• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nitrate

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Nitrate Uptake in the Halotolerant Cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica is energy-dependent driven by ΔpH

  • Incharoensakdi, Aran;Laloknam, Surasak
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.468-473
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    • 2005
  • The energetics of nitrate uptake by intact cells of the halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica were investigated. Nitrate uptake was inhibited by various protonophores suggesting the coupling of nitrate uptake to the proton motive force. An artificially-generated pH gradient across the membrane (${\Delta}pH$) caused an increase of nitrate uptake. In contrast, the suppression of ${\Delta}pH$ resulted in a decrease of nitrate uptake. The increase of external pH also resulted in an enhancement of nitrate uptake. The generation of the electrical potential across the membrane ($\Delta\psi$) resulted in no elevation of the rate of nitrate uptake. On the other hand, the valinomycin-mediated dissipation of $\Delta\psi$ caused no depression of the rate of nitrate uptake. Thus, it is unlikely that $\Delta\psi$ participated in the energization of the uptake of nitrate. However, $Na^+$-gradient across the membrane was suggested to play a role in nitrate uptake since monensin which collapses $Na^+$-gradient strongly inhibited nitrate uptake. Exogenously added glucose and lactate stimulated nitrate uptake in the starved cells. N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an inhibitor of ATPase, could also inhibit nitrate uptake suggesting that ATP hydrolysis was required for nitrate uptake. All these results indicate that nitrate uptake in A. halophytica is ATP-dependent, driven by ${\Delta}pH$ and $Na^+$-gradient.

질산염이 Saccharomyces cerevisiae의 발효작용에 미치는 영향

  • 김상준
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Applied Microbiology Conference
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    • pp.115.3-115
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    • 1979
  • 중금속을 함유한 13종의 질산염을 명 농도별로 첨가하여 주정효모 Saccharomyces cerevisine의 주정생산과 발효작용에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 1. 일반적으로 중금속을 함유한 질산염은 그 첨가량이 0.0001mo1. 보다 고농도일수록 Saccharo-myces cerevisiae의 발효작용을 점차 억제하였다. 2. Nickel nitrate, chromium nitrate들의 0.0001 moi.의 첨가는 Saccharomyces cerevisiae의 alcohol 발효작용을 약간촉진시켰다. 3. Cadmium nitrate 0.001mo1. 이상, cupric nit-rate, nickel nitrate, cobalt nitrate 0.01mo1. 이상, 그리고 silver nitrate, mercurous nitrate, manganese nitrate, zinc nitrate, lead nitrate, chromiun nitrate, ferric nitrate, bismuth nitrate 0.1mol. 의 농도에서 Saccharomyces cerevisiae 의 발효작용은 완전히 조지되었다.

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Nitrate Uptakes by Microorganisms Isolated from the Soils of Greenhouse

  • Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Lee, Gyeong-Ja;Ahn, Hae-Jin;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2005
  • Salinity of soils in greenhouse has been increased by massive application of fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizer was most popular, and thus nitrate became the majority of soil salinity. Accumulation of nitrate led to deleterious effects on the growth and development of crops and vegetables. Microbial strains able to utilize nitrate and thus remove excess nitrate from farm land soils were isolated from 15 different soils of greenhouses and plastic film houses. Four strains able to grow in medium containing 50 mM $KNO_3$ were isolated, among which only E0461 showed high capacity of nitrate uptake. Nitrate uptake by E0461 was dependent on culture medium and was increased by addition of tryptone and peptone. Although E0461 was able to grow without tryptone and peptone, growth was slow, and no nitrate uptake was observed. Nitrate appeared to facilitate E0461 growth in the presence of tryptone and peptone. Through kinetic analysis, nitrate uptake was measured at various concentrations of nitrate, and half-life was calculated. Nitrate concentration decreased with increasing incubation period, and plot between half-lives and initial concentrations of nitrate fitted to single exponential function. These results suggest one major factor plays an important role in microbial nitrate uptake.

Nitrate reduction by iron supported bimetallic catalyst in low and high nitrogen regimes

  • Hamid, Shanawar;Lee, Woojin
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.263-271
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the effect of initial nitrate loading on nitrate removal and byproduct selectivity was evaluated in a continuous system. Nitrate removal decreased from 100% to 25% with the increase in nitrate loading from 10 to $300mg/L\;NO_3-N$. Ammonium selectivity decreased and nitrite selectivity increased, while nitrogen selectivity showed a peak shape in the same range of nitrate loading. The nitrate removal was enhanced at low catalyst to nitrate ratios and 100% nitrate removal was achieved at catalyst to nitrate ratio of ${\geq}33mg\;catalyst/mg\;NO_3-N$. Maximum nitrogen selectivity (47%) was observed at $66mg\;catalyst/mg\;NO_3-N$, showing that continuous Cu-Pd-NZVI system has a maximum removal capacity of 37 mg $NO_3{^-}-N/g_{catalyst}/h$. The results from this study emphasize that nitrate reduction in a bimetallic catalytic system could be sensitive to changes in optimized regimes.

Reduction of nitrate in groundwater by hematite supported bimetallic catalyst

  • Hamid, Shanawar;Lee, Woojin
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2016
  • In this study, nitrate reduction of real groundwater sample by 2.2%Cu-1.6%Pd-hematite catalyst was evaluated at different nitrate concentrations, catalyst concentrations, and recycling. Results show that the nitrate reduction is improved by increasing the catalyst concentration. Specific nitrate removal by 2.2%Cu-1.6%Pd-hematite increased linearly with the increase of nitrate concentration showing that the catalyst possesses significantly higher reduction capacity. More than 95% nitrate reduction was observed over five recycles by 2.2%Cu-1.6%Pd-hematite with ~56% nitrogen selectivity in all recycling batches. The results from this study indicate that stable reduction of nitrate in groundwater can be achieved by 2.2%Cu-1.6%Pd-hematite over the wide range of initial nitrate inputs.

Response of Nodulation and Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activity of Alfalfa to Exogeneous Nitrate Supply (질산태 질소 공급이 알팔파의 뿌리혹 형성 및 엽중 Nitrate Reductase 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이석하;황석중
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.196-200
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    • 1993
  • A full understanding of the interdependence of leaf nitrate (($No_3$ ̄) metabolism and symbiotic nitrogen($N_2$) fixation in legume crops is needed to help maximize the use of both N sources as well as to improve forage quality through the inhibition of leaf nitrate accumulation. The present work examines the effects of added nitrate, the level of which are 0,2,4,8 and 12mM, on the nodule formation and leaf nitrate utilization and on the possibility of inducing nitrate-toxicity to livestocks in two alfalfa varieties, ' Vernal ' of grazing type and ' Victoria ' of hay type. Higher level of exogeneous nitrate resulted in the increased above-ground dry weight. Nodulation was inhibited severely when more than 8mM NO$_3$ ̄ was supplied to alfalfa plants, and leaf nitrate reductase reached a maximunm at 4mM nitrate supply. The $V_{max}$of nitrate reductase in leaves of Vernal was similar to that of Victoria, whereas the $K_m$ of Vernal was higher than that of Victoria. High accumulation of leaf nitrate, $4{\times}10^{-5}$ g/g leaf fresh weight, was shown at 12mM nitrate supply, which was thought to be not enough to induce nitrate-toxicity to livestocks.icity to livestocks.

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Effect of Sodium Nitrate and Nitrate Reducing Bacteria on In vitro Methane Production and Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor

  • Sakthivel, Pillanatham Civalingam;Kamra, Devki Nandan;Agarwal, Neeta;Chaudhary, Chandra
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.812-817
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    • 2012
  • Nitrate can serve as a terminal electron acceptor in place of carbon dioxide and inhibit methane emission in the rumen and nitrate reducing bacteria might help enhance the reduction of nitrate/nitrite, which depends on the type of feed offered to animals. In this study the effects of three levels of sodium nitrate (0, 5, 10 mM) on fermentation of three diets varying in their wheat straw to concentrate ratio (700:300, low concentrate, LC; 500:500, medium concentrate, MC and 300:700, high concentrate, HC diet) were investigated in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum. Nitrate reducing bacteria, isolated from the rumen of buffalo were tested as a probiotic to study if it could help in enhancing methane inhibition in vitro. Inclusion of sodium nitrate at 5 or 10 mM reduced (p<0.01) methane production (9.56, 7.93 vs. 21.76 ml/g DM; 12.20, 10.42 vs. 25.76 ml/g DM; 15.49, 12.33 vs. 26.86 ml/g DM) in LC, MC and HC diets, respectively. Inclusion of nitrate at both 5 and 10 mM also reduced (p<0.01) gas production in all the diets, but in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of feed reduced (p<0.05) only in LC and MC diets. In the medium at 10 mM sodium nitrate level, there was 0.76 to 1.18 mM of residual nitrate and nitrite (p<0.01) also accumulated. In an attempt to eliminate residual nitrate and nitrite in the medium, the nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated from buffalo adapted to nitrate feeding and introduced individually (3 ml containing 1.2 to $2.3{\times}10^6$ cfu/ml) into in vitro incubations containing the MC diet with 10 mM sodium nitrate. Addition of live culture of NRBB 57 resulted in complete removal of nitrate and nitrite from the medium with a further reduction in methane and no effect on IVTD compared to the control treatments containing nitrate with autoclaved cultures or nitrate without any culture. The data revealed that nitrate reducing bacteria can be used as probiotic to prevent the accumulation of nitrite when sodium nitrate is used to reduce in vitro methane emissions.

Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Ace) Nitrate Reductase cDNA (시금치 nitrate reductase cDNA 클로닝 및 염기서열 분석)

  • Park, Nu-Ri;Chung, Jong-Bae;Park, Sang-Gyu
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2002
  • Suppression of nitrate accumulation in spinach and lettuce through foliar application of chitosan formula containing micronutrients is related with the increase of the nitrate reductase (NR) activity. If NR in spinach were highly expressed to increase the assimilatory activity, nitrate content could be reduced. For this, NR cDNA was cloned from the isolated mRNAs of spinach using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Nucleotide sequence of cloned spinach NR cDNA showed highly deduced amino acid sequence identity ($71{\sim}82%$) with other known plant NR genes. Only two nucleotide-base differences were observed in the cloned NR cDNA compared with that of the published spinach NR cDNA.

Suppression of Nitrate Accumulation in Lettuce by Application of Mg and Micronutrients

  • Chung, Jong-Bae;Park, Sang-Gyu;Park, Shin
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.340-345
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    • 2001
  • High rates of nitrogen fertilization dangerously increase the nitrate content of vegetable crops, and the accumulation of nitrate in edible crops is undesirable because of potential risks to human health. Micronutrient solution containing Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn was tested for the suppression of nitrate accumulation in lettuce grown in pots treated with Mg fertilizer under a greenhouse condition. The micronutrient solution was sprayed on leaves at 3 and 4 weeks after transplanting of 20-day old seedlings. Plants were harvested after 5-week growth, and yield, contents of chlorophyll, sugar, micronutrient and nitrate, and also nitrate reductase activity were measured. Fresh weight of lettuce was significantly increased by the application of Mg and micronutrients, and the effect was the most significant in the Mg+micronutrient treatment. Also contents of chlorophyll and micronutrients were higher in the plants of micronutrient treatments. Contents of nitrate were reduced by about 14-18% in lettuce with Mg and/or micronutrient applications. Compared to the plants of control treatment, nitrate reductase activity was also higher in those plants treated with micronutrients, and in the treatment of Mg+micronutrients the enzyme activity was six times as high as that of control treatment. Although the effect of mineral nutrients on the suppression of nitrate accumulation in lettuce was relatively small in this study, an appropriate supply of mineral nutrients could be one of the solutions for the nitrate accumulation in vegetables.

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Pathogenesis of Perirenal Edema in Pigs and Rabbits Administered with Oxalate, Nitrate and Calcium (Oxalate, Nitrate 및 Calcium 혼합투여(混合投與)에 의(依)한 돈(豚) 및 가토(家兎)의 Perirenal Edema 발병(發病))

  • Cho, Sung-whan;Lee, Cha-soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 1986
  • In order to clarify the pathogenesis of perirenal edema, pigs and rabbits were administered with oxalate and nitrate, with oxalate nitrate and glycolic acid, with oxalate, nitrate and ascorbic acid and with oxalate, nitrate and calcium, respectively. The results obtained are summarized as follows; The pigs and rabbits administered with oxalate and nitrate with oxalate, nitrate and glycolic acid and with oxalate, nitrate and ascorbic acid, respectively, were not showed perirenal edema despite of observing the abundant oxalate crystals in the proximal convoluted tubles. But pigs and rabbits administered with oxalate, nitrate and calcium were histopathologically showed perirenal edema similar to those of pigs fed Amaranthus retroflexus. Therefore, author considered that oxalate, nitrate and calcium are main factors to cause perirenal edema. It was regarded that perirenal edema in pigs was caused by the reciprocal reactions of those materials including oxalate, nitrate and calcium which may produce vascular damage, decreased osmotic pressure by hypoproteinemia and increased vascular permeability in kidney, rather than the mechanical obstructions by the oxalate crystals in the proximal convoluted tubule.

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