• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nitrogen management

Search Result 798, Processing Time 0.042 seconds

Biological Nitrification and Denitrification for Landfill Leachate Containing High Concentration of Ammonium-Nitrogen by using MLE Process (MLE 공정을 이용한 고농도 NH4+-N 함유 침출수의 생물학적 질산화/탈질)

  • Won, Jong-Choul;Namkoong, Wan;Bae, Young-Shin;Lee, Kyung-Shin;Park, Ki-Hyuk;Song, Su-Sung;Yoon, Cho-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.22 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1027-1035
    • /
    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the treatability of landfill leachate having high concentration of ammonium nitrogen with/without the circulation of media in pilot-scale($48m^3basis$) process. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was relatively increased in the media added process (influent ; $1.230{\sim}2,000mg{\cdot}l^{-1}$, effluent ; $120{\sim}250mg{\cdot}l^{-1}$) compared with the control process. The difference of nitrogen removal efficiency between these processes may be due to that stable growth of nitrifiers attached to the media could be achieved 99.3% of ammonium-nitrogen removal efficiency(without ; 98.2%) and 88.5% of total nitrogen removal efficiency(without ; 85.8%) were shown in media added process, respectively. Also, optimum BOD/ $NH_4{^+}$-N ratio was relatively decreased in the media process compared with the control process. Sludge settleability, on the other hand. was shown better in media added process than in control process. This outstanding sludge settleability in the media added process indicates the compatibility of media(zeolite) to the microorganism and the possibility of using media of biofilm process.

  • PDF

Feeding and Management System to Reduce Environmental Pollution in Swine Production - Review -

  • Han, In K.;Lee, J.H.;Piao, X.S.;Li, Defa
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.432-444
    • /
    • 2001
  • In this manuscript, several effective feeding and management systems to reduce environmental pollution in swine production have been briefly introduced. It is logical that reducing the excretion of nutrients in manure should be the first step to reduce the environmental impact of pig production. it is evident that the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus can be reduced when more digestible or available feedstuffs are used. Also, it is well known that proper feed processing can reduce anti nutritional factors (ANF) and improve nutrient digestibilities. Supplementation of effective feed additives can reduce excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus due to efficient feed utilization. These include enzymes (e.g., phytase), antibiotics, probiotics, organic acids and growth hormones ($\beta$-agonists and porcine somatotropin). One of the most effective ways to reduce pollutants from swine manure is to use synthetic amino acids in feed manufacturing. Many studies showed that reduction of 2 to 4% unit (U) of dietary protein with supplemental amino acid (AA) could dramatically reduce (15 to 20%) nitrogen excretion. Regarding feeding strategies, it has been recognized that phase feeding regimen could be used to reduce nitrogen and phosphorous excretion by feeding pigs in better agreement with age and physiological state. Feeding barrows and gilts separately, known as split sex feeding, can also decrease excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus. With the increasing concerns on the negative impact of animal production systems on the environment, animal nutritionists and producers should be aware that sustainability of animal agriculture is as important as high production performance. Therefore, some feeding and management strategies described in this manuscript will help to reduce environmental pollution in swine production. Proper combination of feeding regimen and environment-friendly diet formulation through nutritional approach will be more effective to reduce nutrient excretion in swine production system compared to single approach to do so.

Nitrogen Losses During Animal Manure Management : A review (가축분뇨관리 과정 중 손실되는 질소 : A review)

  • Choi, Dong-Yoon;Song, Jun-Ik;Park, Kyu-Hyun;Khan, Modabber A.;Ahn, Heekwon
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.sup
    • /
    • pp.73-80
    • /
    • 2012
  • Nitrogen included in animal manure can be used as organic fertilizer if it is treated properly but it may cause serious air and water pollution without proper management. Significant amount of nitrogen losses happen in the form of ammonia when the manure staying in animal house and storage facilities and being composted and applied to the field. In order to maximize the manure nitrogen utilization, it is important to understand the mechanisms of nitrogen loss during the diverse manure handling and treatment procedures. The plant available nitrogen portion of total nitrogen in excreted manure was evaluated based on animal type, animal manure collection system, manure treatment process, and application method. About 27% of nitrogen included in excreted pig manure could be plant available if it is applied to the filed after composting process. The plant available nitrogen portion varies from 29% (surface application) to 54% (solid injection) based on application method of digestated piggery slurry. Plant can use 18% of manure nitrogen if the composted cattle and poultry manure applied to the field using surface application method. Manure treatment and application methods need to be carefully selected to control and utilize the manure nitrogen properly.

경작조건별 농경지 비료성분의 거동특성에 관한 칼럼 연구

  • 최태범;이기철;장윤영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.279-281
    • /
    • 2003
  • This study is intended to give information on agricultural nonpoint source pollution and transport related to fertilizer application and irrigation practice. Field-simulated soil columns were set up and leaching studies on fertilizer components such as nitrogen and phosphorus were performed. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the leachate showed different trends in each column and nonpoint source pollution in agricultural areas may be expected to depend on planted crops, soil conditions, and climate as well as irrigation and fertilizing management.

  • PDF

Wide Area Distribution of Nitrogen Concentrations in Mountain Streams of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan

  • Muramatsu, K.;Komai, Y.;Umemoto, S.;Inoue, T.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.15 no.2
    • /
    • pp.111-115
    • /
    • 2010
  • To study the relationship between the concentrations of nitrogen in mountain streams, and anthropologic and natural factors, the water chemistry of the mountain streams in the entire Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, were investigated. A thousand mountain streams were investigated between 1998 and 2001. The concentrations of nitrate nitrogen ranged from 2.92 to 0.1 mg/L, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.45 mg/L. A number of streams showing more than 1.0 mg/L of nitrate nitrogen accounted for 8% of the mountain streams investigated. These results indicated that the concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in the mountain streams were low in the entire Hyogo Prefecture. In general, the mountain stream water in Hyogo Prefecture appears to not have been affected by wet and dry deposition originating from anthropologic sources in mountain streams and Japan. On the other hand, sites with more than 0.8 mg/L nitrate nitrogen were distributed over the entire Hyogo Prefecture, which were classified into five groups. Each group showed unique geographical, geological and anthropological characteristics. No common characteristic among five groups were discover. These results suggest that the cause of high concentrations of nitrogen in mountain streams is not from a uniform set of conditions.

Friction on the Tool-chip Interface Under Liquid Nitrogen Cooling (공구와 칩 사이에서의 Liquid Nitrogen의 마찰 효과)

  • Jun Seong Chan
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
    • /
    • v.4 no.2
    • /
    • pp.237-249
    • /
    • 2002
  • A cutting fluid can improve machining quality and tool life by maintaining the tool toughness and by providing a lubrication effect to reduce the friction between the chip and tool interface. Although liquid nitrogen as an environmentally safe coolant has been widely recognized in cryogenic machining, its function as a lubricant is plausible due to its chemical inertness, physical volatility and low viscosity. Since a reduced friction is a direct witness of the lubrication effect from a tribological viewpoint, this paper presents an evaluation of the apparent friction coefficient on the tool-chip interface in cryogenic cutting operations to prove and characterize the lubricity of LN2 in cryogenic machining. The mathematical approaches have been formulated to derive the normal and frictional forces on the tool-chip interface for the oblique cutting tests.

Modeling the Relationship between Land Cover and River Water Quality in the Yamaguchi Prefecture of Japan

  • Amiri, Bahman Jabbarian;Nakane, Kaneyuki
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.343-352
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study investigated the relationship between land cover and the water quality variables in the rivers, which are located in the Yamaguchi prefecture of West Japan. The study area included 12 catchments covering $5,809\;Km^2$. pH, dissolved oxygen, suspended solid, E. coli, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were considered as river water quality variables. Satellite data was applied to generate land cover map. For linking alterations in land cover (at whole catchment and buffer zone levels) and the river water quality variables, multiple regression modeling was applied. The results indicated that non-spatial attribute (%) of land cover types (at whole catchment level) consistently explained high amounts of variation in biological oxygen demand (72%), suspended solid (72%) and total nitrogen (87%). At buffer zone-scale, multiple regression models that were developed to represent the linkage between the alterations of land cover and the river water quality variables could also explain high level of total variations in suspended solid (86%) and total nitrogen (91%).

Investigating the Impact of Best Management Practices on Nonpoint Source Pollution from Agricultural Lands

  • ;Saied Mostaghimi
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
    • /
    • v.32 no.E
    • /
    • pp.1-19
    • /
    • 1990
  • Abstract Over the last several decades, crop production in the United States increased largely due to the extensive use of animal waste and fertilizers as plant nutrient supplements, and pesticides for crops pests and weed control. Without the application of animal waste best management, the use of animal waste can result in nonpoint source pollution from agricultural land area. In order to increase nutrient levels and decrease contamination from agricultural lands, nonpoint source pollution is responsible for water quality degradation. Nonpoint source pollutants such as animal waste, ferilizers, and pesticides are transported primarily through runoff from agricultural areas. Nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus, can be a major water quality problem because they cause eutrophic algae growth. In 1985, it was presented that Watershed/Water Quality Monitoring for Evaluation BMP Effectiveness was implemented for Nomini Creek Watershed, located in Westmoreland County, Virginia. The watershed is predominantly agricultural and has an aerial extent of 1505 ha of land, with 43% under cropland, 54% under woodland, and 3% as homestead and roads. Rainfall data was collected at the watershed from raingages located at sites PNI through PN 7. Streams at stations QN I and QN2 were being measured with V-notch weirs. Water levels at the stream was measured using an FW-l Belfort (Friez FWl). The water quality monitoring system was designed to provide comprehensive assessment of the quality of storm runoff and baseflow as influenced by changes in landuse, agronomic, and cultural practices ill the watershed. As this study was concerned with the Nomini Creek Watershed, the separation of storm runoff and baseflow measured at QNI and QN2 was given by the master depletion curve method, and the loadings of baseflow and storm runoff for TN (Total Nitrogen) and TP (Total Phosphorus) were analyzed from 1987 through 1989. The results were studied for the best management practices to reduce contamination and loss of nutrients, (e.g., total nitrogen and total phosphorus) by nonpoint source pollution from agricultural lands.

  • PDF

Mineral N, Macro Elements Uptake and Physiological Parameters in Tomato Plants Affected by Different Nitrate Levels

  • Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Lee, Su-Youn;Kang, Seong-Soo;Lee, Ye-Jin;Kim, Ro-Gyoung;Lee, Ju-Young;Jang, Byoung-Choon;Ha, Sang-Keun;Lee, Jong-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.44 no.4
    • /
    • pp.551-558
    • /
    • 2011
  • The aim of this study was to know whether leaf nitrate can be a substitute of total leaf N to justify plant N status and how nitrate influences macro elements uptake and physiological parameters of tomato plants under different nitrogen levels. Leaf nitrate content decreased in low N, while showed similar value with the control in high N, ranging from 55 to $70mg\;g^{-1}$. Differences in nitrate supply led to nitrate-dependent increases in macro elements, particularly cations, while gradual decrease in P. Physiological parameters, photosynthesis rates and antioxidants, greatly responded in N deficient conditions rather than high N, which didn't show any significant differences compared the control. Considering nitrogen forms and physiological parameters, total-N in tomato plants represented positive relation with growth (shoot dry weight), nitrate and $CO_2$ assimilation, whereas negative relation with lipid peroxidation.

Simulation of Nitrogen Movement in the Rainfall Event at an Upland Agricultural Watershed (임야지에서 강우사상시 질소거동 모의에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Hyeon;Kim, Geon-Mok
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.34 no.5
    • /
    • pp.521-532
    • /
    • 2001
  • The propagation patterns of nitrogen during rainfall events are unsteady and heterogeneous due to the characteristics of generation and transport mechanisms. A simulation of non point source pollution was performed using GRASS-AGNPS to examine efficient management methods for diffusive pollution. Digital Elevation Model(DEM) was prepared to estimate the impact of topography on the transport pattern of diffusive pollutant Hanjaechon watershed on the Kyungbook province was selected as a study ares. Water quality samples were collected and analyzed for the calibration of the model. A heuristic approach was employed to improve the model performance. The model could successfully produce spatial distributions of nitrogen. The constructed map-layers may help to decision makers to determine the best management practices.

  • PDF