• Title, Summary, Keyword: Noise Map

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Efficient Data Representation of Stereo Images Using Edge-based Mesh Optimization (윤곽선 기반 메쉬 최적화를 이용한 효율적인 스테레오 영상 데이터 표현)

  • Park, Il-Kwon;Byun, Hye-Ran
    • Journal of Broadcast Engineering
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.322-331
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    • 2009
  • This paper proposes an efficient data representation of stereo images using edge-based mesh optimization. Mash-based two dimensional warping for stereo images mainly depends on the performance of a node selection and a disparity estimation of selected nodes. Therefore, the proposed method first of all constructs the feature map which consists of both strong edges and boundary lines of objects for node selection and then generates a grid-based mesh structure using initial nodes. The displacement of each nodal position is iteratively estimated by minimizing the predicted errors between target image and predicted image after two dimensional warping for local area. Generally, iterative two dimensional warping for optimized nodal position required a high time complexity. To overcome this problem, we assume that input stereo images are only horizontal disparity and that optimal nodal position is located on the edge include object boundary lines. Therefore, proposed iterative warping method performs searching process to find optimal nodal position only on edge lines along the horizontal lines. In the experiments, we compare our proposed method with the other mesh-based methods with respect to the quality by using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) according to the number of nodes. Furthermore, computational complexity for an optimal mesh generation is also estimated. Therefore, we have the results that our proposed method provides an efficient stereo image representation not only fast optimal mesh generation but also decreasing of quality deterioration in spite of a small number of nodes through our experiments.

Text Region Extraction from Videos using the Harris Corner Detector (해리스 코너 검출기를 이용한 비디오 자막 영역 추출)

  • Kim, Won-Jun;Kim, Chang-Ick
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.646-654
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    • 2007
  • In recent years, the use of text inserted into TV contents has grown to provide viewers with better visual understanding. In this paper, video text is defined as superimposed text region located of the bottom of video. Video text extraction is the first step for video information retrieval and video indexing. Most of video text detection and extraction methods in the previous work are based on text color, contrast between text and background, edge, character filter, and so on. However, the video text extraction has big problems due to low resolution of video and complex background. To solve these problems, we propose a method to extract text from videos using the Harris corner detector. The proposed algorithm consists of four steps: corer map generation using the Harris corner detector, extraction of text candidates considering density of comers, text region determination using labeling, and post-processing. The proposed algorithm is language independent and can be applied to texts with various colors. Text region update between frames is also exploited to reduce the processing time. Experiments are performed on diverse videos to confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

Extraction of Water Depth in Coastal Area Using EO-1 Hyperion Imagery (EO-1 Hyperion 영상을 이용한 연안해역의 수심 추출)

  • Seo, Dong-Ju;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.716-723
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    • 2008
  • With rapid development of science and technology and recent widening of mankind's range of activities, development of coastal waters and the environment have emerged as global issues. In relation to this, to allow more extensive analyses, the use of satellite images has been on the increase. This study aims at utilizing hyperspectral satellite images in determining the depth of coastal waters more efficiently. For this purpose, a partial image of the research subject was first extracted from an EO-1 Hyperion satellite image, and atmospheric and geometric corrections were made. Minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation was then performed to compress the bands, and the band most suitable for analyzing the characteristics of the water body was selected. Within the chosen band, the diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd was determined. By deciding the end-member of pixels with pure spectral properties and conducting mapping based on the linear spectral unmixing method, the depth of water at the coastal area in question was ultimately determined. The research findings showed the calculated depth of water differed by an average of 1.2 m from that given on the digital sea map; the errors grew larger when the water to be measured was deeper. If accuracy in atmospheric correction, end-member determination, and Kd calculation is enhanced in the future, it will likely be possible to determine water depths more economically and efficiently.

Comparative Study of GDPA and Hough Transformation for Linear Feature Extraction using Space-borne Imagery (위성 영상정보를 이용한 선형 지형지물 추출에서의 GDPA와 Hough 변환 처리결과 비교연구)

  • Lee Kiwon;Ryu Hee-Young;Kwon Byung-Doo
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.261-274
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    • 2004
  • The feature extraction using remotely sensed imagery has been recognized one of the important tasks in remote sensing applications. As the high-resolution imagery are widely used to the engineering purposes, need of more accurate feature information also is increasing. Especially, in case of the automatic extraction of linear feature such as road using mid or low-resolution imagery, several techniques was developed and applied in the mean time. But quantitatively comparative analysis of techniques and case studies for high-resolution imagery is rare. In this study, we implemented a computer program to perform and compare GDPA (Gradient Direction Profile Analysis) algorithm and Hough transformation. Also the results of applying two techniques to some images were compared with road centerline layers and boundary layers of digital map and presented. For quantitative comparison, the ranking method using commission error and omission error was used. As results, Hough transform had high accuracy over 20% on the average. As for execution speed, GDPA shows main advantage over Hough transform. But the accuracy was not remarkable difference between GDPA and Hough transform, when the noise removal was app]ied to the result of GDPA. In conclusion, it is expected that GDPA have more advantage than Hough transform in the application side.

Performance Evaluation of a Novel Chaos Transceiver for the High Level Modulation (고레벨 변조를 위한 새로운 카오스 송수신기의 성능 평가)

  • Lee, Jun-Hyun;Ryu, Heung-Gyoon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2014
  • Security of chaos communication system that has characteristic of sensitive initial conditions is superior to digital communication systems, but BER(Bit Error Rate) performance is evaluatied badly. So, studies in order to improve the BER performance is important. existing studies, BER performance of proposed chaos transceiver is possible to improve than the CDSK(Correlation Delay Shift Keying) system because it has characteristic that has very few addition elements like noise signal except for the desired signal. Chaos communication system has many symbols because it spreads according to characteristic of chaos map. Therefore, study that can have the good data rate in chaos communication system is required. Information bits of existing chaos modulation system are modulated as -1 and 1 on the basis of BPSK system. However, instead of BPSK system, if chaos communication system is applied high level modulation systems such as QPSK system and 16QAM system, it is possible to have good data rate because more data are transmitted at a time. In the paper, when QPSK system and 16QAM system are applied to proposed chaos transceiver in existing study, we evaluate the SER(Symbol Error Rate) performance and compare the each performance. Also, when QPSK system and 16QAM system are applied to proposed chaos transceiver, we evaluate the anti-jamming performance of proposed system.

A Study on Solving of Double-layer Pattern Problem in Daejeon Correlator (대전상관기에서 복층패턴 문제의 해결에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Se-Jin;Roh, Duk-Gyoo;Yeom, Jae-Hwan;Chung, Dong-Kyu;Oh, Chung-Sik;Hwang, Ju-Yeon
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.162-167
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    • 2015
  • This paper describes the reason and the problem solving for the double-layer pattern of a Daejeon correlator operated in Korea-Japan Correlation Center. When the electric power of an input signal in the correlator is charged small enough to be buried in the noise, it is hard to see a signal with a specific pattern in the input signal, but when the electric power is large, a specific one is reported to be seen. By comparing data from observation with one from software correlator, it was confirmed from the analysis using the AIPS software that the amplitude gain of a source signal was affected about 3%. Therefore, in order to solve the problem of double-layer patterns, we found that a problem in the memory management module responsible for both the data input and the data serialization of the correlator is a cause for the double-layer pattern detected periodically. In other words, while data is serialized and read repeatedly in the memory area assigned to serialize the data from the serialization module, redundant last data is generated and an overlap for the memory allocation is occurred. Therefore, by modifying the program of the FPGA memory sections on serialization module to correct the problem, we confirmed that double-layer pattern is disappeared and correlation results are normally acquired.

Abosrbed Dose Measurements and Phantom Image Ecaluation at Minimum CT Dose for Pediatric SPECT/CT Scan (소아 SPECT/CT 검사를 위한 최저조건에서의 피폭선량측정 및 팬텀의 영상평가)

  • Park, Chan Rok;Choi, Jin Wook;Cho, Seong Wook;Kim, Jin Eui
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of study was to evaluate radiation dose for pediatric patients by changing tube voltage (kVp) and tube current (mA) at minimum conditions. By evaluating radiation dose, we want to provide dose reduction for pediatric patients and maintain good quality of SPECT/CT images. Materials and Methods: Discovery NM/CT 670 Scanne was used as SPECT/CT. Tube voltages are 80 and 100 kvP. Tube currents are 10, 15, 20, 25 mA. Using PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate) Phantom, radiation dose which were calculated at center and peripheral dose and SNRD (Signal to Noise Ratio Dose) were evaluated. Using the CT performance phantom, spatial resolution was evaluated as the MTF (Modulation Transfer Function) graph. Jaszczak phantom was used for SPECT image evaluation by CNR (Contrast to Noise to Ratio). Results: Radiation dose using the PMMA phantom was higher peripheral dose than center dose about 7%. SNRD were 7.8, 8.2, 8.3, 8.8, 8.8, 9.9, 9.8, 9.6 for 80 kVp 10, 15, 20, 25 mA, 100 kVp 10, 15, 20, 25 mA. We can distinguish 35, 45, 70, 71, 52, 58, 90, 110 linepair for 80 kVp 10, 15, 20, 25 mA, 100 kVp 10, 15, 20, 25 mA at resolution with MTF. CNR of SPECT images using CT attenuation map were 57.8, 57.7, 57.1, 56.7, 56.6, 56.7, 56.7, 56.7% for 80 kVp 10, 15, 20, 25 mA, 100 kVp 10, 15, 20, 25 mA. Conclusion: In this study, radiation dose for pediatric patients showed decreased low dose condition. And SNRD value was similar in all condition. Resolution showed higher value at 100kVp than 80kVp. for CNR, there was no significant difference. we should take additional study to prove better quality and dose reduction.

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Assessment of Attenuation Correction Techniques with a $^{137}Cs$ Point Source ($^{137}Cs$ 점선원을 이용한 감쇠 보정기법들의 평가)

  • Bong, Jung-Kyun;Kim, Hee-Joung;Son, Hye-Kyoung;Park, Yun-Young;Park, Hae-Joung;Yun, Mi-Jin;Lee, Jong-Doo;Jung, Hae-Jo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess attenuation correction algorithms with the $^{137}Cs$ point source for the brain positron omission tomography (PET) imaging process. Materials & Methods: Four different types of phantoms were used in this study for testing various types of the attenuation correction techniques. Transmission data of a $^{137}Cs$ point source were acquired after infusing the emission source into phantoms and then the emission data were subsequently acquired in 3D acquisition mode. Scatter corrections were performed with a background tail-fitting algorithm. Emission data were then reconstructed using iterative reconstruction method with a measured (MAC), elliptical (ELAC), segmented (SAC) and remapping (RAC) attenuation correction, respectively. Reconstructed images were then both qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. In addition, reconstructed images of a normal subject were assessed by nuclear medicine physicians. Subtracted images were also compared. Results: ELEC, SAC, and RAC provided a uniform phantom image with less noise for a cylindrical phantom. In contrast, a decrease in intensity at the central portion of the attenuation map was noticed at the result of the MAC. Reconstructed images of Jaszack and Hoffan phantoms presented better quality with RAC and SAC. The attenuation of a skull on images of the normal subject was clearly noticed and the attenuation correction without considering the attenuation of the skull resulted in artificial defects on images of the brain. Conclusion: the complicated and improved attenuation correction methods were needed to obtain the better accuracy of the quantitative brain PET images.

Semi-automated Tractography Analysis using a Allen Mouse Brain Atlas : Comparing DTI Acquisition between NEX and SNR (알렌 마우스 브레인 아틀라스를 이용한 반자동 신경섬유지도 분석 : 여기수와 신호대잡음비간의 DTI 획득 비교)

  • Im, Sang-Jin;Baek, Hyeon-Man
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 2020
  • Advancements in segmentation methodology has made automatic segmentation of brain structures using structural images accurate and consistent. One method of automatic segmentation, which involves registering atlas information from template space to subject space, requires a high quality atlas with accurate boundaries for consistent segmentation. The Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, which has been widely accepted as a high quality reference of the mouse brain, has been used in various segmentations and can provide accurate coordinates and boundaries of mouse brain structures for tractography. Through probabilistic tractography, diffusion tensor images can be used to map comprehensive neuronal network of white matter pathways of the brain. Comparisons between neural networks of mouse and human brains showed that various clinical tests on mouse models were able to simulate disease pathology of human brains, increasing the importance of clinical mouse brain studies. However, differences between brain size of human and mouse brain has made it difficult to achieve the necessary image quality for analysis and the conditions for sufficient image quality such as a long scan time makes using live samples unrealistic. In order to secure a mouse brain image with a sufficient scan time, an Ex-vivo experiment of a mouse brain was conducted for this study. Using FSL, a tool for analyzing tensor images, we proposed a semi-automated segmentation and tractography analysis pipeline of the mouse brain and applied it to various mouse models. Also, in order to determine the useful signal-to-noise ratio of the diffusion tensor image acquired for the tractography analysis, images with various excitation numbers were compared.