• Title, Summary, Keyword: Non-Phytate Phosphorus

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The Effects of Phytase Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets With Different Levels of Non-Phytate Phosphorus

  • Lim, H.S.;Namkung, H.;Um, J.S.;Kang, K.R.;Kim, B.S.;Paik, I.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.250-257
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    • 2001
  • An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of phytase supplementation to the diets containing different levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). A $3{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. There were three dietary NPP levels of control (C) (0.45% for starter diet and 0.35% for grower diet), C-0.1% NPP (0.35% for starter diet and 0.25% for grower diet), and C-0.2% NPP (0.25% for starter diet and 0.15% for grower diet) and two phytase levels (0 and 500 U/kg). Reduced dietary NPP decreased feed intake and weight gain and increased mortality whereas dietary phytase increased feed intake and weight gain and decreased mortality. Supplemental phytase improved availabilities of dry matter, crude fat, ash, P, Zn, Mg, and Cu whereas dietary NPP level did not affect availabilities of nutrients except decreased Zn availability and increased Cu availability in reduced NPP diets. Nutrient retention of N, ash, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn were linearly decreased as dietary NPP levels reduced but dietary phytase increased their retention. Reduced dietary NPP increased ash excretion but decreased P and Cu excretion while dietary phytase decreased N excretion. Weight, length, girth and contents of ash, Ca, P and Mg of tibia linearly decreased as dietary NPP levels reduced. Dietary phytase increased length and ash content of tibia. It is concluded that dietary phytase can reduce P excretion and alleviate adverse affects caused by feeding low dietary NPP. Effects of phytase were greater in the lower NPP diets.

Requirement of Non-phytate Phosphorus in Synthetic Broiler Breeder Diet

  • Bhanja, S.K.;Reddy, V.R.;Panda, A.K.;Rama Rao, S.V.;Sharma, R.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.933-938
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    • 2007
  • An experiment was conducted to study the laying performance, shell quality, bone mineralization, hatchability of eggs and performance of progeny (weight at day one and 14 d of age, P content in day old chick, leg score and survivability of chicks) of synthetic broiler breeders fed different levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). Six levels of NPP (1.2, 1.8, 2.4, 3.0, 3.6 and 4.2 g/kg diet) at a constant calcium (Ca) level (30 g/kg) in a maize-soya-deoiled rice bran based diet were tested. Levels of dicalcium phosphate, shell grit and deoiled rice bran were adjusted to achieve the desired levels of NPP and Ca. Each level of NPP was fed with a weighed quantity of feed (160 g/b/d) to 40 female broiler breeders from 25 to 40 weeks of age housed in individual cages. Each bird was considered as a replicate. Egg production, feed/egg mass, body weight, egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, egg specific gravity, serum Ca content and tibia breaking strength were not influenced (p>0.05) by the variation in dietary NPP levels tested. Increasing the dietary levels of NPP did not influence the hatchability of eggs, phosphorus (P) contents both in egg yolk and day old chick, chick body weight at day one and 14 d of age, leg score and survivability of chicks up to 14 d of age. Maximum response ($p{\leq}0.01$) in shell breaking strength, tibia ash and serum inorganic P contents were observed at NPP levels of 2.09, 2.25 and 3.50 g per kg diet, respectively. The retention of Ca increased, while the P retention decreased ($p{\leq}0.01$) with increasing dietary levels of NPP. Though maximum responses in shell breaking strength, bone ash and serum inorganic P were observed at NPP higher than 1.2 g/kg diet, the broiler breeder performance in terms of egg production, shell quality, hatchability of eggs and progeny performance and their survivability was not influenced by dietary NPP concentrations. It is concluded that synthetic broiler breeders maintained in cages do not require more than 1.2 g NPP/kg diet with a daily intake of 192 mg NPP/b/d during 24 to 40 weeks of age.

Effects of Phytase Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chickens Fed Maize and Wheat Based Diets with Different Levels of Non-phytate Phosphorus

  • Singh, P.K.;Khatta, V.K.;Thakur, R.S.;Dey, S.;Sangwan, M.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1642-1649
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    • 2003
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytase supplementation on the growth performance, nutrients utilization and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (n=480) were equally devided into eight treatment groups and fed maize or wheat based isocaloric, isonitrogenous and isocalcium diets having two non phytate phosphorus (NPP) concentrations (0.50% and 0.30%) and two phytase levels (0 and 500 phytase units/kg diet) in a 42 days growth trial. Maize based dietary treatments were MC (NPP 0.50%, MN (NPP 0.30%), MNP (MN+500 units of phytase) and MCP (MC+500 units of phytase), whereas wheat based experimental diets were WC (NPP 0.50%), WN (NPP 0.30%), WNP (WN+500 units of phytase) and WCP (WC+500 units of phytase). The NPP levels were maintained by dicalcium phosphate. Reduction in dietary NPP depressed live weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR). Phytase supplementation to low NPP (0.30%) diets significantly (p<0.05) improved the growth performances of broilers. The supplementation to low NPP diets allowed complete, safe and economic replacement of dietary inorganic P (dicalcium phosphate) to reduce feed cost per kg live weight gain of broilers. Reduction in dietary NPP did not affect retention of nutrients except phosphorus (P) but had a significant (p<0.05) depression in tibia ash and minerals (Ca, P) concentration in serum and tibia ash. Phytase supplementation at low NPP level was effective (p<0.05) in improving the retention of dry matter, Ca and P and Ca and P concentration in serum and tibia ash. However, the supplementation was not effective at high level of NPP (0.50%). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in carcass quality among dietary treatments. The response of phytase was greater in low NPP and maize based diets as compared with high NPP and wheat based diets, respectively. The results show that phytase supplementation to low NPP (0.30%) diets improved the growth performance, relative retention of nutrients (N, Ca and P) and minerals (Ca, P) status of blood and bone in broiler chickens, with a better efficacy in maize based diets.

The Effect of Phytase and Organic Acid on Growth Performance, Carcass Yield and Tibia Ash in Quails Fed Diets with Low Levels of Non-phytate Phosphorus

  • Sacakli, P.;Sehu, A.;Ergun, A.;Genc, B.;Selcuk, Z.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.198-202
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    • 2006
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase, organic acids and their interaction on body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and tibia ash. A total of 680 three-day old Japanese quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were assigned to 20 battery brooders, 34 chicks in each. The experimental period lasted 35 days. The treatment groups employed were: 1) a positive control which included 3.5 g available phosphorus (AP)/kg diet and 10 g Ca/kg diet; 2) a negative control which included 2 g AP/kg diet and 8 g Ca/kg diet, 3) negative control diet supplemented with either 300 FTU phytase/kg diet (phytase) or 4) 2.5 g organic acid (lactic acid+formic acid)/kg diet (organic acid); or 5) 300 FTU phytase/kg diet+2.5 g organic acid/kg diet (phytase+organic acid). All birds were fed with the positive control diet for a week and then transferred to the dietary treatments. At the end of the study, there were no differences (p>0.005) among the groups in body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield. Tibia ash, however, was reduced (p<0.001) for quails fed the negative control diet containing a low-level of AP compared to the positive control diet containing adequate AP. The addition of phytase, organic acid or phytase+organic acid to the diets containing the low-level of AP improved (p<0.001) tibia ash. On the other hand, an extra synergistic effect of phytase and organic acid on tibia ash was not determined. This study demonstrated that it may be possible to reduce supplemental level of inorganic P with phytase and/or organic acid supplementation for quail diets without adverse effect on performance and tibia ash.

Effects of Dietary Non-phytate Phosphorus Levels on Egg Production, Shell Quality and Nutrient Retention in White Leghorn Layers

  • Panda, A.K.;Rao, S.V.Rama;Raju, M.V.L.N.;Bhanja, S.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1171-1175
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    • 2005
  • An experiment was conducted (28 to 44 weeks) to study the laying performance, shell quality, and nutrient retention of White Leghorn layers fed different levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). Six levels of NPP (0.15, 0.18, 0.21, 0.24, 0.27 and 0.30%) at a constant calcium (Ca) level (3.5%) in maize-soya-deoiled rice bran based diets were formulated, and each experimental diet was offered ad libitum for 16 weeks to five replicates with five birds in each replicate. The body weight of WL layers fed diet containing 0.15% NPP was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those fed diet with 0.30% NPP, at 44 weeks of age. However, the hen day egg production, egg weight, daily feed intake and feed consumed per dozen eggs were not influenced by the variation in the NPP levels in the diet. The bone ash content was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the birds fed 0.30% NPP as compared with those fed diets up to 0.24% NPP. Bone ash content was intermediate in the birds fed diet containing 0.27% NPP. The tibia strength followed the same trend as that of bone ash. Dietary NPP content had no influence on serum Ca and protein concentration and activity of alkaline phosphatase. However, serum inorganic P concentration increased linearly with NPP content in the diet. The concentration of P was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the birds fed 0.27% NPP or higher as compared with those fed 0.15% NPP. Levels of dietary NPP had no influence on egg quality parameters like shell wt, shell thickness, shell strength and specific gravity. The retention of nutrients such as DM, N and Ca were comparable among the WL layers fed different levels of NPP. However, the retention of P decreased linearly with increase in the level of NPP in the diet. The retention of P in the birds fed diets up to 0.24% NPP in the diet was comparable, however further increasing the content of NPP (either 0.27% or 0.30%) reduced the retention of P. Based on the results of the present study, 0.15% NPP (180 mg/b/d) in the diets of WL layers is adequate for optimum production performance during 28 to 44 weeks of age, however, WL layers require 0.27% NPP (324 mg /b/d) in the diet for optimum production with better bone mineralization.

Effect of Supplementing Microbial Phytase on Performance of Broiler Breeders Fed Low Non-phytate Phosphorus Diet

  • Bhanja, S.K.;Reddy, V.R.;Panda, A.K.;Rao, S.V. Rama;Sharma, R.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1299-1304
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    • 2005
  • An experiment was conducted to study the production performance of broiler breeder females (25 to 40 weeks of age) fed either reference diet or low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diet with or without microbial phytase (500 FYT/kg) supplementation. A weighed (160 g/b/d) quantity of feed from each diet was offered daily to 40 replicates of one bird each housed in California type cage having individual feeders. Each cage was considered as a replicate. A continuous 16-h light per day was provided using incandescent bulbs. Body weight, egg production, egg weight, feed per egg mass, egg specific gravity, egg breaking strength, shell thickness, tibia ash and serum Ca and protein concentrations were not affected by reducing the NPP level from 0.30 to 0.18% in the broiler breeder diet. Supplementation of phytase (500 FYT/kg) enzyme to the diet containing 0.18% NPP had no added advantage on any of the above production parameters. The serum inorganic P was increased significantly (p<0.05) by either enhancing the NPP content from 0.18 to 0.30% or supplementing phytase @500 FYT/kg to the diet containing low P which were found comparable. Retention of Ca and P was positive on all the diets. P retention decreased significantly (p<0.05) with either increase in NPP content or phytase supplementation in the diet. Neither NPP nor phytase supplementation influenced bone mineralization in terms of tibia ash and strength. The hatchability was not influenced by either increasing the NPP content or supplementing the enzyme phytase. Similarly, the P concentration in the egg yolk and day old chick, day old and 14th day body weight and leg score was not altered by increasing the level of NPP or supplementing phytase enzyme. The mortality was within the normal limits in all the three dietary groups. Thus, it can be concluded that 0.18% NPP (288 mg NPP intake/b/d) in the broiler breeder' diet is adequate in sustaining the optimum performance from 25 to 40 wks of age. Enhancing the NPP content or supplementation of phytase (500 FYT/kg diet) to diet containing 0.18% NPP had no added advantage on performance.

Application of Phytase, Microbial or Plant Origin, to Reduce Phosphorus Excretion in Poultry Production

  • Paik, InKee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.124-135
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    • 2003
  • In order to prevent pollution from animal waste, the excretion of nutrients should be reduced through proper nutritional management. Among the many nutrients of concern, such as N, P, Cu, Zn and K, P is one of the most concerned nutrients to be managed. Seven feeding trials, three with layers and four with broilers, were conducted to determine if microbial phytase supplementation can reduce non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) level in diets and results in concomitant reductions of P excretion. The results showed that microbial phytase can be successfully used to achieve these purposes. Activity of natural phytase in certain plant feedstuffs is high enough to be considered in feed formulation. Three experiments have been conducted to study the characteristics of plant phytase and its application to feeding of broilers. Selected brands of wheat bran could be successfully used as a source of phytase in broiler feeding.

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Crude Phytase Prerarations in Broiler Chickens

  • Paik, I.K.;Um, J.S.;Lee, S.J.;Lee, J.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.673-680
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    • 2000
  • An experiment was conducted with day-old 300 commercial male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres$^{(R)}$) to evaluate the efficacy of crude phytase preparerations produced from a culture of Aspergillus ficcum. The experiment consisted of five dietary treatments; T1, com-soy control diet with 0.45% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) for starter period and 0.35% NPP for grower period; T2, control - 0.1% NPP; T3, control 0.2% NPP; T4, T3+600 U of crude phytase (broth+cell); and T5, T3+600 U of crude phytase (broth). The body weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain of chickens fed T1 diet was highest (p<0.01) among treatments. BW gain and feed intake of T4 and T5 were greater than those of T3 but were less than those of T1 and T2. T3 was highest in mortality among treatments. Decreasing the NPP level lowered availability of DM, crude ash, ether extract, crude fiber, Zn, and Fe but supplementation of crude phytase preparations improved the availability of these nutrients as well as those of Ca, P and Cu. Excretion of P and Cu significantly decreased as the NPP level in the diet decreased. Further reduction of P and Cu excretion and reduction of Ca, Mg and Fe excretion were achieved by supplementation of crude phytase preparations. The serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Cu were significantly increased by crude phytase supplementation. The weight and length of tibia, and contents of crude ash, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn were adversely affected by lowering NPP level but partially recovered by supplementation of crude phytase preparations. In conclusion, lowering NPP level in the broiler diet significantly depressed the performance. Supplementation of crude phytase preparations produced from Aspergillus ficuum could partially recover the depression.

Dietary phosphorus deficiency impaired growth, intestinal digestion and absorption function of meat ducks

  • Xu, Huimin;Dai, Shujun;Zhang, Keying;Ding, Xuemei;Bai, Shiping;Wang, Jianping;Peng, Huanwei;Zeng, Qiufeng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1897-1906
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    • 2019
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) deficiency on intestinal pH value, digestive enzyme activity, morphology, nutrient utilization, and gene expression of NaPi-IIb in meat ducks from 1 to 21 d of age. Methods: A total of 525 one-d-old Cherry Valley ducklings were fed diets (with 7 pens of 15 ducklings, or 105 total ducklings, on each diet) with five levels of nPP (0.22%, 0.34%, 0.40%, 0.46%, or 0.58%) for 21 d in a completely randomized design. Five experimental diets contained a constant calcium (Ca) content of approximately 0.9%. Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed to gain ratio (F:G) were measured at 14 and 21 d of age. Ducks were sampled for duodenum and jejunum digestion and absorption function on 14 and 21 d. Nutrient utilization was assessed using 25- to 27-d-old ducks. Results: The results showed ducks fed 0.22% nPP had lower (p<0.05) growth performance and nutrient utilization and higher (p<0.05) serum Ca content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. When dietary nPP levels were increased, BW (d 14 and 21), BWG and FI (all intervals), and the serum phosphorus (P) content linearly and quadratically increased (p<0.05); and the jejunal pH value (d 14), duodenal muscle layer thickness (d 14), excreta dry matter, crude protein, energy, Ca and total P utilization linearly increased (p<0.05); however, the serum ALP activity, jejunal $Na^+-K^+$-ATPase activity, and duodenal NaPi-IIb mRNA level (d 21) linearly decreased (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that ducks aged from 1 to 21 d fed diets with 0.22% nPP had poor growth performance related to poor intestinal digestion and absorption ability; but when fed diets with 0.40%, 0.46%, and 0.58% nPP, ducks presented a better growth performance, intestinal digestion and absorption function.

Growth, Bone Mineralization and Mineral Excretion in Broiler Starter Chicks Fed Varied Concentrations of Cholecalciferol

  • Rama Rao, S.V.;Raju, M.V.L.N.;Shyam Sunder, G.;Panda, A.K.;Pavani, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2007
  • An experiment was conducted to study the growth performance, bone mineralization and mineral excretion in broiler starter chicks fed high levels of cholecalciferol (CC) at sub-optimal levels of calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). Five hundred and sixty day-old Vencobb female broiler chicks were housed in raised wire floor stainless steel battery brooder pens ($24"{\times}30"{\times}18"$) at the rate of five chicks per pen. A maize-soyabean meal basal diet was supplemented with dicalcium phosphate, oyster shell powder and synthetic CC to arrive at two levels each of Ca (0.50 and 0.60%), and NPP (0.25 and 0.30%) and four levels of CC (200, 1,200, 2,400 and 3,600 ICU/kg) in a $2{\times}3{\times}4$ factorial design. Each diet was fed ad libitum to chicks in 7 pens from 2 to 21days of age. Body weight gain, feed intake and bone weight increased (p<0.05) with increase in level of CC at both the Ca and NPP levels tested. The CC levels required to obtain significant improvement in body weight gain and feed intake reduced (2,400 ICU/kg vs. 1,200 ICU/kg) with increase in levels of P in diet (0.25% vs. 0.3%, respectively). The feed conversion ratio was significantly improved (p<0.05) with increase in level of CC from 200 to 1,200 ICU/kg diet at 0.5% Ca, while at 0.6% Ca, the level of CC in diet did not influence the feed efficiency. Tibia mineralization (density, breaking strength and ash content) and Ca and P contents in serum increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in levels of CC in diet. The CC effect on these parameters was more pronounced at lower levels of Ca and NPP (0.5 and 0.25%, respectively). The data on body weight gain and feed intake indicated that NPP level in diet can be reduced from 0.30 to 0.25% by increasing CC from 200 to 2,400 ICU/kg. Similarly, the bone mineralization (tibia weight, density and ash content) increased non-linearly (p<0.01) with increase in CC levels in diet. Concentrations of P and Mn in excreta decreased (p<0.01), by increasing CC level from 200 to 2,400 ICU/kg diet. It can be concluded that dietary levels of Ca and NPP could be reduced to 0.50 and 0.25%, respectively by enhancing the levels of cholecalciferol from 200 to 2,400 ICU/kg with out affecting body weight gain, feed efficiency and bone mineralization. Additionally, phosphorus and manganese excretion decreased with increase in levels of CC in broiler diet.