• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nitrogen

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Investigation of some Forms of Nitrogen in burley Tobacco Leaf Cultivated in Mokpo, Namwon and Yaesan District. (목포, 남원, 예산지방 Burley 엽중 형별질소의 경향 조사 연구)

  • 김신일;김찬호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.120-126
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    • 1979
  • The nitrogen contents of some forms in Burley tobacco leaf cultivated in Yaesan, Mokpo and Namwon district were investigated. The rate of each form in total nitrogen contents were as follows ; Protein form nitrogen 30~33 % Nitrate form nitrogen 10~123% Alkaloid form nitrogen 8~16 % Ammonia form nitrogen 6~9% Amide form nitrogen 2~ 3% Other form nitrogen 26~44 % The order of nitrate form nitrogen content on the nitrogen of each tobacco cultivated in three area was Yaesan > Namwon > Mokpo, but that of alkaloid form nitrogen was reverse order of nitrate form nitrogen. As for Quality ( grade ), the orders of alkaloid and ammonia form nitrogen content on total nitrogen were H5> 3> 1> L 1> 3> 5, but that of nitrate form nitrogen was reversed.

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Estimation of Nitrifiable Nitrogen Compounds in Municipal Wastewater by Respirometry (호흡률법에 의한 하수의 질산화성 질소화합물 추정)

  • Kim, Dong Han
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2007
  • Nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater can be divided into biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions with biodegradability. Biodegradable nitrogen compounds can be removed through biological nitrification and denitrification processes, and nonbiodegradable nitrogen compounds affect the effluent quality of biological nutrient removal processes. The amount of nitrifiable nitrogen compounds, which are the sum of ammonia and biodegradable organic nitrogen, has been estimated by respirometry. Respirometry shows good estimation of the concentration of nitrifiable nitrogen when a synthetic sample of ammonium chloride is dosed. The estimated concentration of nitrifiable nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater is close to ammonia concentration in municipal wastewater, but it is lower than that for the synthetic sample. If nitrogen assimilated into cell synthesis of nitrifiers and heterotrophs is considered, the total amounts of nitrifiable nitrogen compounds, which are nitrified and assimilated, could be more accurately estimated. The concentration of nitrifiable nitrogen compounds, which are biodegradable, is about 31 mg N/l, and this is 119% of ammonia and 94% of total nitrogen. Ammonia, nitrate, biodegradable organic nitrogen, and nonbiodegradable nitrogen are about 79%, 1%, 15%, and 5% of the total nitrogen in municipal wastewater, respectively.

Change in Nitrogen Fractions and Ruminal Nitrogen Degradability of Orchardgrass and Alfalfa during the Ensiling Process and the Subsequent Effects on Nitrogen Utilization by Sheep

  • Nguyen, H.V.;Kawai, M.;Takahashi, J.;Matsuoka, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1524-1528
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    • 2004
  • In order to determine the extent of change in nitrogen fractions and in vitro ruminal degradability of forage protein during ensilage and the influence on nitrogen utilization by sheep, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were ensiled in separate 120 L silos for 5, 21 and 56 days. With respect to nitrogen fractions, fraction 1 (buffer solution soluble nitrogen), fraction 2 (buffer solution insoluble nitrogen-neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen), fraction 3 (neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen-acid detergent insoluble nitrogen), and fraction 4 (acid detergent insoluble nitrogen) were determined. Fractions 1 and 2 accounted for more than 80% of total nitrogen in orchardgrass and 90% of that in alfalfa. The proportion of fraction 1 in orchardgrass increased from 33.0% at day 0 to 52.0% after day 56 of ensiling. In the case of alfalfa silage it was 41.7% and 62.9%, respectively. Seventy percent of this increase occurred within the first 5 days of ensiling. A similar change of in vitro ruminal degradability of total nitrogen was also observed in both forages. Nitrogen retention in sheep tended to decrease as the length of ensiling increased, with a significantly positive correlation between urinary nitrogen and fraction 1, and in vitro ruminal degradability of total nitrogen.

Development of a Nitrogen Application System for Nitrogen Deficiency in Corn

  • Noh, Hyun Kwon
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.98-103
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Precision agriculture includes determining the right amount of nitrogen for a specific location in the field. This work focused on developing and validating a model using variable rate nitrogen application based on the estimated SPAD value from the ground-based image sensor. Methods: A variable rate N application based on the decision making system was performed using a sensor-based variable rate nitrogen application system. To validate the nitrogen application decision making system based on the SPAD values, the developed N recommendation was compared with another conventional N recommendation. Results: Sensor-based variable rate nitrogen application was performed. The nitrogen deficiency level was measured using the image sensor system. Then, a variable rate application was run using the decision model and real-ti me control. Conclusions: These results would be useful for nitrogen management of corn in the field. The developed nitrogen application decision making system worked well, when considering the SPAD value estimation.

Nitrogen Balance and Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Soybean in Soybean-Barley Cropping System

  • Park Sei Joon;Kim Wook Han;Lee Jae Eun;Kwon Young Up;Shin Jin Chul;Ryu Yong Hwan;Seong Rak Chun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2005
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the soil nitrogen credit of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the nitrogen balance of soybean in soybean-barley cropping systems. Soybean cultivar, Shinpaldalkong2 and barley cultivar, Olbori, were used in soybean mono-cropping (SM), barley monocropping (BM), and barley­soybean double cropping system. The barley-soybean double cropping system was treated with two different levels of nitrogen fertilizers, 0 nitrogen fertilizer (BS-F0), and standard nitrogen fertilizer (BS-F1). Nitrogen and organic matter concentrations in soil of BS-F1 plot on October, 2001 were increased $4.8\%\;and\;5.9\%$, respectively, compared with those on October, 2000. The ranges of BNF rate in soybean were $69.1\~ 88.2\%$ in two years, and the rate was the highest in BS-F0 plot and the lowest in SM plot. The ranges of nitrogen harvest index (NHI) in all treatments were $83.9\~86.7\%$. The yield was 270 kg/10a in BS­F1 plot and 215 kg/10a in BS-F0 plot. However, the nitrogen balances were +0.6 kg/10a of gain of soil nitrogen in BS-F0 plot and -0.4 kg/10a of loss of soil nitrogen in BS-F1 plot. In comparisons of SM and BS-F1 plots, although the seed yields were similar in two plots, the loss of soil nitrogen was higher in SM than BS-F1 plot. Overall, our results suggest that barley-soybean double cropping system was more effective in respect to seed productivity and soil nitrogen conservation than soybean monocropping system, and the N credit to following crops by soybean cultivation was identified in soybean double cropping system.

Distribution Characteristics of Total Nitrogen Components in Streams by Watershed Characteristics (유역특성에 따른 하천에서의 존재형태별 질소 분포 특성 비교)

  • Park, Jihyoung;Sohn, Sumin;Kim, Yongseok
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.503-511
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    • 2014
  • The temporal and spatial analyses of total nitrogen (TN) fractionation were conducted in order to understand 1) total nitrogen components in streams and 2) their patterns in rainy and dry seasons. The result showed that the concentration of nitrogen components in stream water was lower in non-urban area and getting higher in urban area. Dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) was 95~97.7% of total nitrogen in streams, and the proportion of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3-N$) was higher with increasing urban area. The concentration of total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen ($NO_3-N$) were highest in winter among four seasons. The result was showed that concentration of $NH_3-N$ was same variation as concentrations of TN and $NO_3-N$ in urban-rural complex and urban areas, except rural areas. During rainy season, concentrations of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) and $NH_3-N$ increased in rural areas and decreased in both urban-rural complex and urban areas. Correlation between total nitrogen components and land uses was positively correlated with site > paddy, and negatively correlated with forest. The variation of total nitrogen concentration was determined by $NO_3-N$ in non-urban areas, by $NO_3-N$ and $NH_3-N$ in urban-rural complex and by $NH_3-N$ in the urban areas.

Nitrogen Harvest Index in Some Varieties of Mulberry, Morus spp.

  • Kumar, Jalaja S.;Chakraborty, Chumki;Sarkar, A.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.131-134
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    • 2002
  • Mulberry being the only food of silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is of great economic importance to the silk industry, The success in cocoon production mainly depends on the supply of quality leaves in sufficient quantity. In mulberry, where the economic product is leaf, the uptake of nitrogen from soil is very heavy and high responses to application of nutrients have been reported. Nitrogen supports vegetative growth particularly the leaf biomass. Variation in nitrogen harvest index and other physiological and yield contributing traits were estimated in five mulberry genotypes. Considerable variation was observed for nitrogen harvest index, protein yield per plant and harvest index. The correlation studies indicated the protein yield per plant was significantly correlated with leaf yield, nitrogen content in leaf, nitrogen harvest index and harvest index. The broad sense heritability estimates revealed that harvest index showed highest heritability (88.07%) followed by nitrogen content (82.52%), protein yield (70.28%) and nitrogen harvest index (66.52%).

The Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Nitrogen Metabolism in Young Korean Women (한국여성의 단백질 섭취수준이 질소대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 구재옥
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 1988
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary levels on protein metabolism in eight healthy Korean adult females. The 20-day metabolic study consisted of 2 day adaptation period and three 6-day experimental. Three experimental diets were low protein (LP : protein 44g), high protein(HP : protein 85g) and high animal protein (HAP : protein-84g). The apparent absorption and balance on nitrogen were significantly higher in high protein than in low protein diet. Nitrogen, absorption rate was about 75% for low protein and about 85% for high protein intake. The mean values of nitrogen balance were -1.28% for low protein and 0.78% for high protein diet. All the subjects were in negative nitrogen balance at the low protein intake while they were in positive nitrogen balance at the high protein intake. The mean daily urinary nitrogen excretion increased with increased level of protein intake. Urea nitrogen was the largest part of the urinary nitrogen. The ratio of urea nitrogen to total urinary nitrogen increased significantly for 79 to 85% as protein intake was doubled.

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Effects of Chemical Additives on Nitrogen Contents in Dairy Slurry (젖소 액상분뇨에 화학제재를 첨가 시 질소 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, In-Hak;Kim, Chang-Mann
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.811-817
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    • 2009
  • To determine changes in nitrogen contents and optimal rates as N fertilizer, we investigated nitrogen characteristics in the slurry in the respond to the application of 0, 0.5, and 1 g of ferrous sulfate or alum /25g of dairy slurry. Additions of ferrous sulfate or alum increase total nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, available nitrogen, and predicted available nitrogen contents in dairy slurry, resulting in reduction in pH. The best results were found in the treatment with 0.5 g of ferrous sulfate or alum /25 g of dairy slurry. In conclusion, the use of ferrous sulfate or alum as on-farm amendment to dairy slurry should be represented an alternative to improve N in dairy slurry.

Patterns of Nitrogen Excretion in Growing Pigs

  • Lee, K.U.;Boyd, R.D.;Austic, R.E.;Ross, D.A.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.732-738
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    • 1998
  • Three crossbred gilts weighing $61{\pm}2kg$ ($mean{\pm}SD$) and three gilts weighing $52{\pm}3kg $ on the day before the first treatment began (d -1) were used for each of two experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2), respectively. In Exp. 1, all pigs were fed the experimental diet (CP 19%) from d -7 to the end of study (d 21) to verify that nitrogen retention is constant during the 21 -d period. In Exp. 2, pigs were fed the control diet (CP 15.5 %) from d -7 to d 8 and then the low-lysine diet from d 9 to d 16 in order to determine how rapidly dietary changes in amino acid composition results in a new equilibrium for nitrogen metabolism. The amount of urine nitrogen loss was not different over 21 days (p > 0.10). Rates of nitrogen retention were not different among pigs (p > 0.10) nor over time (p > 0.10). Average nitrogen retention during the period was 1.00 g/kg $BW^{0.75}$ per day. The apparent biological value was 41%, which did not change over the 3-week period (p > 0.10). The overall efficiency of nitrogen use for nitrogen retention was 35% (Exp. 1). The amount of nitrogen loss in urine and the efficiency of nitrogen utilization for nitrogen gain reached a new equilibrium within 2 to 3 d after the diet was changed. The low-lysine diet resulted in a 20% increase of nitrogen loss in urine (p < 0.001) and a 9% decline in efficiency of nitrogen use for nitrogen retention (p < 0.001). Nitrogen retention while the pigs were fed the control diet was also higher than the retention when pigs were fed the low lysine diet (p < 0.001). The efficiency of nitrogen use for nitrogen retention in pigs fed the control diet was 57% (Exp. 2), which was higher (p < 0.001) than that from pigs fed the low-lysine diets (52%).