• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nitrogen Retention

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Patterns of Nitrogen Excretion in Growing Pigs

  • Lee, K.U.;Boyd, R.D.;Austic, R.E.;Ross, D.A.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.732-738
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    • 1998
  • Three crossbred gilts weighing $61{\pm}2kg$ ($mean{\pm}SD$) and three gilts weighing $52{\pm}3kg $ on the day before the first treatment began (d -1) were used for each of two experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2), respectively. In Exp. 1, all pigs were fed the experimental diet (CP 19%) from d -7 to the end of study (d 21) to verify that nitrogen retention is constant during the 21 -d period. In Exp. 2, pigs were fed the control diet (CP 15.5 %) from d -7 to d 8 and then the low-lysine diet from d 9 to d 16 in order to determine how rapidly dietary changes in amino acid composition results in a new equilibrium for nitrogen metabolism. The amount of urine nitrogen loss was not different over 21 days (p > 0.10). Rates of nitrogen retention were not different among pigs (p > 0.10) nor over time (p > 0.10). Average nitrogen retention during the period was 1.00 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$ per day. The apparent biological value was 41%, which did not change over the 3-week period (p > 0.10). The overall efficiency of nitrogen use for nitrogen retention was 35% (Exp. 1). The amount of nitrogen loss in urine and the efficiency of nitrogen utilization for nitrogen gain reached a new equilibrium within 2 to 3 d after the diet was changed. The low-lysine diet resulted in a 20% increase of nitrogen loss in urine (p < 0.001) and a 9% decline in efficiency of nitrogen use for nitrogen retention (p < 0.001). Nitrogen retention while the pigs were fed the control diet was also higher than the retention when pigs were fed the low lysine diet (p < 0.001). The efficiency of nitrogen use for nitrogen retention in pigs fed the control diet was 57% (Exp. 2), which was higher (p < 0.001) than that from pigs fed the low-lysine diets (52%).

Influence of the Lysine to Protein Ratio in Practical Diets on the Efficiency of Nitrogen Use in Growing Pigs

  • Lee, K.U.;Boyd, R.D.;Austic, R.E.;Ross, D.A.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.718-724
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    • 1998
  • Twelve gilts were used to investigate the effect of lysine to protein ratio (5.2 g lysine/100 g CP vs. 6.7 g lysine/100 g CP) in practical diets on nitrogen retention and the efficiency of utilization in growing pigs. Treatments involved 2 levels of dietary lysine (5.2 or 6.7 g/100 g CP) and 3 levels of dietary crude protein (11, 14 and 17% in diet). Nitrogen retention was greatest when pigs were fed the control diet containing 17% protein. Nitrogen retention progressively increased as dietary protein increased (p < 0.01), but it was not affected by lysine concentration (g/100 g CP). Apparent biological value (ABV, nitrogen retained/apparently digestible nitrogen) was estimated to be ~50% at the maximum nitrogen retention. ABV was not affected by lysine concentration, but declined (p < 0.05) as the dietary protein level increased. The efficiency of intake N used for maximum nitrogen retention was approximately 44%. One gram of lysine supported approximately 9 to 10 g apparent protein accretion (nitrogen retention ${\times}$ 6.25/lysine intake) in pigs fed control diets. The efficiency of lysine utilization for protein accretion was lower in pigs fed high-lysine diets (6.7 g lysine/l00 g CP) so that 1 g of lysine accounted for 7 to 8 g of protein accretion in these pigs (p < 0.01). The lysine required to support maximum nitrogen retention in pigs fed high-lysine diets was higher than that in pigs fed control diets, which suggests that lysine was over-fortified relative to crude protein, since practical diets can not be formulated without excess of some amino acids. In summary the concentration of 5.2 g total lysine/100 g CP in diet is more appropriate for corn-soybean diets than the commonly suggested the content of 6.7 g total lysine/100 g CP.

Comparison of the Efficiency of Absorbed Nitrogen Use from Different Protein Sources in Diets Having Similar Amino Acid Balance

  • Lee, K.U.;Boyd, R.D.;Austic, R.E.;Ross, D.A.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.725-731
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    • 1998
  • Nine crossbred female pigs fitted with the bladder catheters were used to investigate the effects of dietary protein form on the efficiency of absorbed nitrogen for nitrogen retention in growing pigs. Combinations of the main protein sources were corn-soybean meal (CSM; slow + slow absorption rate form), corn-hydrolyzed casein (CAS; slow + rapid absorption rate form) and corn-porcine plasma (CPL; slow + intermediate absorption rate form). All experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (CP 11%) and isocaloric (3.5 Mcal/kg) and synthetic amino acids were added to the diet as required to maintain an equivalent amino acid profile among diets. Fecal digestibility of nitrogen was not different among treatments (p > 0.10). Ingested nitrogen was absorbed with an apparent efficiency of 82% to 84%. Mean nitrogen retention in pigs fed the CSM diet was as high as for pigs fed the CPL diet (0.74 g N/kg $BW^{0.75}$ per d), which was higher than the N retention rate in pigs fed CAS diet (0.68 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$ per d; P < 0.05). Apparent biological values (ABV = 100 ${\times}$ N retention/absorbed nitrogen) were 63.3%, 58.0% and 61.6% for CSM, CAS, and CPL groups, respectively (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean energy digestibility among treatments. The efficiency of absorbed lysine utilization was significantly different among treatments (p < 0.05). Pigs fed the CAS diet were inferior to counterparts on the other diets in utilizing absorbed lysine. The ratios of free (and small peptide-bound) to protein-bound amino acids in CSM diet differed considerably from the CAS diet. This may affect the efficiency of amino acids utilization for nitrogen retention if hydrolyzed and intact amino acid pools reach the blood at different times.

Effects of Dietary Cellulose Levels on Growth, Nitrogen Utilization, Retention Time of Diets in Digestive Tract and Caecal Microflora of Chickens

  • Cao, B.H.;Zhang, X.P.;Guo, Y.M.;Karasawa, Y.;Kumao, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.863-866
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary cellulose levels on growth, nitrogen utilization, the retention time of diets in the digestive tract, and caecal microflora of 2-month-old Single Comb White Leghorn male chickens fed 3 purified diets that contained 0, 3.5% and 10% cellulose in equal amount of nutrients for 7 days. Body weight gain and nitrogen utilization were significantly higher (p<0.05), while total microflora counts in the caecal contents and retention time of the diet in the digestive tract were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the group fed 3.5% dietary cellulose compared with the group fed 10% dietary cellulose. Body weight gain, nitrogen utilization and retention time of the diet in the digestive tract decreased significantly while the total microflora count in the caecal contents increased significantly in the group fed 10% dietary cellulose compared to the group fed 0% dietary cellulose (p<0.05). Chickens fed 10% dietary cellulose had significantly increased counts of uric acid-degradative bacteria such as Peptococcaceae and Eubacterium, including Peptostreptococcus (p<0.05). The results suggest that cellulose in purified diets is an effective ingredient and the effects on growth, nitrogen utilization, caecal microflora counts and diet retention time in the digestive tract are dependent on the inclusion rate. Positive or negative effects of dietary cellulose are displayed by growth, nitrogen utilization, caecal microflora counts and retention time of the diet in the digestive tract. Positive effects were displayed when the inclusion rate is 3.5% and negative effects were displayed when that is greater than 3.5% of the diet, and the phenomenon is without reference to the age of the chickens.

QSPR Models for Chromatographic Retention of Some Azoles with Physicochemical Properties

  • Polyakova, Yulia;Jin, Long Mei;Row, Kyung-Ho
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2006
  • This work deals with 24 substances composed of nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The relationships between the chromatographic retention factor (k) and those physicochemical properties which are relevant in quantitative structure-properties relationship (QSPR) studies, such as the polarizability $(\alpha)$, molar refractivity (MR), lipophilicity (logP), dipole moment $(\mu)$, total energy $(E_{tot})$, heat of formation $(\Delta H_f)$, molecular surface area $(S_M)$, and binding energy $(E_b)$, were investigated. The accuracy of the simple linear regressions between the chromatographic retention and the descriptors for all of the compounds was satisfactory (correlation coefficient, $0.8 \leq r \leq 1.0$). The QSPR models of these nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds could be predicted with a multiple linear regression equation having the statistical index, r = 1.000. This work demonstrated the successful application of the multiple linear approaches through the development of accurate predictive equations for retention factors in liquid chromatography.

Feeding Value of Ammoniated Rice Straw Supplemented with Rice Bran in Sheep : I. Effects on Digestibility, Nitrogen Retention and Microbial Protein Yield

  • Orden, E.A.;Yamaki, K.;Ichinohe, T.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.490-496
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    • 2000
  • In vivo digestibility, nitrogen retention and microbial protein yield from diets of 100% ammonia treated rice straw (ARS) ($D_1$); 65% untreated rice straw (URS)+30% rice bran (RB)+5% SBM ($D_2$) and 85% ARS+15% RB ($D_3$) were determined using three Japanese Corriedale wethers in a $3{\times}3$ Latin Square Design. Results showed that DM consumption and organic matter digestibility were highest in $D_3$; but did not promote high protein digestibility, which RB+SBM had effected in URS based-diet. Dry matter intake and OM digestibility were the same for $D_1$ and $D_3$. Solubility of fiber bonds was increased by ammoniation, resulting in higher NDF digestibility. Nitrogen retention and microbial protein yield of rice bran supplemented groups was higher than ARS, but supplementation did not significantly increase efficiency of microbial protein synthesis from ARS which did occur when RB+SBM was added to untreated straw. The quality of ammoniated rice straw could be improved through RB supplementation because of its positive effects on DM digestibility, nitrogen retention and microbial protein yield. However, the addition of RB+SBM to URS resulted to more efficient N utilization.

Effect of Dietary Xylitol on Growth Performance and Nitrogen Retention in Male Broiler Chicks during Immunological Stimulation

  • Takahashi, Kazuaki;Mashiko, Takanori;Saito, Shigeki;Akiba, Yukio
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.84-88
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    • 2002
  • The effect of dietary xylitol on growth performance and nitrogen retention was studied in male broiler chicks during immunological stimulation. In experiment 1, chicks (10 day of age) were fed a corn-soybean diet containing 10% glucose or 10% xylitol with identical metabolizable energy and crude protein for 14 days. In experiment 2, ten-day-old chicks were fed 10% glucose or 6% xylitol diet for 8 days. During the final 6 days of the experimental periods, a half of birds fed each diet were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 mg/kg body weight of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0127:B8) on days 1, 3 and 5, and with 250 mg/kg body weight of Sephadex-G50 superfine on days 2 and 4 to stimulate immune system in both experiments. Feeding of the xylitol diets partially prevented the reduction in body weight gain or feed efficiency due to LPS and Sephadex injections, but the glucose diet did not in both the experiments. LPS and Sephadex injections decreased nitrogen retention, whereas the diet containing xylitol partly in experiment 1 and almost completely in experiment 2, prevented the reduction due to immunological stimulation. These results indicate that dietary xylitol probably prevents the reduction in nitrogen retention with growth retardation due to LPS and Sephadex injection. The beneficial effect on nitrogen retention is obtained when chicks are given xylitol 2 days before stimulating the immune system.

Effect of Level of Leucaena leucocephala in the Diets of Jamunapari Goats on carbon Nitrogen and Energy Balances

  • Haque, N.;Khan, M.Y.;Murarilal, Murarilal
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.455-459
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    • 1997
  • Fifteen intact male Jamunapari goats, average body weight $22.0{\pm}1.18kg$ were divided into three groups of 5 animals in each to investigate the effects of feeding leucaena on energy retention and distribution of retained energy. Leucaena leaves and twigs provided 0%, 25% and 50% of CP in the rations of animals in $L_1$ (control), $L_2$ and $L_3$ groups, respectively. Energy balances were determined in an open circuit respiration chamber from gaseous exchange and nitrogen carbon balances. Energy retentions calculated from gaseous exchange data were 181.6, 190.0 and 172.8 kJ/kg $W^{0.75}/d$ and from carbon-nitrogen balances were 178.2, 199.5 and 171.1 kJ/kg $W^{0.75}/d$ in $L_1$, $L_2$ and $L_3$ groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed among the groups in both the methods. The retention of nitrogen and energy in the form of protein was similar in different treatment groups. Similarly, no significant effect was observed on energy retention in the form of fat and total energy retention due to incorporation of leucaena in the diets.

Effects of Protein and Protein Hydrolysate on Nitrogen Metabolism in Rats with Cysteamine-induced Duodenal Ulcer (Cysteamine에 의해 유도된 십이지장 궤양 흰쥐의 체내질소대사에 대한 단백질과 단백질 가수분해물의 섭취효과)

  • 이연숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.699-708
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    • 1994
  • This study aimed to verify the nutritional and curative effects of protein hydrolysate in rats with cysteamine-induced duodenal uncer. Duodenal ulcer rat model was established by intraperitoneal injections of cysteamine. Sprague-Dawley, female rats weighing approximately 200g were intraperitoneally injected twice cysteamine(13mg/100g BW) at intervals of 3h per day. This procedure was repeated 3$\times$at intervals of 3d. Animals fed on 10% casein diet for infection periods. After last injection, 4 kinds of diets(10% casein, 20% casein, 10% casein hydrolysate, 20% casein hydrolysate) were given. Gastric montility, trypsin activity in gastrointestinal content, retention rate of nitrogen, plasma total protein, albumin, amino-N, urinary urea nitrogen, creatinine and hydroxyproline were analyzed for nutritional effects of dietary nitrogen levels(10%, 20%) and sources(casein, casein hydrolysate). In duodenal ulcer rat model, there was no differences between 20% casein diet and 20% casein hydrolysate in the view of severeness of ulcer, gastric emptying rate, serum total protein, serum albumin, plasma $\alpha$-amino-N, UUN, creatinine excretion, GFR, nitrogen retention. On the other hand, rats on 10% casein hydrolysate diet group had more curative effect of the ulcer, higher plasma albumin concentration and nitrogen retention than 10% casein diet group. The casein hydrolysate diet group was lower trypsin activity in small intestinal content than the casein diet group, at both nitrogen levels(10%, 20%). The results suggest that protein hydrolysate be applied in diet therapy for the patients with gastrointestinal ulcer.

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Influence of Grain Processing and Dietary Protein Degradability on Nitrogen Metabolism, Energy Balance and Methane Production in Young Calves

  • Pattanaik, A.K.;Sastry, V.R.B.;Katiyar, R.C.;Lal, Murari
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1443-1450
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    • 2003
  • Crossbred (Bos taurus${\times}$Bos indicus) calves were used from birth till 14 weeks of age to evaluate three sources of protein that differed in ruminal degradability viz. groundnut cake alone (HD) or in combination with cottonseed meal (MD) and meat and bone meal (LD), when fed along with two sources of non-structural carbohydrates viz. raw (R) and thermally processed (P) maize. Twenty four new born calves were arranged in six groups in a $3{\times}2$ factorial design and fed on whole milk up to 56 d of age. All the different calves received calf startes along with green oats (Avena sativa) from 14 d of age onwards free-choice. A metabolism trial of 6d starters duration, conducted after 90 d of experimental feeding, revealed greater (p<0.05) digestibility of DM, OM, total carbohydrates, NDF and ADF in calves fed on the P diets than on the R diets promoting greater (p<0.05) metabolizable energy intake. The digestibility of NDF was higher (p<0.01) on LD diets where as calves on MD diets exhibited significantly lower digestibility of ADF (p<0.01). The retention of nitrogen per unit metabolic body size was significantly (p<0.05) higher on the LD-P diet than on the diet HD-P which, in turn, was higher (p<0.05) than that of HD-R. Nitrogen retention as percentage of intake was significantly greater (p<0.05) on LD-P than on LD-R diets (52.2 vs. 36.4%). Also, P fed calves utilized nitrogen more efficiently than the R fed as shown by retention of significantly greater proportions of intake (47.4 vs. 40.9%) and absorbed (65.8 vs. 59.5%) nitrogen. Calorimetric evaluation of the diets through open-circuit respiration chamber revealed that the dietary treatments had no impact on methane production by calves. The intake of DE and ME was improved (p<0.01) because of maize processing resulting in greater (p<0.01) retention of energy. The protein degradability exerted no influence on the partitioning or retention of energy. A significant interaction between cereal and protein types was evident with respect to retention of both nitrogen (p<0.01) and energy (p<0.05). In conclusion, no discernible trend in the influence of cereal processing was apparent on the dietary protein degradability, but the positive effect of cereal processing on energy retention diminished with the increase in dietary undegradability.