• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nitrogen management

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Long-Term Variations of Water Quality in Jinhae Bay (진해만의 장기 수질변동 특성)

  • Kwon, Jung-No;Lee, Jangho;Kim, Youngsug;Lim, Jae-Hyun;Choi, Tae-Jun;Ye, Mi-Ju;Jun, Ji-Won;Kim, Seulmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.324-332
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    • 2014
  • In order to reveal the long-term variations of water quality in Jinhae Bay, water qualities had been monitored at 9 survey stations of Jinhae Bay during 2000~2012. The surface and bottom waters concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), and chlorophyll-a (Chl.-a) were higher at the survey stations of Masan Bay than the stations of other Bays. Especially, station 1 which is located at the inner area of Masan Bay had the highest values in the concentrations of COD, DIN, and Chl.-a because there were terrestrial pollutant sources near the station 1 and sea current had not well circulated in the inner area of Masan Bay. In factor analysis, the station 1 also had the highest factor values related to factors which increase organic matters and nutrients in surface and bottom waters of Masan Bay. However, the stations (st.5, st.6, st.7, st.8, and st.9) of other Bays had lower values of the factors. In time series analysis, the COD concentrations of the bottom waters at 8 stations except for station 1 distinctly decreased. However, the COD concentrations of the surface waters showed no distinct decrease trends at all stations. In the concentrations of nutrients (DIN and DIP) of both surface and bottom waters, there were tremendous decrease trends at all stations. Therefore, these distinct decrease trends of the COD in bottom waters and the nutrients in surface and bottom waters of Jinhae Bay could have been associated with water improvement actions such as TPLMS (total pollution load management system).

Reference Values and Water quality Assessment Based on the Regional Environmental Characteristics (해역의 환경특성을 고려한 해양환경 기준설정과 수질등급 평가)

  • Rho, Tae-Keun;Lee, Tong-Sup;Lee, Sang-Ryong;Choi, Man-Sik;Park, Chul;Lee, Jong-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Young;Kim, Seung-Su
    • The Sea
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.45-58
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    • 2012
  • For the development of reference values and evaluation of water quality in various environmental conditions, we divided the coastal region around Korean peninsular into 5 distinctive ecological regions based on the influence of surface current, depth, tidal range, turbidity, and climate condition. We used national marine environment monitoring data collected by National Fisheries Research & Development Institute(NFRDI) from 2000-2009. For the reference values, we used maximum seasonal mean from 2000 to 2007 for DIN, DIP, and chlorophyll-a and minimum seasonal mean for secchi depth measured at stations without the influence of river runoff in each ecological regions. For the reference value of bottom dissolved oxygen saturation, we used minimum mean value of 90% calculated from minimal riverine influence stations of whole regions. We calculated enrichment score for each assessment criteria. The enrichment score of DIN, DIP, and Chlorophyll-a was 1 (=< reference value), 2 (< 110% of reference value), 3 (< 125% of reference value), 4 (< 150% of reference value), and 5 (> 150% of reference value). The enrichment score of DO saturation and Secchi depth was 1 (> reference value), 2 (> 90% of reference value), 3 (>75 % of reference value), 4 (> 50% of reference value), and 5 (< 50% of reference value). We calculated water quality index using weighted linear combination of five enrichment score for the comparison of whole regions. From the water quality index distribution calculated from all stations between 2000 and 2007 period, we classified into 5 grade based on the standard deviation calculated from total water quality index. We assigned grade very good(I), good(II), moderate(III), bad(IV), and very bad(V) when the water quality index was less than 23, minimum + 1 sd, +2 sd, +3 sd, and grater than minium+ 3 sd, respectively.

Management of Recycled Nutrient Resources using Livestock Waste in Large-Scale Environment-Friendly Agricultural Complex (광역친환경농업단지의 경축순환자원 양분관리)

  • Moon, Young-Hun;Ahn, Byung-Koo;Cheong, Seong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2012
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate soil properties and the requirement of livestock manure compost in a large-scale environment-friendly agricultural complex (EFAC), Gosan, Wanju-gun, Jeonbuk. Total cultivation area of major crops was 2,353 ha. This complex area included different types of environment-friendly cropping sections (402.9ha) and livestock farming including 21,077 Korean beef cattle, 1,099 dairy cow, and 32,993 hog. Amount of livestock waste carried in to Resource Center for Crop and Livestock Farming (RCCLF) was 32 Mg per day and the production of manure compost was 9,600 Mg per year. The manure contained 1.4% total nitrogen (T-N), 2.7% phosphorus as $P_2O_5$, 2.1% potassium as $K_2O$, 0.9% magnesium as MgO, 2.5% calcium as CaO. Amount of compost used in the EFAC was 6,588 Mg per year. Soil pH values in the EFAC were varied as follows: 78.1% of paddy field soil, 58.2% of upland soil, 60.3% of orchard field soil, and 62.1% of greenhouse soil were in proper range. For the content of soil organic matter, 41.7% of paddy field soil, 46.5% of upland soil, 40.5% of orchard field soil, and 81.4% of greenhouse soil were higher than proper range. The content of available phosphorus was mostly higher than proper value on the different fields except upland soil. The contents of exchangeable $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, and $Mg^{2+}$ were also exceeded in the orchard field and greenhouse soils. In addition, microbial population, especially aerobic bacteria, in the EFAC was higher than that in regular farming land.

Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of Sausages Affected by Plant Scale and Cooking Treatments during Refrigerated Storage (가열조건 및 공장 규모에 따른 소시지의 냉장저장 중 이화학적 및 미생물적 품질특성)

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Ku, Su-Kyung;Jeon, Ki-Hong;Park, Jong-Dae;Lim, Sang-Dong;Kim, Hee-Ju;Kim, Ji-Ho;Kim, Young-Boong
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.390-399
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of plant scale and cooking conditions on the quality characteristics of sausages during refrigerated storage. Methods: Sausages used in this study were classified into two groups: those submitted to $1^{st}$ cooked treatments and those submitted to $2^{nd}$ cooked treatments. The pH, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), gas production ratio, and microorganisms were measured in triplicate. Results: The change of quality in the products was assessed every 7 days by measuring pH, VBN levels, total microbes, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, and pathogenic bacteria in the products. Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, and E. coli were not detected in the sausages with $1^{st}$ cooked treatments. The results showed that the pH of the sausages decline as storage time increased. The pH value of the sausages with $2^{nd}$ cooked treatments changed gradually. VBN levels were generally lower in products with $2^{nd}$ cooked treatments than in those with $1^{st}$ cooked treatments, but they varied with the type of products. On the $35^{th}$ day, the number of total microbes ranged between 6.13-7.12 log CFU/g in products with $1^{st}$ cooked treatments and 3.44-6.92 log CFU/g in products with $2^{nd}$ cooked treatments, showing fewer bacteria in the latter products. Conclusions: $1^{st}$ cooked treatments were effective in microbial control, but $2^{nd}$ cooked treatments could prolong the shelf life of the sausages, indicating a need for differential management of each product.

Hydro-meteorological Effects on Water Quality Variability in Paldang Reservoir, Confluent Area of the South-Han River-North-Han River-Gyeongan Stream, Korea (남·북한강과 경안천 합류 수역 팔당호의 수질 변동성에 대한 기상·수문학적 영향)

  • Hwang, Soon-Jin;Kim, Keonhee;Park, Chaehong;Seo, Wanbum;Choi, Bong-Geun;Eum, Hyun Soo;Park, Myung-Hwan;Noh, Hye Ran;Sim, Yeon Bo;Shin, Jae-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.354-374
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    • 2016
  • This study explored spatiotemporal variability of water quality in correspondence with hydrometeorological factors in the five stations of Paldang Reservoir located in the Han River during 4 years from May 2012 to December 2015. Variability of basic water quality factors were largely related with seasonal fluctuations of hydrology. Temperature stratification occurred in the deep dam station, and prolonged hypoxia was observed during the draught year. Nitrogen nutrients were increased with decreasing inflow in which changing pattern of $NH_4$ reversed to $NO_3$ by the effect of treated wastewater effluent. Phosphorus increase was manifest during the period of high inflow or severe drought. Chl-a variation was reversely related with both flow change and AGP(algal growth potential) variations. Our study demonstrated that water quality variability in Paldang Reservoir was largely attributed to both natural and operational changes of inflow and outflow (including water intake) based on major pollution source of the treated wastewater (total amount of $472{\times}10^3m^3d^{-1}$) entering to the water system from watershed. In the process of water quality variability, meteorological (e.g., flood, typhoon, abnormal rainfall, scorching heat of summer) and hydrological factors (inflow and discharge) were likely to work dynamically with nutrients pulse, dilution, absorption, concentration and sedimentation. We underline comprehensive limnological study related to hydro-meteorolology to understand short- and long-term water quality variability in river-type large reservoir and suggest the necessity of P-free wastewater treatment for the effective measure of reducing pollution level of Paldang drinking water resource.

Development of simple tools for algal bloom diagnosis in agricultural lakes (농업용 호소의 조류 발생 진단을 위한 간편 도구의 개발)

  • Nam, Gui-Sook;Lee, Seung-Heon;Jo, Hyun-Jung;Park, Joo-Hyun;Cho, Young-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.433-445
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    • 2019
  • This study was designed to develop simple tools to easily and efficiently predict the occurrence of algal bloom in agricultural lakes. Physicochemical water quality parameters were examined to reflect the phytoplankton productivity in 182 samples collected from 15 agricultural lakes from April to October 2018. Total phytoplankton abundance was significantly correlated with chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) (r=0.666) and Secchi depth (SD) (r= -0.351). The abundances of cyanobacteria and harmful cyanobacteria were also correlated with Chl-a (r=0.664, r=0.353) and SD (r= -0.340, r= -0.338), respectively, but not with total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The Chl-a concentration was correlated with SD (r= -0.434), showing a higher similarity than phytoplankton abundance. Therefore, Chl-a and SD were selected as diagnostic factors for algal bloom prediction, instead of analyzing the standing crop of harmful cyanobacteria used in algae alarm systems. Specifically, accurate diagnoses were made using realtime SD measurements. The algal bloom diagnostic tool is an inverse cone-shaped container with an algal bloom diagnosis chart that modified SD and turbidity measurement methods. Lake water was collected to observe the number of rings visible in the container or the number indicated in each ring, depending on the degree of algal bloom,and to determine the final stage of algal blooming by comparison to the colorimetric level on the diagnosis chart. For an accurate diagnosis, we presented 4-step diagnostic criteria based on the concentration of Chl-a and the number of rings and a fan-shaped algal bloom diagnosis chart with Hexa code names. This tool eliminated the variables and errors of previous methods and the results were easily interpreted. This study is expected to facilitate the diagnosis of algal bloom in agricultural lakes and the establishment of an efficient algal bloom management plan.

Study on the Technological System of the Cooperative Cultivation of Paddy Rice in Korea (수도집단재배의 기술체계에 관한 연구)

  • Min-Shin Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.129-177
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    • 1970
  • For the purpose of establishing the systematized technical scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation which has most significant impact to improve rice productivity and the farm management, the author have studied the cultivation practices, and the variation of rice growth and yield between the cooperative rice cultivation and the individual rice cultivation at random selected 18 paddy fields. The author also have investigated through comparative method on the cultivation practices, management, organization and operation scheme of the two different rice cultivation methods at 460 paddy fields. The economic feasibility has been ana lysed and added in this report. The results obtained from this study are summarized as follows; 1. In the nursery, the average amount of fertilizer application, especially, phosphate and potassium, and the frequency of chemicals spray for the disease, insect and pest control at the cooperative rice cultivation are significantly higher than those of the individual rice cultivation. 2. The cultivation techniques of the cooperative rice farming after the transplanting can be characterized by a) the earlier transplanting of rice, b) the denser hills per unit area and the lesser number of seedlings per hill, c) the application of larger quantities of fertilizer including nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, d) more divided application of fertilizers, split doses of the nitrogen and potassium, e) the increased frequencies of the chemicals spray for the prevention of disease, insect and pest damages. 3. The rate of lodging in the cooperative rice cultivation was slightly higher than that of the individual rice cultivation, however, the losses of rice yield owing to the occurrence of rice stem borer and grass leaf roller in the cooperative rice cultivation were lower than that of the individual rice cultivation. 4. The culm length, panicle length, straw weight and grain-straw ratio are respectively higher at the cooperative rice cultivation, moreover, the higher variation of the above factors due to different localities of the paddy fields found at the individual rice cultivation. 5. The number of panicles, number of flowers per panicle and the weight of 1, 000 grains, those contributing components to the rice yield were significantly greater in the cooperative rice cultivation, however, not clear difference in the maturing rate was observed. The variation coefficient of the yield component in the cooperative cultivation showed lower than that or the individual rice cultivation. 6. The average yield of brown rice per 10 are in the cooperative rice cultivation obtained 459.0 kilograms while that of the individual rice cultivation brought 374.8 kilograms. The yield of brown rice in the cooperative rice cultivation increased 84.2 kilogram per 10 are over the individual rice cultivation. With lower variation coefficient of the brown rice yield in the cooperative rice cultivation, it can be said that uniformed higher yield could be obtained through the cooperative rice cultivation. 7. Highly significant positive correlations shown between the seeding date and the number of flowers per panicle, the chemical spray and the number of flowers per panicle, the transplanting date and the number of flowers per panicle, phosphate application and yield, potassium application and maturing rate, the split application of fertilizers and yield. Whilst the significant negative correlation was shown between the transplanting date and the maturing rate 8. The results of investigation from 480 paddy fields obtained through comparative method on the following items are identical in general with those obtained at 18 paddy fields: Application of fertilizers, chemical spray for the control of disease, insects and pests both in the nursery and the paddy field, transplanting date, transplanting density, split application of fertilizers and yield n the paddy fields. a) The number of rice varieties used in the cooperative rice cultivation were 13 varieties while the individual rice cultivation used 47 varieties. b) The cooperative rice cultivation has more successfully adopted improved cultivation techniques such as the practice of seed disinfection, adoption of recommended seeding amount, fall ploughing, application of red soil, introduction of power tillers, the rectangular-type transplanting, midsummer drainage and the periodical irrigation. 9. The following results were also obtained from the same investigation and they are: a) In the cooperative rice cultivation, the greater part of the important practices have been carried out through cooperative operation including seed disinfection, ploughing, application of red soil and compost, the control of disease, insects and pests, harvest, threshing and transportation of the products. b) The labor input to the nursery bed and water control in the cooperative rice cultivation was less than that of the individual rice cultivation while the higher rate of labor input was resulted in the red soil and compost application. 10. From the investigation on the organization and operation scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The size of cooperative rice cultivation farm was varied from. 3 ha to 7 ha and 5 ha farm. occupied 55.9 percent of the total farms. And a single cooperative farm was consisted of 10 to 20 plots of paddies. b) The educational back ground of the staff members involved in the cooperative rice cultivation was superior than that of the individual rice cultivation. c) All of the farmers who participated to the questionaires have responded that the cooperative rice cultivation could promise the increased rice yield mainly through the introduction of the improved method of fertilizer application and the effective control of diseases, insects and pests damages. And the majority of farmers were also in the opinion that preparation of the materials and labor input can be timely carried out and the labor requirement for the rice cultivation possibly be saved through the cooperative rice cultivation. d) The farmers who have expressed their wishes to continue and to make further development of the cooperative rice cultivation was 74.5 percent of total farmers participated to the questionaires. 11. From the analysis of economical feasibility on the two different methods of cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The value of operation cost for the compost, chemical fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and labor input in the cooperative rice cultivation was respectively higher by 335 won, 199 won, 288 won and 303 won over the individual rice cultivation. However, the other production costs showed no distinct differences between the two cultivation methods. b) Although the total value of expenses for the fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, labor input and etc. in the cooperative rice cultivation were approximately doubled to the amount of the individual rice cultivation, the net income, substracted operation costs from the gross income, was obtained 24, 302 won in the cooperative rice cultivation and 20, 168 won was obtained from the individual rice cultivation. Thereby, it can be said that net income from the cooperative rice cultivation increased 4, 134 won over the individual rice cultivation. It was revealed in this study that the cooperative rice cultivation has not only contributed to increment of the farm income through higher yield but also showed as an effective means to introduce highly improved cultivation techniques to the farmers. It may also be concluded, therefore, the cooperative rice cultivation shall continuously renovate the rice production process of the farmers.

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Characteristics and classification of paddy soils on the Gimje-Mangyeong plains (김제만경평야(金堤萬頃平野)의 답토양특성(沓土壤特性)과 그 분류(分類)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Shin, Yong Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.1-38
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    • 1972
  • This study, designed to establish a classification system of paddy soils and suitability groups on productivity and management of paddy land based on soil characteristics, has been made for the paddy soils on the Gimje-Mangyeong plains. The morphological, physical and chemical properties of the 15 paddy soil series found on these plains are briefly as follows: Ten soil series (Baeggu, Bongnam, Buyong, Gimje, Gongdeog, Honam, Jeonbug, Jisan, Mangyeong and Suam) have a B horizon (cambic B), two soil series (Geugrag and Hwadong) have a Bt horizon (argillic B), and three soil series (Gwanghwal, Hwagye and Sindab) have no B or Bt horizons. Uniquely, both the Bongnam and Gongdeog series contain a muck layer in the lower part of subsoil. Four soil series (Baeggu, Gongdeog, Gwanghwal and Sindab) generally are bluish gray and dark gray, and eight soil series (Bongnam, Buyong, Gimje, Honam, Jeonbug, Jisan, Mangyeong and Suam) are either gray or grayish brown. Three soil series (Geugrag, Hwadong and Hwagye), however, are partially gleyed in the surface and subsurface, but have a yellowish brown to brown subsoil or substrata. Seven soil series (Bongnam, Buyong, Geugrag, Gimje, Gongdeog, Honam and Hwadong) are of fine clayey texture, three soil series (Baeggu, Jeonbug and Jisan) belong to fine loamy and fine silty, three soil series (Gwanghwal, Mangyeong and Suam) to coarse loamy and coarse silty, and two soil series (Hwagye and Sindab) to sandy and sandy skeletal texture classes. The carbon content of the surface soil ranges from 0.29 to 2.18 percent, mostly 1.0 to 2.0 percent. The total nitrogen content of the surface soil ranges from 0.03 to 0.25 percent, showing a tendency to decrease irregularly with depth. The C/N ratio in the surface soil ranges from 4.6 to 15.5, dominantly from 8 to 10. The C/N ratio in the subsoil and substrata, however, has a wide range from 3.0 to 20.25. The soil reaction ranges from 4.5 to 8.0. All soil series except the Gwanghwal and Mangyeong series belong to the acid reaction class. The cation exchange cpacity in the surface soil ranges from 5 to 13 milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil, and in all the subsoil and substrata except those of a sandy texture, from 10 to 20 milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil. The base saturation of the soil series except Baeggu and Gongdeog is more than 60 percent. The active iron content of the surface soil ranges from 0.45 to 1.81 ppm, easily-reduceable manganese from 15 to 148 ppm, and available silica from 36 to 366 ppm. The iron and manganese are generally accumulated in a similar position (10 to 70cm. depth), and silica occurs in the same horizon with that of iron and manganese, or in the deeper horizons in the soil profile. The properties of each soil series extending from the sea shore towards the continental plains change with distance and they are related with distance (x) as follows: y(surface soil, clay content) = $$-0.2491x^2+6.0388x-1.1251$$ y(subsoil or subsurface soil, clay content) = $$-0.31646x^2+7.84818x-2.50008$$ y(surface soil, organic carbon content) = $$-0.0089x^2+0.2192x+0.1366$$ y(subsoil or subsurface soil, pH) = $$-0.0178x^2-0.04534x+8.3531$$ Soil profile development, soil color, depositional and organic layers, soil texture and soil reaction etc. are thought to be the major items that should be considered in a paddy soil classification. It was found that most of the soils belonging to the moderately well, somewhat poorly and poorly drained fine and medium textured soils and moderately deep fine textured soils over coarse materials, produce higher paddy yields in excess of 3,750 kg/ha. and most of the soils belonging to the coarse textured soils, well drained fine textured soils, moderately deep medium textured soils over coarse materials and saline soils, produce yields less than 3,750kg/ha. Soil texture of the profile, available soil depth, salinity and gleying of the surface and subsurface soils etc. seem to be the major factors determining rice yields, and these factors are considered when establishing suitability groups for paddy land. The great group, group, subgroup, family and series are proposed for the classification categories of paddy soils. The soil series is the basic category of the classification. The argillic horizon (Bt horizon) and cambic horizon (B horizon) are proposed as two diagnostic horizons of great group level for the determination of the morphological properties of soils in the classification. The specific soil characteristics considered in the group and subgroup levels are soil color of the profile (bluish gray, gray or yellowish brown), salinity (salic), depositonal (fluvic) and muck layers (mucky), and gleying of surface and subsurface soils (gleyic). The family levels are classified on the basis of soil reaction, soil texture and gravel content of the profile. The definitions are given on each classification category, diagnostic horizons and specific soil characteristics respectively. The soils on these plains are classified in eight subgroups and examined under the existing classification system. Further, the suitability group, can be divided into two major categories, suitability class and subclass. The soils within a suitability class are similar in potential productivity and limitation on use and management. Class 1 through 4 are distinguished from each other by combination of soil characteristics. Subclasses are divided from classes that have the same kind of dominant limitations such as slope(e), wettness(w), sandy(s), gravels(g), salinity(t) and non-gleying of the surface and subsurface soils(n). The above suitability classes and subclasses are examined, and the definitions are given. Seven subclasses are found on these plains for paddy soils. The classification and suitability group of 15 paddy soil series on the Gimje-Mangyeong plains may now be tabulated as follows.

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