• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nitrogen forms

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Effect of Forms and Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Plant Growth and Essential Oil Content of Agastache rugosa

  • Ohk, Hyun-Choong;Song, Ji-Sook;Chae, Young-Am
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.128-133
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of forms and levels of nitrogen fertilizer on plant growth and essential oil production of Agastache rugosa. Calcium nitrate had more influenced on length and width of leaves and lateral branch length than did urea. When nitrogen fertilizer level was increased from 12 kgN/I0a to 24kgN/I0a, plant growth was stimulated and dry matter of leaf and inflorescence were increased. Top dry matter of plant with calcium nitrate treatment (38.4 g) was heavier than that of urea treatment (32.8 g). Interactions among accession and nitrogen form and nitrogen rate were not significantly different for top dry matter. The forms and rate of nitrogen fertilizer did not affect estragole content. The estragole contents was higher in leaf (91.8%) than that of inflorescence (81.3%). While the essential oil content was not affected by different nitrogen forms, nitrogen level affected the essential oil contents positively by increasing dry matter. Essential oil yield was not affected by accession or nitrogen form, but by nitrogen rate. With increasing N application from 12kgN/I0a to 24 kgN/I0a, essential oil yield was increased by 95.8 %.

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Investigation of some Forms of Nitrogen in burley Tobacco Leaf Cultivated in Mokpo, Namwon and Yaesan District. (목포, 남원, 예산지방 Burley 엽중 형별질소의 경향 조사 연구)

  • 김신일;김찬호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.120-126
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    • 1979
  • The nitrogen contents of some forms in Burley tobacco leaf cultivated in Yaesan, Mokpo and Namwon district were investigated. The rate of each form in total nitrogen contents were as follows ; Protein form nitrogen 30~33 % Nitrate form nitrogen 10~123% Alkaloid form nitrogen 8~16 % Ammonia form nitrogen 6~9% Amide form nitrogen 2~ 3% Other form nitrogen 26~44 % The order of nitrate form nitrogen content on the nitrogen of each tobacco cultivated in three area was Yaesan > Namwon > Mokpo, but that of alkaloid form nitrogen was reverse order of nitrate form nitrogen. As for Quality ( grade ), the orders of alkaloid and ammonia form nitrogen content on total nitrogen were H5> 3> 1> L 1> 3> 5, but that of nitrate form nitrogen was reversed.

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Cultural Conditions for Mass Production of Antagonistic Bacillus subtills CAP134 (길항균 Bacillus subtillis CAP134의 대량생산을 위한 배양조건)

  • 박흥섭;조정일
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.87-99
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    • 1996
  • Cultural conditions for mass production of the antagonistic bacteria, Bacillus subtills CAP134 against pathogens causing major airborne diseases to apple tree, effect of temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen source in the culture broth were investigated. The bacterial growth was most vigorous when the temperature and pH of the culture broth was 30~$35^{\circ}$C, and 7, respectively. As for carbon source, dextrose was best followed in order by dextrose(monosaccharides)>sucrose(disaccharides)$\geq$saccharose(di-saccharides)>starch (polysaccharides). Among different sugars, bacterial growth was favored by in the order of brown, black and white sugars, indicating that the bacterial growth might be promoted by the minor elements presented as impurities in the less purified sugars. As for nitrogen source, organic forms were better to bacterial growth than inorganic forms, that is polypeptone was best followed in order by soy sauce, soybeen milk and inoganic nitrogens. Differences in bacterial growth among different forms of inorganic nitrogen were negligible.

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Cultural Conditions for Mass Production of Bacillus subtilis CAP141 (Bacillus subtilis CAP141의 고농도 배양조건)

  • 조정일;박흥섭
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.85-98
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    • 1997
  • Cultural conditions for mass production of the antagonistic bacteria, Bacillus subtills CAP141 against pathogens causing major airborne diseases to apple trees, effects of temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen source in the culture broth were investigated. The bacterial growth was most vigorous when the temperature and pH of the culture broth was 30~35$^{\circ}$C and 7, respectively. As for carbon source, dextrose was best followed in order by dextrose(monosaccharide) > sucrose(disaccharide) $\geq$ saccharose (market disaccharides) > starch (polysaccharieds). Among different sugars, bacterial growth was favored by in the order of brown, black and white supars, indicating that the bacterial growth might be promoted by the minor elements presented as impurities in the less purified sugars. As for nitrogen source, organic forms were better to bacterial growth than inorganic forms, that is polypeptone was best followed in order by soy sauce, soybeen milk and inorganic nitrogens. Differences in bacterial growth among different forms of inorganic nitrogen were negligible.

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Growth and Gibberellins level of Two Rice Cultivars as Influenced by Different Nitrogen Containing Compounds

  • Jang, Soo-Won;Hamayun, Muhammad;Sohn, Eun-Young;Kang, Sang-Mo;Choi, Kwang-Il;Shin, Dong-Hyun;Lee, In-Jung
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.223-226
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    • 2008
  • Seedlings of two rice cultivars i.e. cv. Daesanbyeo and cv. Dongjinbyeo were analyzed for growth and endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in response to nitrogen nutrition applied in the forms of $KNO_3$, $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ and $NH_4NO_3$. All the growth parameters showed an increase in N applied treatments and their magnitudes of increase were different depending on different nitrogen fertilizer forms. The endogenous GAs contents were increased with N application but differentially affected by various N-forms in both rice cultivars. In cv. Daesanbyeo, maximum amount of bioactive $GA_1$ was recorded for $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, while maximum amount of bioactive $GA_1$ in cv. Dongjinbyeo was observed in $NH_4NO_3$ applied treatments. In both rice cultivars, $KNO_3$ applied rice plants contained least $GA_1$ contents. Also, $GA_{19}$ was the most abundant GA found in rice seedlings whereas $GA_4$ was absent at seedling stage. Our study indicated that different rice cultivars showed different responses for the same fertilizer depending upon the response potential of each cultivar and the pertinent physiological responses to changes of endogenous GAs in rice cultivars, which were comparatively lesser in magnitude.

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Relationship between Vegetation Composition and Dissolved Nitrogen in Wetlands of Higashi-Hiroshima, West Japan

  • Miandoab, Azam Haidary;Nakane, Kaneyuki
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.209-223
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    • 2007
  • Twenty-four wetlands located in Higashi-Hiroshima City in West Japan were selected for this study in order to investigate both the relationship between aquatic plant composition and environmental conditions; and the relationship between changing land use patterns in the catchments and the concentration of different forms of nitrogen in the wetlands. The dominant and subdominant species which comprised the principal vegetation were determined based on a vegetation census conducted in each wetland during the growing season from June to August, 2006. The seasonal variations of water quality factors (pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid, and temperature) and different forms of nitrogen such as nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, total nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations were analyzed as important indicators of water quality for the surface water of the wetlands. The surveyed wetlands were classified into three types (non-disturbed wetlands, moderately-disturbed wetlands and highly-disturbed wetlands), based on the degree of human disturbance to their catchment areas. An analysis of variance indicated that there was a significant difference among the wetland groups in the annual mean values of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen, nitrite, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic nitrogen. Classification of the wetlands into three groups has revealed a pattern of changes in the composition of plant species in the wetlands and a pattern of changes in nitrogen concentrations. A majority of the non-disturbed wetlands were characterized by Brasenia schrebi and Trapa bispinosa as dominant; with Potamogeton fryeri and Iris pesudacorus as sub-dominant species. For most of the moderately-disturbed wetlands, Brasenia schrebi were shown to be a dominant species; Elocheriss kuriguwai and Phragmites australis were observed as sub-dominant species. For a majority of the highly-disturbed wetlands, Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia were observed as dominant species, and Nymphea tetragona as the sub-dominant species in the study area. An analysis of land use and water quality factors indicated that forest area played a considerable role in reducing the concentration of nutrients, and can act as a sink for surface/subsurface nutrient inputs flowing into wetland water, anchor the soil, and lower erosion rates into wetlands.

Chemical Budgets in Intensive Carp Ponds

  • Peng Lei;Oh Sung-Yong;Jo Jae-Yoon
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.194-202
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    • 2003
  • Budgets for water, nitrogen, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were determined in two 0.012 ha earthy-bottom ponds stocked with Israeli strain common carp at an initial stocking density of $20\;fish/m^3$. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations increased continuously but later decreased in pond A as a consequence of high nitrification. COD concentrations increased during the experimental period due to the accumulation of feed input. Nutrient budgets showed that feed represented $94-95\%$ of nitrogen input and about 99% of organic matter input. Fish harvest accounted for $40\%$ of nitrogen and organic matter input. Seepage and water exchange removed $15-17\%$ of nitrogen input but only $1-2\%$ of organic matter. Draining of the ponds removed $20-26\%$ of input nitrogen, mostly in inorganic forms, but removed only minus organic matter. Fish and water column respiration accounted for $39\%$ of organic matter input, and benthic respiration accounted for $7-12\%$ of organic matter input. No significant change of nitrogen and organic matter in both pond bottoms were found during the three-month growth period. The unrecovered input nitrogen, about $6.3-13\%$, was lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization. On a dry matter basis, fish growth removed $31\%$ of total feed input and left $69\%$ as metabolic wastes.

Analysis of Soil Total Nitrogen and Inorganic Nitrogen Content for Evaluating Nitrogen Dynamics

  • Lee, Seul-Bi;Sung, Jwa-Kyung;Lee, Ye-Jin;Lim, Jung-Eun;Song, Yo-Sung;Lee, Deog-Bae;Hong, Suk-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.100-105
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    • 2017
  • Various methods for assessing soil total nitrogen (TN) and inorganic N content have been developed to manage nutrient and to understand N cycle in soil. This paper address the technical procedures in arable soil samples to conduct soil sampling, sample preparation, and measuring total N and inorganic N. Among various methods for measuring soil total nitrogen contents, Kjeldahl distillation and Indophenol blue method have widely used due to reliability and economic advances. Also, two methods can analyze more samples at the same time compared with other nitrogen measuring methods. For evaluating inorganic N content, mainly in forms of nitrate-N ($NO_3{^-}-N$) and ammonium-N ($NH_4{^+}-N$), extraction with a single reagent such as 2M KCl has been employed, followed by Kjeldahl distillation or indophenol blue methods.

Effects of Persicaria thunbergii on Nitrogen Retention and Loss in Wetland Microcosms (습지 미소생태계에서 질소 보유와 제거에 대한 고마리 ( Persicaria thunbergii ) 의 효과)

  • Woo, Yeun-Kyung;Eun-Jin Park;Dowon Lee;Kye Song Lee
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.179-189
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    • 1996
  • Growth and nitrogen retention of Persicaria thunbergii were investigated in the wetland microcosms which contained the plants growing on soil bed. Nitrogen solution was supplied to the microcosms with the same amount of $NH_4^{+}-N\; and\; NO_3^{-}-N$ at the rates of 0.00, 0.78, 1.57, 3.14g $N{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdor}wk^{-1}$ from May 1 to August 31, 1995. The solution was detained for 5 days to react with soil and plant and then allowed to leach. The contents of NH_4^{+}-N\;and\; NO_3^{-}-N$ in the leachate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, plant biomass, and soil characteristics were determined. Nitrogen retained by plant was estimated as the increment of TKN in plant biomass. The addition of 0.78 and 1.57g $N{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}wk^{-1}$ resulted in significant increase of plant biomass. However, plant growth was inhibited when nitrogen was added at the rate of 3.14g $N{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}wk^{-1}$. Overall, the plant biomass was positively correlated with the amount of nitrogen retained by plant and soil system. The amounts of $NO_3^{-}-N$ leached from the microcosms were 5~10 times higher than those of $NH_4^{+}-N$. While total nitrogen added ranged from 143.2 to 576.5g $N/m^2$, total leaching loss of inorganic nitrogen and nitrogen retained by plant was as little as 1.04~22.71g $N/m^2$, and 5.46~12.91g $N/m^2$, respectively. Then, the plant seemed to contribute to KDICical and microbial immobilization of nitrogen in the soil. Finally, it is suggested that a large portion of nitrogen added was lost into the air by denitrification and volatilizaton, and / or leached in organic forms.

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Influence of Physiological and Environmental Factors on Growth and Sporulation of an Antagonistic Strain of Trichoderma viride RSR 7

  • Jayaswal, R.K.;Singh, Rajesh;Lee, Youn-Su
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.36-41
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    • 2003
  • Influence of physiological and environmental factors on an antagonistic strain of Trichoderma viride RSR7 were studied optimize its biocontrol potential. The growth and sporulation of T. viride was greatly influenced by various carbon and nitrogen sources, and the environmental factors such as pH and temperature. The best growth and sporulation of T. viride was observed when sucrose, peptone and trehalose were supplemented in the medium as sole carbon sources. Rhamnose, pyruvic acid and sorbitol also supported a good growth. However, with these carbon sources the sporulation was poor. Growth and sporulation was also affected by various nitrogen sources. Growth and sporulation both were favoured by ammonium forms of nitrogen compared to nitrite or nitrate forms. Urea did not support either growth or sporulation. Among amino acids, glutamic acid, asparagine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine supported good growth as well as sporulation. T. viride was able to utilize large number of amino acids as sole nitrogen source. Proline was good for growth, but not for sporulation. Maximum growth and sporulation of T. viride was between pH 4.5 to 5.5. Temperatures between $20^{\circ}C\;and\;37^{\circ}C$ were good for both growth and sporulation of T. viride. At lower temperatures(i.e. below $20^{\circ}C$) growth and sporulation were inhibited. Based on the present study it may be concluded that T. viride RSR7 is capable of growing and sporulating with varied nutritional and environmental conditions and, therefore, this strain of T. viride may be useful as a biocontrol agent under diverse physiological and environmental conditions.