichi;Tanaka, Toru;Nitta, Shinnosuke;Itosu, Satoshi;Sekimoto, Shun;Oki, Yuichi;Ohtsuki, Tsutomu
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.350-353
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    • 2016
  • Background: Various characteristics such as size distribution, chemical component and radio-activity have been analyzed for radioactive aerosols released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Measured results for radioactive aerosols suggest that the potential transport medium for radioactive cesium was non-sea-salt sulfate. This result indicates that cesium isotopes would preferentially attach with sulfate compounds. In the present work the attachment behavior of fission products to aqueous solution aerosols of sodium salts has been studied using a generation system of solution aerosols and spontaneous fission source of $^{248}Cm$. Materials and Methods: Attachment ratios of fission products to the solution aerosols were compared among the aerosols generated by different solutions of sodium salt. Results and Discussion: A significant difference according as a solute of solution aerosols was found in the attachment behavior. Conclusion: The present results suggest the existence of chemical effects in the attachment behavior of fission products to solution aerosols.

Ionic composition comparison of atmospheric aerosols at coastal and mountainous sites of jeju island (제주도 해안과 산간 지역 대기 에어러솔의 이온조성 비교)

  • Hong, Sang-Bum;Jung, Duk-Sang;Lee, Soon-Bong;Lee, Dong-Eun;Shin, Seung-Hee;Kang, Chang-Hee
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.24-37
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    • 2011
  • The ionic compositions of atmospheric aerosols were investigated and characterized in coastal and mountainous sites of Jeju Island, which were Gosan and Mt. Halla-1100 sites respectively. It was found that the concentrations of nss-$SO_4^{2-}$ (non-sea salt sulfate) and $NH_4^+$ at two measurement sites were almost similar and they showed high concentrations in June at the same time. The concentration of soil-originated nss-$Ca^{2+}$ (non-sea salt calcium) was generally associated with that of anthropogenic $NO_3^-$ and its concentration was increased during spring season. From the comparison of time-series variation and regression analysis of ionic species between two measurement sites, TSP (total suspended particulate) in Gosan site was directly influenced by sea salt particles and the concentration levels of nss-$SO_4^{2-}$, $NH_4^+$, nss-$Ca^{2+}$, $K^+$, and $NO_3^-$ were mainly related with long-range transported air pollutants rather than local pollution sources.

Characteristics of Ionic Composition of Rainwater in Taean (태안지역 강우의 이온 조성)

  • Lee, Jong-Sik;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Lee, Jeong-Taek;Lee, Kwan-Yong;Park, Byoung-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2007
  • The issue of acid precipitation and related environmental problems in East Asia has been emerging. To evaluate the acidity and chemical characteristics of rainwater in Korea, its chemical properties during cultivation season from April to October in 2005 were investigated at Taean. Also, to estimate the contribution of ions on acidity, ion composition characteristics and neutralization effects by cations were determined. The electrical conductivity balance between measured and estimated values showed a high correlation. Rainwater was highly distributed in the range of pH $4.5{\sim}5.0$. The acidity of rainwater was relatively low during the month of June compared with other monitored periods. $Na^+$ was the main cation, followed by $H^+>Ca^{2+}>NH_4^+>K^+>Mg^{2+}$. Among these ions, $Na^+,\;NH_4^+,\;Ca^{2+}$ and $H^+$ comprised over 94% of the total cations. Rainwater anion composition was more than 80% with $SO_4^{2-}$ and $NO_3^-$. In rainwater samples, $NH_4^+$ and $Ca^{2+}$ contributed greatly to neutralizing the rain acidity. The sulfate content decreased until September, and sea salt derivatives were higher in May and October than during other monitored periods. Also, 78% of the soluble sulfate in rainwater was nss-$SO_4^{2-}$ (non-sea salt sulfate).