• Title, Summary, Keyword: Non-fiction

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A Study on the Characteristics of Digital Graffiti and Expression in Fashion (패션에 활용된 디지털 그라피티의 특성과 표현방법)

  • Kim, Taehee;Yoo, Youngsun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.65 no.8
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    • pp.50-63
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of digital graffiti as a new creative tool in fashion through analysis of its expressive features and methods merged in fashion. The results from the analysis of fashion cases using digital graffiti may be summarized as follows. First, 'Mixing of Materials and Non-materials' matched immaterial lights and images with physical clothing materials and space, effectively expressing imaginary spheres that were not expressible with the existing materials. Second, 'Fantastic Storytelling' expressed theme such as 'Sun', 'UFO', 'Science Fiction Film', 'Fantasy Fairy Tale', and 'Universe' through lasers, lights, augmented reality and LED graffiti. Third, 'Convergence with Human and Digital Media' accentuated the active participation of spectators thereby causing human and digital media to interact with each other. Designer's ideas and unexpected responses of spectators realized various digital graffiti effects, which came across by sheer chance. Fourth, 'Utilizing of Site-Specificity' met with the best results when the digital graffiti was expressed in context of a place or location where fashion performance is taking place. Fifth, ' Playfulness by Consumer Participation' intended to induce voluntary participation from consumers by providing the fashion digital graffiti as play tools, and created new fashion digital graffiti or altered existing stereotypes, thereby invoking new visual and tactile experiences. Likewise, today's digital graffiti are emerging in various fields, and the trend of fashion-digital graffiti integration has already created interesting works.

District 9 : Science Fiction as Social Critique (<디스트릭트 9> 사회비평으로서의 공상과학)

  • Cho, Peggy C.
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.42
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    • pp.505-524
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    • 2016
  • This study examines the ways District 9, a film released in 2009, reworks the sci-fi genre to explore the human encounter with "other" alien populations. Like Avatar, released in the same year, District 9 addresses the tropes of conflict over land and human-alien hybridity and introduces non-humans and aliens, not as invaders, but as objects of human oppression and cruelty. Unlike many other science fiction films where the encounter between humans and non-humans occurs in an unidentifiable future time and location, District 9 crosses genre barriers to engage with urban realism, producing a social critique of contemporary urban population problems. The arrival of aliens in District 9 occurs as part of the recorded human past and the film's action is carried out in the present time in the specifically identified city of Johannesburg. A distinctly anti-Hollywood film that locates the action at the street level, District 9 plays out human anxieties about contact with others by referencing the divisions and conflicts historically attached to South Africa's sprawling metropolis and its current problems of urban poverty and illegal immigrants. Focusing on how this particular urban setting frames the film, the study investigates the ways Blomkamp's sci-fi film about extra-terrestrials presents a curious postcolonial mix of aliens and immigrants surviving in abject conditions in an urban slum and forces a realistic examination of the contemporary social problems faced by South Africa's largest city and by extension other major global cities. The paper also examines the film's representation of the human-alien hybrid and its potential as a force to resist human exploitation of the other. It also claims that though the setting is highly local, District 9 speaks to a wider global audience by making obvious the exploitative practices of profit-seeking multinationals. A sci-fi film that is keen on making a social commentary on urban population conflicts, District 9 resonates with the wider sense of insecurity and fear of others that form the horizon of the uncertain and potentially violent contemporary human world.

A Critique of The Environmental Green Concept in the view of representative issues for products -Usage, Aesthetics in product design, Manufacturing, and Products' price-

  • Ryu Seung-Ho
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.105-116
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    • 2006
  • In product manufacturing industries, a recent issue is the green concept. The green concept is a complicated area. If the green concept is for products, its serious issues have to be criticized. Although the importance of the green concept has overflowed, its influences have not been disputed vigorously. So this study is to critic the serious issues of the green concept in aesthetics in product design, manufacturing, and products' prices. The green environment has four representative elements: systems, policies, minds, and technologies, but they are not in the field of design. An element of the green concept, green design is also a sub concept for design, so it should be based on aesthetics. It is green aesthetics. But since green design first appeared, it has never approached by aesthetics because it has mostly had social meanings and expectations. So for green aesthetics, to think about what makes a product, and what can be aesthetic issues among them are important. Products consist of form, structure, material, and technology. Form means different shapes in a structure, but there cannot be any specific directions for a green concept. Structure has two kinds: interior and exterior structure. While interior structure has a technological character, exterior structure is deeply related with aesthetics, but it has also no chance for green concept. Material can be divided as two also: aesthetic and technological. Aesthetics materials mean the colors, opacity, and tactile sense of materials, but they are not aesthetic issues. Technological materials are recycled materials or non-recycled materials. Even if recycled materials are used today, they are close to systems or policies rather than aesthetics. With this result, green aesthetics is a very difficult concept. Second, green products are usually 30% more expensive than general products. But every consumer has his or her own economical conditions, and nobody can coerce consumers into buying expensive green products for green environments. And green products without good quality cannot satisfy consumers. This means that green concept is not accomplished by just manufacturing green products. Third, although a lot of proposals have appeared as green design in exhibitions, most of them are close to craft because they are so hard to be manufactured. Manufacturing is the first consideration for products. These three issues are enough to explain why green concept is complicated in manufacturing products. If they are not solved, the green concept is just a fiction. So if this study proposes a turning point against blind green-oriented atmosphere, it will be meaningful enough.

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A Comparative Analysis of Bibliotherapy Books in the UK, US, and Korea: A Suggestion for the Humanistic Approach to Bibliotherapy (영어권 및 국내 독서치료용 도서 비교 분석 - 인문학적 독서치료의 필요성에 관한 제안 -)

  • Kim, Jungjoo
    • Journal of the Korean BIBLIA Society for library and Information Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.105-123
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    • 2016
  • This study analyzes the spectrum of recommended books for adults included in the bibliotherapy book lists commonly used in libraries and organizations in the UK, US, and Korea. While the recommended book lists in the UK and US retain a diverse range of books relevant to the practitioners' needs, the Korean bibliotherapy book lists are mostly made up of non-fiction self-help books regardless of where the bibliotherapy service is provided. In the subcategory of the bibliotherapy book lists in the UK and US, aside from fictions, books on "health, fitness, dieting" including medical books rank higher than any other kind, which shows that bibliotherapy claims to have therapeutic effects in those organizations. In Korean bibliotherapy book lists, on the other hand, so-called "psychology books impregnated with self-help ideology" take up more than 60%. With the prospect of bibliotherapy as an interdisciplinary practice in mind, I suggest that bibliotherapy should draw upon the insights from humanities in order to help participants have time for deep introspection and attain inner maturity rather than just try to restore their normal conditions before the crisis.

Mammalian Cloning by Nuclear transfer, Stem Cell, and Enzyme Telomerase (핵치환에 의한 cloning, stem cell, 그리고 효소 telomerase)

  • 한창열
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.423-428
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    • 2000
  • In 1997 when cloned sheep Dolly and soon after Polly were born, it had become head-line news because in the former the nucleus that gave rise to the lamb came from cells of six-year-old adult sheep and in the latter case a foreign gene was inserted into the donor nucleus to make the cloned sheep produce human protein, factor IX, in e milk. In the last few years, once the realm of science fiction, cloned mammals especially in livestock have become almost commonplace. What the press accounts often fail to convey, however, is that behind every success lie hundreds of failures. Many of the nuclear-transferred egg cells fail to undergo normal cell divisions. Even when an embryo does successfully implant in the womb, pregnancy often ends in miscarriage. A significant fraction of the animals that are born die shortly after birth and some of those that survived have serious developmental abnormalities. Efficiency remains at less than one % out of some hundred attempts to clone an animal. These facts show that something is fundamentally wrong and enormous hurdles must be overcome before cloning becomes practical. Cloning researchers now tent to put aside their effort to create live animals in order to probe the fundamental questions on cell biology including stem cells, the questions of whether the hereditary material in the nucleus of each cell remains intact throughout development, and how transferred nucleus is reprogrammed exactly like the zygotic nucleus. Stem cells are defined as those cells which can divide to produce a daughter cell like themselves (self-renewal) as well as a daughter cell that will give rise to specific differentiated cells (cell-differentiation). Multicellular organisms are formed from a single totipotent stem cell commonly called fertilized egg or zygote. As this cell and its progeny undergo cell divisions the potency of the stem cells in each tissue and organ become gradually restricted in the order of totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent. The differentiation potential of multipotent stem cells in each tissue has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived. Recent studies, however, revealed that multipotent stem cells derived from adult tissues have much wider differentiation potential than was previously thought. These cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve stem cell into blood cells or muscle stem cell into brain cells. Neural stem cells isolated from the adult forebrain were recently shown to be capable of repopulating the hematopoietic system and produce blood cells in irradiated condition. In plants although the term$\boxDr$ stem cell$\boxUl$is not used, some cells in the second layer of tunica at the apical meristem of shoot, some nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac, and initial cells of adventive buds are considered to be equivalent to the totipotent stem cells of mammals. The telomere ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes cannot be replicated because the RNA primer at the end of a completed lagging strand cannot be replaced with DNA, causing 5' end gap. A chromosome would be shortened by the length of RNA primer with every cycle of DNA replication and cell division. Essential genes located near the ends of chromosomes would inevitably be deleted by end-shortening, thereby killing the descendants of the original cells. Telomeric DNA has an unusual sequence consisting of up to 1,000 or more tandem repeat of a simple sequence. For example, chromosome of mammal including human has the repeating telomeric sequence of TTAGGG and that of higher plant is TTTAGGG. This non-genic tandem repeat prevents the death of cell despite the continued shortening of chromosome length. In contrast with the somatic cells germ line cells have the mechanism to fill-up the 5' end gap of telomere, thus maintaining the original length of chromosome. Cem line cells exhibit active enzyme telomerase which functions to maintain the stable length of telomere. Some of the cloned animals are reported prematurely getting old. It has to be ascertained whether the multipotent stem cells in the tissues of adult mammals have the original telomeres or shortened telomeres.

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Artificial Intelligence In Wheelchair: From Technology for Autonomy to Technology for Interdependence and Care (휠체어 탄 인공지능: 자율적 기술에서 상호의존과 돌봄의 기술로)

  • HA, Dae-Cheong
    • Journal of Science and Technology Studies
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.169-206
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    • 2019
  • This article seeks to explore new relationships and ethics of human and technology by analyzing a cultural imaginary produced by artificial intelligence. Drawing on theoretical reflections of the Feminist Scientific and Technological Studies which understand science and technology as the matter of care(Puig de la Bellacas, 2011), this paper focuses on the fact that artificial intelligence and robots materialize cultural imaginary such as autonomy. This autonomy, defined as the capacity to adapt to a new environment through self-learning, is accepted as a way to conceptualize an authentic human or an ideal subject. However, this article argues that artificial intelligence is mediated by and dependent on invisible human labor and complex material devices, suggesting that such autonomy is close to fiction. The recent growth of the so-called 'assistant technology' shows that it is differentially visualizing the care work of both machines and humans. Technology and its cultural imaginary hide the care work of human workers and actively visualize the one of the machine. And they make autonomy and agency ideal humanness, leaving disabled bodies and dependency as unworthy. Artificial intelligence and its cultural imaginary negate the value of disabled bodies while idealizing abled-bodies, and result in eliminating the real relationship between man and technology as mutually dependent beings. In conclusion, the author argues that the technology we need is not the one to exclude the non-typical bodies and care work of others, but the one to include them as they are. This technology responsibly empathizes marginalized beings and encourages solidarity between fragile beings. Inspired by an art performance of artist Sue Austin, the author finally comes up with and suggests 'artificial intelligence in wheelchair' as an alternative figuration for the currently dominant 'autonomous artificial intelligence'.

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The Narrative Discourse of the Novel and the Film L'Espoir (소설과 영화 『희망 L'Espoir』의 서사담론)

  • Oh, Se-Jung
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.48
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    • pp.289-323
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    • 2017
  • L'Espoir, a novel by Andre Malraux, contains traits of the genre of literacy reportage that depicts the full account of the Spanish Civil War as non-fiction based on his personal experience of participating in war; the novel has been dramatized into a semi-documentary film that corresponds to reportage literature. A semi-documentary film is the genre of film that pursues realistic illustration of social incidents or phenomenon. Despite difference in types of genre of the novel and the film L'Espoir, such creative activities deserve close relevance and considerable narrative connectivity. Therefore, $G{\acute{e}}rard$ Genette's narrative discourse of novel and film based on narrative theory carries value of research. Every kind of story, in a narrative message, has duplicate times in which story time and discourse time are different. This is because, in a narrative message, one event may occur before or later than another, told lengthily or concisely, and aroused once or repeatedly. Accordingly, analyzing differing timeliness of the actual event occurring and of recording that event is in terms of order, duration, and frequency. Since timeliness of order, duration, and frequency indicates dramatic pace that controls the passage of a story, it appears as an editorial notion in the novel and the film L'Espoir. It is an aesthetic discourse raising curiosity and shock, the correspondence of time in arranging, summarizing, deleting the story. In addition, Genette mentions notions of speech and voice to clearly distinguish position and focalization of a narrator or a speaker in text. The necessity to discriminate 'who speaks' and 'who sees' comes from difference in views of the narrator of text and the text. The matter of 'who speaks' is about who portrays narrator of the story. However, 'who sees' is related to from whose stance the story is being narrated. In the novel L'Espoir, change of focalization was ushered through zero focalization and internal focalization, and pertains to the multicamera in the film. Also, the frame story was commonly taken as metadiegetic type of voice in both film and novel of L'Espoir. In sum, narrative discourse in the novel and the film L'Espoir is the dimension of story communication among text, the narrator, and recipient.