• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nitrogen management

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Fate of Nitrogen Influenced by Circumstances of a Reclaimed Tidal Soils (간척지 토양환경 조건별 토양내 질소 동태와 영향 요소)

  • Han, Sang-Gyun;Kim, Hey-Jin;Song, Jin-Ah;Chung, Doug-young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.745-751
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    • 2011
  • In most agricultural soils, ammonium ($NH_4^+$) from fertilizer is quickly converted to nitrate ($NO_3^-$) by the process of nitrification which is crucial to the efficiency of N fertilizers and their impact on the environment. However, nitrification studies have been studied extensively in agricultural soils, not in a newly reclaimed tidal soil which show saline-sodic and high pH. Therefore, understanding the fate of nitrogen species transformed from urea introduced into reclaimed tidal soil is important for nutrient management and environmental quality. This paper reviewed studies regarding to transformation and fate of nitrogen sources such as urea under the circumstances of a reclaimed tidal soils located in a western coastal area.

Effects of organic matter sources on nitrogen supply potential in arable land (농경지에서 유기물 시용에 의한 질소 공급 효과)

  • Lee, Ye-Jin;Yun, Hong-Bae;Song, Yo-Sung;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Ha, Sang-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.431-437
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    • 2015
  • Recently, assessment of nitrogen balance has been required for environmental agriculture. Nutrient management using organic matters in farmlands has been strongly required as a means of extending resource-cycling agriculture and reduction of nitrogen balance. Organic matters-derived nutrients and soil-available nitrogen should be necessarily considered to manage nutrient balance in soil-plant system. In this study, we reviewed the amount of N supply according to types of organic matter such as livestock compost and green manure in arable land. In case of applied livestock compost in soil, nitrogen mineralization was influenced by nitrogen amount of livestock manure and mixed materials. And nitrogen mineralization of green manure in arable land was influenced by types of crop and return period of green manure because of change of C/N ratio. Also, nitrogen supply by organic matter in arable land can be changed by environmental factors such as temperature, moisture in soil. Therefore, nitrogen supply according to C/N ratio of organic matter and analysis method for estimation of soil nitrogen supply availability should be evaluated to set up the nutrient management model.

Inter-laboratory Comparison of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition Data Using Elemental Analyzer-isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometers

  • Kim, Jung-Hyun;Kang, Sujin;Bong, Yeon-Sik;Park, Kwangkyu;Kang, Tae-Woo;Park, Yong-Se;Kim, Dahae;Choi, Seunghyun;Joo, Young Ji;Choi, Bohyung;Nam, Seung-Il;Lee, Sang-Mo;Shin, Kyung-Hoon
    • Journal of The Korea Society For Environmental Analysis
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.229-236
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    • 2018
  • In this study, inter-laboratory comparison was done using elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometers (EA-IRMSs) to determine carbon and nitrogen contents as well as stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (${\delta}^{13}C$ and ${\delta}^{15}N$) of five environmental samples containing lake and marine sediments, higher plant leaves, and fish muscle, and one organic analytical standard (Protein (Casein) Standard OAS). Five national laboratories participated in this comparison study, and each laboratory analyzed all five samples and the analytical standard. Results showed that variations in total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents as well as ${\delta}^{13}C_{TOC}$ and ${\delta}^{15}N_{TN}$ values among the laboratories were large compared to the analytical uncertainties. The results highlighted the inhomogeneity of the test samples and thus, the need to select suitable standard reference materials for future inter-laboratory studies. Further inter-laboratory comparison exercises could promote good measurement practices in the acquisition of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition data.

Nutrient Leaching and Crop Uptake in Weighing Lysimeter Planted with Soybean as Affected by Water Management (중량식 라이시미터에서 콩 재배시 물관리 방법에 의한 양분의 용탈과 작물 흡수)

  • Lee, Ye-Jin;Han, Kyung-Hwa;Lee, Seul-Bi;Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Song, Yo-Sung;Lee, Deog-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND: Soil water content strongly depends on weather condition and irrigation, and it could influence on crop nutrient use efficiency. This study was performed to assess nutrient uptake of soybean by soil water condition. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, nutrient leaching and crop uptake as affacted by water management practice was investigated using weighing lysimeter which is located in National institute of agricultural science, Wanju, Jeonbuk province from June 2015 to October 2016. Water supply for soybean (cv. Daewon) was managed with irrigation and rainfall. Nitrate leaching was greatest in the rainfall treatment at early July 2016. Yield of soybean in the rainfall treatment was only 25% compared to the irrigation due to the drought at flowering and podding period. The uptake of nitrogen was considerably reduced by drought whereas the uptake of phosphorus and potassium was less affected by drought. CONCLUSION: It was proven that nitrogen loss and uptake were dependent on soil water condition. Therefore, irrigation water management to maintain available soil moisture capacity is critical to nitrogen uptake and yield of soybean.

Characteristics of Groundwater and Soil Contamination in Hallim Area of Jeju Island (제주도 한림지역의 지하수와 토양의 오염특성)

  • Hyun, Geun-Tag;Song, Sang-Tak;Joa, Dal-Hee;Ko, Yong-Hwan
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 2010
  • Contamination of groundwater from point and non-point sources is one of major problems of water resource manangement in Jeju island. This study characterized groundwater and soil contamination in Hallim area which is one of the areas of significantly contaminated soil and groundwater in Jeju Island. The amount of loaded contaminant (ALC) of Jeju area was estimated as 13,212 ton N/yr and 3,210 ton P/yr, The ALC of Hallim area was amounted to 2,895 ton N/yr and 1,102 ton P/yr, which accounted for 21.9% and 34.3% of the Jeju's ALC, respectively. The soil pH values (5.6-5.9) were not much different in land use areas. By contrat, average cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 14.1 $cmol^+/kg$ was high comparing to the nationwide range of 7.7-10.9 $cmol^+/kg$. Further, Sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) of horse ranch, pasture, and cultivating land for livestock were as high as 0.19, 0.17, and 0.16 respectively, comparing to the other landuse areas. Nitrate nitrogen at 22.2% of total groundwater wells exceeded 10 mg/L (the criteria of nitrate nitrogen for drinking water), averaginged 6.62 mg/L with maximum 28.95 mg/L. Groundwater types belonged to Mg-$HCO_3$, Na-$HCO_3$, Ca-$HCO_3$, and Na-Cl, among which Mg-$HCO_3$ type occupied more than 70% of the total samples, indicating the presence of anthropogenic sources. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen was negatively related to altitude and well depth, and positively related to the concentration of Ca, Mg, and $SO_4$ which might originate from chemical fertilizer. The ratio of nitrogen isotopes was estimated as an average of 8.10$^{\circ}/_{\circ\circ}$, and the maximum value of 17.9$^{\circ}/_{\circ\circ}$. According to the nitrogen isotope ratio, the most important nitrogen source was assessed as chemical fertilizer (52.6%) followed by sewage (26.3%) and livestock manures (21.1%).

Effects of the Site-Specific Nitrogen Management on Economic Feasibility and Environmental Sustainability (토양특성(土壤特性)에 따른 질소시용(窒素施用)의 환경(環境) 경제적(經濟的) 효과(效果))

  • Kang, Choong-Kwan;Park, Joo-Sub;Lee, Sang-Yong;Kim, Han-Myeong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.42-54
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    • 2001
  • The use of nitrogen fertilizer in intensive agricultural production is of major concern due to its role on agricultural productivity and water quality. Crop production inputs on farm are usually applied at a uniform rate across an entire field. However, actual input requirements often vary within fields. The field variations in yield potential, soil moisture, soil N status, and the efficiency of fertilizer use, uniform application of crop production inputs does not allow optimum efficiency or profitability. This occurs because uniform application often results in areas of over- and under-application which may affect water quality and crop yield. This study used biophysical and economic models to assess the economic feasibility and water quality benefits of site specific nitrogen management for 10 soil types and 35 sample fields in Goodwater Creek watershed located near Centralia, Missouri. Results showed that the economic feasibility and water quality benefits of variable rate application were sensitive to the distribution of soil types within a field. Variable rate(VR) application was not uniformly more profitable than uniform rate(UR) application for the four agricultural systems evaluated and the water quality benefits were insubstantial relative to uniform application of N.

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Regional Application of the OECD Nitrogen Budget Considering Livestock Manure Compost (국내 가축분뇨 자원화 특성을 고려한 OECD 질소수지 산정법의 지역단위 적용 연구)

  • Lim, Do Young;Ryu, Hong-Duck;Chung, Eu Gene;Kim, Yongseok;Lee, Jae Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.546-555
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    • 2017
  • The Nutrient budget is one of the agricultural-environment indicators of OECD. A nutrient budget measures the surplus as the differential between the inputs and the outputs of within a certain boundary and within a specified period of time (i.e. one year). According to OECD, the annual nitrogen budget for Korea was $245kg\;N\;ha^{-1}$ in 2014, which corresponds to the first position among OECD countries. In Korea in 2014, about 90 % of livestock excreta was composted as solid and liquid manure, which are usually and customarily spread on agricultural land. The objectives of this study are intended to suggest methodology of the regional nitrogen budget as a nitrogen management tool, which considers conversion from raw excreta to composted manures based on the methodology of OECD/Eurostat, and application of the new method in an agricultural region of Korea. As a result, the calculated excess rate of hydrospheric nitrogen surplus was $251kg\;N\;ha^{-1}$ (in the region in 2014), which indicates the presence of potential risks emanating from excessive nitrogen, with regard to both export water and soil environments. The findings also assert that this was shown to be one of the most important elements in the nitrogen budget, which translates to the actual amounts of nitrogen lost during the solid composting process. To better understand the process and the reliability of the method, it is necessary to analyze the sensitivity of the relevant co-efficients used in the method in the near future.

Main-stream Partial Nitritation - Anammox (PN/A) Processes for Energy-efficient Short-cut Nitrogen Removal (주공정에서 아질산화-혐기성 암모늄 산화법에 의한 단축질소제거공정 연구동향)

  • Park, Hongkeun;Rhu, Daehwan
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.96-108
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    • 2018
  • Large efforts have recently been made on research and development of sustainable and energy-efficient short-cut nitrogen removal processes owing to strong attention to the energy neutral/positive wastewater treatment system. Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox bacteria) have been highlighted since 1990's due to their unique advantages including 60% less energy consumption, nearly 100% reduction for carbon source requirement, and 80% less sludge production. Side-stream short-cut nitrogen removal using anammox bacteria and partial nitritation anammox (PN/A) has been well established, whereas substantial challenges remain to be addressed mainly due to undesired main-stream conditions for anammox bacteria. These include low temperature, low concentrations of ammonia, nitrite, free ammonia, free nitrous acid or a combination of those. In addition, an anammox side-stream nitrogen management is insufficient to reduce overall energy consumption for energy-neutral or energy positive water resource recovery facility (WRRF) and at the same time to comply with nitrogen discharge regulation. This implies the development of the successful main-stream anammox based technology will accelerate a conversion of current wastewater treatment plants to sustainable water and energy recovery facility. This study discusses the status of the research, key mechanisms & interactions of the protagonists in the main-stream PN/A, and control parameters and major challenges in process development.

Comparison of Nitrogen Application Methods at the 4th Leaf Stage in Direct-Seeded Rice Field

  • Chun, Nam-Jin;Kang, Yang-Soon;Park, Jeong-Hwa;Yoon, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.84-88
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    • 2001
  • Two methods of nitrogen application at the 4th leaf stage were evaluated in direct-seeding rice cultivation on dry paddy soil: one was the top dressing of nitrogen on dry paddy condition before irrigation (TNDP) for labor saving, and the other was the top dressing of nitrogen on dry paddy with mechanical rotavation of the inter-row space (TNDPIR) for increasing the efficiency of nitrogen. To evaluate these two application methods, leaf chlorophyll contents, growth characteristics and yields were compared with two conventional methods, basal application (BA) and top dressing on flooded paddy condition at the 4th leaf stage (TNFP). The SPAD value of rice in TNDP was similar with that in TNFP throughout the whole growth stage of rice. Also, there were no differences in rice growth and yield between the two methods. However, in TNDPIR, the SPAD value was the highest during tillering stage among the four application methods, and the tiller number, LAI at heading stage and the panicle number were higher than the two conventional methods.

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Effect of Nitrogen Split Application Methods on Development of Vascular Bundle and Yield Components of Rice Cultivars

  • Lee, Dong-Jin;Chae, Je-Cheon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.237-240
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of split application of nitrogen(N) on development of vascular bundle(VB) and yield components of rice. Two cultivars were used in this study; IR58, an indica type and Shinunbongbyeim a japonica type. The number and total cross sectional area of the VB in the peduncle and leaf blade were more and bigger in N split application than 100 percent basal fertilizer. Nitrogen split application at necknode differentiation stage increased the number and size of the VB. Nitrogen split application resulted in increased panicle number with application of N before transplanting and at tillering stage; increased spikelets number with N application at necknode differentiation stage; and increased spikelet fertility and 1000 grain weight with N application at necknode differentiation and heading stages. Grain yield increased 7-10% in N split as compared to all basal application. The total cross sectional area of VB in peduncle closely correlated with the number of spikelets per panicle. Nitrogen management can have an impact on spikelet differentiation through more and bigger VB and increase grain yield potential.

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