• Title, Summary, Keyword: Non-communicable diseases

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Overview of the Burden of Diseases in North Korea

  • Lee, Yo Han;Yoon, Seok-Jun;Kim, Young Ae;Yeom, Ji Won;Oh, In-Hwan
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 2013
  • This article evaluates the overall current disease burden of North Korea through the recent databases of international organizations. It is notable that North Korea as a nation is exhibiting a relatively low burden from deaths and that there is greater burden from deaths caused by non-communicable diseases than from those caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition. However, the absolute magnitude of problems from communicable diseases like TB and from child malnutrition, which will increase the disease burden in the future, remains great. North Korea, which needs to handle both communicable and nutritional conditions, and non-communicable diseases, whose burden is ever more increasing in the nation, can now be understood as a country with the 'double-burden' of disease.

Comprehensive Measures for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (질병예방 및 건강증진 종합 대책)

  • 홍문식
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 1991
  • While the threat from traditional communicable diseases have been decreasing non communicable chronic diseases are increasing due to the aging of population and change in life pattern of the people such as over intake of cholesterol and lack of physical exercise etc. On the other hand, since 1980s, AIDS is spreading rapidly throughout the globe and environmental pollution, accidents, addictive diseases such as drug abuse and alcoholism are becoming serious factors to hinder the health promotion of the people. In order to improve general public health and promote individual health status, existing program for communicable disease control by the government such as tuberculosis, leprosy, STD and acute communicable diseases should be effectively continued. In principle, effort should be placed on eradication of source of infection, reduction of communicability of source in infection, treatment of source of infection as well as increase of individual registance to the diseases through immunization and improvement of physical status. Since the pattern of illness is being shifted from communicable diseases to non communicable chronic diseases such as cancer, cerebral hemorrhage, heart disease and hypertention etc., special emphasis should be placed on the prevention and control of those adult diseases. Early detection of the patients, registration and treatment of patients and health education should be systematically developed for effective control of the diseases. In addition, program activities on MCH, nutrition, dentistry, mental health, environmental health, accident prevention. medical delivery system, health insurance. and all other health issues should be improved in order to achieve our goal of health promotion.

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Strategies to reduce risk factors of non-communicable diseases in South Korea (만성질환 위험요인 감소를 위한 전략과 방향)

  • Khang, Young-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This review is to suggest strategies to reduce risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in South Korea. Methods: Prior research findings on the burden of NCD and associated risk factors and the effectiveness of intervention programs were reviewed. Strategies regarding the control of NCD risk factors were conceived. Results: The author presented research findings from the Global Burden of Disease study on the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) and associated risk factors in South Korea. Strengths and limitations of population and high-risk strategies for preventing NCDs were introduced. The author also reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of multiple cardiovascular risk factor interventions and community-based intervention programs on cardiovascular diseases conducted in industrialized countries. Finally, strategies to reduce NCD risk factors in South Korea were suggested. Conclusions: The evidence-based interventions and the importance of population strategies in NCD prevention were highlighted. The author indicated that strategies employed by unhealthy commodity industries to undermine effective public health policies and programs should be actively monitored. It has been suggested that effective high-risk strategies with ecological models to address social risks rather than medical risks among disadvantaged population should be further developed in South Korea.

Strategy of Research for Developing Model of Community Based Non-Communicable Diseases Control and Prevention (지역사회 기반 만성질환 관리모형 구축을 위한 연구방안)

  • Park, Yoon Hyung
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-3
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    • 2016
  • The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) has been continuously increasing due to population ageing, and the change in consumption and lifestyle patterns. Cancers, cerebrovascular diseases, and hypertensive diseases have been the major causes of deaths in the Republic of Korea since 1983. Numerous studies have suggested the need for a sustained comprehensive treatment tailored for individual patients and recommend the development of a systematic program to manage NCD patients to provide such care. It's necessary to develop the Korean model of the community based NCD prevention and control, consisting strategy of community movement, education for the NCD patients, and partnership the primary care clinic with public health organization to meet the needs in community people.

Evaluation of the Trends of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Districts of Iran from 2000-2010: Application of a Random Effects Markov Model

  • Zayeri, Farid;mansouri, Anita;Sheidaei, Ali;Rahimzadeh, Shadi;Rezaei, Nazila;Modirian, Mitra;khademioureh, Sara;Baghestani, Ahmad Reza;Farzadfar, Farshad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.661-665
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    • 2016
  • Background: Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of death among cancers throughout the world. Therefore, stomach cancer outcomes can affect health systems at the national and international levels. Although stomach cancer mortality and incidence rates have decreased in developed countries, these indicators have a raising trend in East Asian developing countries, particularity in Iran. In this study, we aimed to determine the time trend of age-standardized rates of stomach cancer in different districts of Iran from 2000 to 2010. Materials and Methods: Cases of cancer were registered using a pathology-based system during 2000-2007 and with a population-based system since 2008 in Iran. In this study, we collected information about the incidence of stomach cancer during a 10 year period for 31 provinces and 376 districts, with a total of 49,917 cases. We employed two statistical approaches (a random effects and a random effects Markov model) for modeling the incidence of stomach cancer in different districts of Iran during the studied period. Results: The random effects model showed that the incidence rate of stomach cancer among males and females had an increasing trend and it increased by 2.38 and 0.87 persons every year, respectively. However, after adjusting for previous responses, the random effects Markov model showed an increasing rate of 1.53 and 0.75 for males and females, respectively. Conclusions: This study revealed that there are significant differences between different areas of Iran in terms of age-standardized incidence rates of stomach cancer. Our study suggests that a random effects Markov model can adjust for effects of previous responses.

Preventable Lifestyle Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in the Pakistan Adolescents Schools Study 1 (PASS-1)

  • Khuwaja, Ali Khan;Khawaja, Saleem;Motwani, Komal;Khoja, Adeel Akbar;Azam, Iqbal Syed;Fatmi, Zafar;Ali, Badar Sabir;Kadir, Muhammad Masood
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: The rising burden of preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among adolescents is a major public health challenge worldwide. We identified the preventable risk factors for NCDs in adolescents. Methods: In a school-based study, pre-tested structured questionnaires were completed by 414 adolescents (14 to 17 years) at six schools in three cities in Pakistan. The chi-squared test and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated in a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results: Over 80% of the adolescents had unhealthy diets, and 54% were physically inactive. Most adolescents were exposed to passive smoking, and 14% were also current smokers. More than one-third of participants chewed betel nut, and one-quarter used oral tobacco. More girls were physically inactive (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.69 to 6.17), whereas a greater proportion of boys were current smokers (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.91), exposed to passive smoking (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.72 to 3.83), and using betel nut (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34 to 3.06). Only 3.1% of the participants were without any preventable lifestyle risk factor for NCDs, and over 80% had ${\geq}$2 factors. Co-existence of risk factors was independently associated with fathers being blue-collar workers (aOR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.07 to 11.92) and parents not treating their child fairly (aOR, 5.05; 95% CI, 1.29 to 19.78). Conclusions: Most of the adolescents studied had preventable risk factors for NCDs. These results warrant comprehensive and integrated interventions to prevent lifestyle risk factors, and parents are front-line stakeholders.

Public Health Nutrition Policies and the Role of the Government: International Examples and the Need for Action in the Republic of Korea

  • Engellhardt, Katrin;Joung, Hyojee
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2005
  • Many of the non-communicable diseases, which are now the major causes of death and disability worldwide, can be linked to our lifestyles, and thus to what eat The life-style related risk factors are - to a great extent - preventable. Public health nutrition (PHN) policies are means through which govemments can have an enornous impact on the reduction of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cancer and cardiovascular disease, by creating and supporting environments which enable healthier food choices and which are conducive to healthy nutrition behavior. More and more countries are developing nutrition policies. Nutrition policies are tools through which governments can intervene and control nutrition-related concerns throughout all levels of society. The need for more concerted action in the Republic of Korea is demonstrated, by showing the lack of priority for nutrition issues. Four recommendations for action are made; the first recommendation places emphasis on the need to implement a structure at the political level, through which nutrition concerns can be addressed, such as a nutrition unit within the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The second recommendation stresses the need for a strong nutrition advocacy strategy, to raise the awareness of the gains that can be achieved by promoting healthy nutrition. The third recommendation calls for more vigorous regulations and stricter enforcement of food and nutrition advertisement, and the fourth recommendation emphasizes the need for a settings-bsed approach to nutrition interventions. Acknowledging the developments that have already occurred in Korea, public health nutrition has yet to become a priority on the agenda of policy makers in Korea.

Improvement of Epidemiology Intelligence Service Officer Program for Preparedness and Response against Future Health Issues Included Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases in Korea (미래 보건문제 발생에 대응·대비를 위한 역학조사관제도 개선방안)

  • Lee, Moo-Sik
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.294-300
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    • 2018
  • The development and management of epidemiology intelligence service (EIS) officer with more specialized competence to cope with and prepare for health threats, including pandemic of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, is a high priority policy issue in Korea. First of all, we need to establish the training goal of EIS officer. It is necessary to establish manpower training and management system with at least three tiers including quantitative and qualitative targets. Second, at least 50% of all EIS officer must secure a physician and secure expertise and competence for epidemic. Third, for the ultimate purpose of EIS officer, the establishment of a public health expert should expand the scope of epidemiologist's work to health and medical care, occupational environment, and various disasters. Fourth, it is essential to expand the epidemiologist training and education program to the level of advanced countries. Especially, the training course should be expanded at least twice of current times. Fifth, it is necessary to independently install and operate the 'EIS Officer Training Center' as a mid- and long-term goal. Stewardship and governance are secured with the organization, personnel, etc. that can fully manage the planning, management, and evaluation of the EIS system. In the future, it will be necessary to establish a systematic and phased operational base of education and training programs for EIS officer, and establish a sustainable implementation system for strategy development. In addition, it is urgent to revise the guidelines for training public health professionals and strengthening competencies, and for establishing professional educational institutions.

Key Public Health Issue Priorities in Asian Countries (아시아지역 국가들의 보건문제 우선과제에 대한 조사연구)

  • Yu Myeong-Ae;Oh Won-Taek;Lee Cherl-Ho
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.164-170
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    • 2006
  • Asian Branches of International Life Science Institute (ILSI), i.e. China, India, Japan, Korea and South East Asian Region, identified five key public health issue priorities of each region and compared the results. In case of China, India and South East Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand etc. ASEAN countries), communicable diseases were the first priority issue, while elderly issue and food safety were prime issues for Japan and Korea, respectively. Malnutrition was the second priority issue for India and ASEAN countries, whereas non-communicable disease like cancer and degenerative diseases was for Korea and China, and obesity far Japan. Typical issues were smoking for China, nutrition education for China and Japan, biotechnology aiming GMO for India, and functional food causing health claim problem for Korea and Japan. Although the priority varied with the socioeconomic situation of each county, food and water safety recorded the highest priority of all the countries. The key public health issues of Korea were discussed in detail.

Spatial Analysis of Common Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers in Counties of Iran

  • Soleimani, Ali;Hassanzadeh, Jafar;Motlagh, Ali Ghanbari;Tabatabaee, Hamidreza;Partovipour, Elham;Keshavarzi, Sareh;Hossein, Mohammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.4025-4029
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    • 2015
  • Background: Gastrointestinal tract cancers are among the most common cancers in Iran and comprise approximately 38% of all the reported cases of cancer. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and to investigate spatial clustering of common cancers of the gastrointestinal tract across the counties of Iran using full Bayesian smoothing and Moran I Index statistics. Materials and Methods: The data of the national registry cancer were used in this study. Besides, indirect standardized rates were calculated for 371 counties of Iranand smoothed using Winbug 1.4 software with a full Bayesian method. Global Moran I and local Moran I were also used to investigate clustering. Results: According to the results, 75,644 new cases of cancer were nationally registered in Iran among which 18,019 cases (23.8%) were esophagus, gastric, colorectal, and liver cancers. The results of Global Moran's I test were 0.60 (P=0.001), 0.47 (P=0.001), 0.29 (P=0.001), and 0.40 (P=0.001) for esophagus, gastric, colorectal, and liver cancers, respectively. This shows clustering of the four studied cancers in Iran at the national level. Conclusions: High level clustering of the cases was seen in northern, northwestern, western, and northeastern areas for esophagus, gastric, and colorectal cancers. Considering liver cancer, high clustering was observed in some counties in central, northeastern, and southern areas.