• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nipple Angle

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Effect of Nipple Angle on Water Disappearance by Pigs

  • Yun, M.S.;Ju, W.S.;Piao, L.G.;Long, H.F.;Kil, D.Y.;Oh, H.K.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.120-123
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different nipple angles on water disappearance in growing pigs, which is defined as the water which leaves the watering device but is not consumed by the pig. This water adds to the volume of the total waste slurry. Four crossbred pigs averaging $70.0{\pm}1.4$ kg were assigned into 1 of 4 treatments using a $4{\times}4$ Latin-square design. Treatments were distinguished by the angle between nipple terminal and the perpendicular wall. These angles were: 1) NA-30 (= Nipple Angle $30^{\circ}$), 2) NA-45 (= Nipple Angle $45^{\circ}$), 3) NA-60 (= Nipple Angle $60^{\circ}$) and 4) NA-90 (= Nipple Angle $90^{\circ}$). All of the nipples were fixed at shoulder height of each pig. After a 7-day adaptation period, samples were collected from each pig for 4 days, followed by a day for change-over. Pigs were fed a 0.8 kg diet twice daily at 08:00 and 20:00 and supplied water ad libitum. Throughout the experimental period, pigs in the NA-30 treatment group showed greater water disappearance than other treatments. Water disappearance was the lowest for the NA-60 treatment group (p<0.01). The percentage of water disappearance to the water supply was significantly reduced in the NA-60 treatment group (p<0.01). Water intake was the same for all the treatment groups. The rate of water disappearance per unit of water intake was significantly decreased in pigs in the NA-60 treatment group compared to other groups (p<0.01). These results suggested that the nipple angle for growing pigs should be $60^{\circ}$ to reduce water disappearance and, subsequently, the amount of waste generated.

A Study on Contact Characteristics by the Geometry Variation of Beam Seal Fitting of an Aircraft Fuel Hose (항공기용 연료호스의 빔 시일 피팅의 형상변화에 따른 접촉특성에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Jun-Young;Kim, Byung-Tak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2013
  • An aircraft fuel hose is a kind of high pressure hose, and generally consists of a nipple, a socket, an inner tube, and a reinforcement layer to increase the tensile strength. Especially the nipple supports the other components in manufacturing stages such as the swaging or crimping processes however, the nipple also serves to prevent leakage in cases of hose engagement with a hydraulic system. To ensure the seal of the hose assembly, a beam seal fitting with metal-to-metal contact is usually adopted at the end of a nipple. Therefore, the geometry of the beam is an important parameter to be determined to make sure there is sufficient contact force. This study aims to investigate the effects of beam seal geometry on the contact force by changing the inclined angle and the thickness of the beam. The results reveal that the proper thickness and inclined angle of the beam seal are 0.45 mm and $8.5^{\circ}$, respectively.

A Revision Restoring Projection after Nipple Reconstruction by Burying Four Triangular Dermal Flaps

  • Kim, Ji Hun;Ahn, Hee Chang
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.339-343
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    • 2016
  • Background Numerous techniques have been used to achieve long-term projection of the nipple following nipple-areola reconstruction. However, the reconstructed nipple loses projection over time. We describe a technique that uses local flaps to improve the lost projection of reconstructed nipples. Methods Between November 2013 and March 2015, nine patients (11 nipples) underwent revisional nipple reconstruction for lost projection. Only C-H nipple reconstructions were included in this study. The medical history of each patient was reviewed and photographs were taken in front and lateral views. All patients attended routine follow-up visits. Deepithelialized triangular flaps were made on all four sides of the nipple and buried in the opposite corners in order to augment the volume of the nipple. Anchoring sutures were used to attach each triangular flap on the side opposite their point of origin, and the resulting defects were closed directly. Results This procedure was used successfully in nine patients (11 nipples). Adequate projection was achieved in all patients and no complications occurred. The average nipple height was 3 mm before operation, 7 mm one day after operation, 5 mm at the six-month follow-up, and 5 mm at the 12-month follow-up. The average nipple-areolar angle was $164^{\circ}$ before the operation, $111^{\circ}$ one day after the operation, $130^{\circ}$ at the six-month follow-up, and $133^{\circ}$ at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusions The method described provides a solution to the loss of projection in reconstructed nipples. We recommend this technique because it leads to better projection, greater volume, and a more natural shape.

A Study on the Upper Body Shapes of Late Elementary Schoolgirls (학령후기 여아의 상반신 체형 연구)

  • Jang, Jeong-Ah
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.107-112
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    • 2006
  • This study is done to classify the upper body shapes for late elementary schoolgirls. The sampling was done for 11~12 years-old-girls resident in Busan and Kyungnam. Based on the somatometric charateristics of them, 33 anthropometic and 7 photogrphic measurment data were acquired from every girl. These data are statistically analyzed with the following methods; Factor Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Discriminant Analysis. Resulting from the factor analysis, it is shown that 79.95% of the whole variances can be explained with 8 factors. Through the cluster analysis, 3 types of upper body shapes can be categorized as follows: Type I has average horizontal size, big vertical size and lots of protruded chest ; Type III has big horizontal size, the mean vertical size, and big upper angle of the back ; Type II has small horizontal and vertical size and long surface length of the upper body. Through the discriminant analysis, the high discriminative items in discriminant function are follows: Upper chest circumference, arm length and waist front length of discriminant function I and waist depth, front length, back breadth, nipple to nipple breadth and upper chest circumference of discriminant function II have large coefficient values.

Ultrastructure of Wood Cell Wall Tracheids - The Structure of Spiral Thickenings in Compression Wood - (목재세포벽(木材細胞壁)의 미세구조(微細構造)에 관한 연구(硏究) - Compression wood의 나선비후(螺旋肥厚)의 구조(構造) -)

  • Lee, Won-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1981
  • The structure of spiral thickenings, particulary the appearance, arrangement and orientation of thickenings in compression wood of Torreya nucifera, were studied in detail by light and polarizing microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscope. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Using the inclined sections at an angle of 45 degrees to the fiber axis, it seems that we can not only observe the more accurate transverse view of the thickenings but also investigate the formation of their thickenings. (2) Generally 2-4 pieces of thickenings are projected to the cell lumen as nipple-like appearance in transverse section and are as frequent, well developed, forming pair and have the rope-like appearance in radial surface. (3) The secondary wall of early wood is composed of 3 layers (S1, S2, S3) and orientation of thickening appears S helix but that of late wood is of 2 layers (S1, S2) and that orientation shows Z helix. Above two regions are demaracted at several tracheid cells from the growth ring boundary. (4) Orientation of thickening seems to be a element showing the characteristics of compression wood in Torreya nucifera. (5) It believes that the thickenings of compression wood are integral part of the S3 in early wood tracheids and of the S2 in late wood and have the same orientations as the inner-most microfibrils in these layers. (6) Thickening and cavities seem to be not formed together in a secondary cell wall of same tracheids.

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Comparison Study on Brassiere Patterns for Chinese Adult Women - Focused on brassiere patterns of U.S., France, Italy -

  • Cha, Su-Joung;Sohn, Hee-Soon
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.31-53
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    • 2008
  • This study is to suggest a brassiere pattern suitable to the Chinese woman by recognizing the differences among the brassiere patterns of Europe, America and Italy by comparison. Collected data was analyzed by using SPSS 12.0. 1. If seeing the length of the ordinary brassiere's wing in Korea, the mean is 31.02cm to be shorter than these 3 patterns. The length of a wing should be adjusted according to the degree of fabric's elasticity. 2. The ESMOD type shows a high angle of $60^{\circ}$ as the position of a shoulder strip is placed outward a lot compared with other patterns. 3. For the FIT and Marangoni types, the lengths of the inside and the external diameters show similarly to each other but the ESMOD type shows that its inside diameter is 7.5cm and external one is 9.6cm to have the difference of 2.1cm so that it is considered to put the bust together stronger than the others. 4. The cup circumference of the FIT pattern shows to be the biggest and that of the FIT pattern is the smallest. As the FIT pattern has the shape to wrap the side of the bust, it has large circumference but as it has a narrow angle of a dart, it seems to be fit to the woman with a small and flat bust. 5. For 1/2 of the nipple distance of the brassiere for the Korean adult women, it shows to be 6.12cm, much narrower than the patterns studied, and it is noticed that the ESMOD pattern is very similar to the brassier in the Korean market. 6. As the mean keeper height is 6.5cm, it is noticed that it is very similar to the brassier for the Korean adult women if comparing that the brassiere for the Korean adult has the keeper height of 6.5-8.6cm. The Marangoni pattern tends to have a little low and the ESMOD and FIT patterns have a ordinary measure.

A study of variation level for each region changed in trunk at sagittal plane after Trunk Flexion-Extension Exercise (체간 굴곡-신전운동 후 체간 각 부위 별 시상면 높이변화에 대한 조사)

  • Kim, Keun-Jo;Lee, Cu-Rie;Jung, Byeong-Ok
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapy
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : This survey was to investigate on the effect of each region changed in trunk through sagittal plane after Trunk Flexion-Extension Exercise. Methods : 18 students of Gimcheon College participated in this study for the period of July 9-30, 2007. Analyzed factor were 1) degree of pain 2) presence of Gillet test and 3) difference of right-left for 7 landmark region in trunk applying I.B.S.-2000 after Trunk Flexion - Extension Exercise. We used the SPSS $PC^+$ program for classifying into analysis of frequency, $x^2$-test, t-test and Simple Linear Regression analysis test. Results: Followings are concluded For degree of pain, 13(72.2%) of students answered "No pain" after Trunk Flexion-Extension Exercise and in the result 4 more students decreased the pain. In the Gillet test, 14(77.8%) of students answered "positive" after Trunk Flexion-Extension Exercise and in the result 4 more students increased mobility of Sacroiliac joint. In the differences of right-left for 7 landmark region in trunk by B.M.I. scale, Slim type was decreased both Acromion(0.45mm), both Iliac crest(0.44mm), and both ASIS(0.31mm) to anterior plane, Normal type was decreased both inferior angle of Scapular(0.02mm), both L4-5(0.07mm), and both PSIS(0.09mm) to posterior plane Fatness type was decrease both Acromion(0.05mm), both ASIS(0.05mm) to anterior plane. In the differences of right-left for 7 landmark region in trunk for degree of pain No pain group was decreased both Acromion(0.17mm), both Nipple(0.25mm) to anterior plane and both PSIS(0.13mm) to posterior plane Pain group was decreased both Acromion(0.04mm), both Iliac creast(0.03mm) to anterior plane and both inferior angle of Scapular(0.18mm) both PSIS(0.13mm) to posterior plane. In the difference of right-left for 7 landmark region in trunk for each of the exercises, Both iliac crest(0.1mm), both ASIS(0.12mm) to anterior plane were decreased after Flexion Trunk Exercise. Both acromion(0.27mm) to anterior plane, both inferior angle of scapular(0.14mm) and both PSIS(0.12mm) to posterior plane were decreased after Extension Trunk Exercise. Each of the exercises, The both inferior angle of Scapular showed high scores($0.65{\pm}0.23$) at Trunk Extension Exercise group and there was statistical significance between Trunk Flexion Exercise group and Extension exercise group(t :-2.502, p < 0.05). 7. At Pre-exercise group, Both inferior angle of Scapular showed low scores($0.23{\pm}8.27$) at Trunk Extension Exercise group and there was statistical significance between Pre- Exercise group and Trunk Extension Exercise group(t :-2.5430, p<0.05). Conclusion : The simple linear regression analysis was presented at Acromion(-0.243), L4-5(-0.753), PSIS(0.576) and there was statistical significance in BMI scale(p<0.01).

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Classification of Breast Shape of Women Aged 11~15 Using 3D Body Scan Data (3D 인체 스캔 데이터를 이용한 11~15세 성장기 여성의 유방형태에 따른 유형 분류)

  • Han, Tingting;Song, Hwa Kyung;Lee, Kyu Sun
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.786-794
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze and classify breast shape of women aged 11~15 using 3D body scan data. In this study, 250 women's body scans were selected from the 6th Size Korea dataset, and 30 items from each of the scan were measured using RapidForm XOR 3 program. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis were conducted using statistical program SPSS 17.0. The five principal components were identified; breast drooping and breast capacity, size from chest to under bust area, breast protrusion, breast height, and under breast angle & outer distance of breast. As the results of cluster analysis, woman's breast types were classified into four types. The breast type 1 was protrusion type (25.1%) which is considered as the breast maturity stage. The breast type 2 had the most drooped breast covering a large area (20.2%). The breast type 3 had the least prominent breast with a highest nipple point, which was considered as the early breast development stage (38.9%). The breast type 4 had the obesity of the chest and breast circumferences with the slightly prominent and the least drooped breast (15.8%). This study can provide fundamental information to develop sizing system and brassiere pattern for junior girls.

Selection of an Optimal Commercial Brassiere for the Small-breasted Women and the Evaluation and 3D Analysis of the Wearing Appearance (빈약 유방 여성들에게 적합한 시판 브래지어 선정과 착용 외관 평가 및 3차원 분석)

  • Lee, Hyun Young
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.847-857
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    • 2015
  • The ratio of small-breasted women occupies over 20% among Korean women in their twenties. However, the commercial brassieres for the small-breasted women were not fitted well to their breast shapes. In this research, the various commercial mold brasseries for small-breasted women were evaluated through the wearing test and the analysis of 3D images which were scanned from their torsos wearing the brassieres. In addition, professional panels performed the appearance evaluation based on the 2D front and side images captured from 3D images taken by 3D measurement systems. As the results, we found that small-breasted women preferred a 3/4 cup brassiere, of which volume is concentrated in the lower cup. The most preferred brassiere in wearing state shows that the characteristic angle between the chest and the upper cup is about 167 degrees, which is smaller than those of another brassieres, and that the ratio of the radius of curvature of the nipple part to that of the lower cup was about 0.78. These results provide important implications regarding the design of mold brassieres for small-breasted women in spite of the fact that these results represent the selected set of commercial brassieres. Therefore, further studies are highly demanded for the most suitable design information of mold cup for small-breasted women.

Assessment of the Breast-Firmming Effects of a Cosmetic Preparation with Moir$\acute{e}$ Tophography in Combination with 2D and 3D Digital Image Analyses (2D 및 3D 디지털 이미지 분석과 함께 Moir$\acute{e}$ Tophography 분석을 이용한 화장품의 가슴 탄력개선 효과 평가)

  • Seo, Young Kyoung;Yoo, Mi Ae;Ryu, Ja Hyun;Kim, So Jeong;Cho, Seong A;Nam, Gae Won;Cho, Jun-Cheol;Boo, Yong Chool;Koh, Jae-Sook
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.289-296
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    • 2012
  • Cosmetic products which might augment the breast have attracted an attention and objective methods for the evaluation of such products are in high demand. This study was conducted to establish a method for assessing the breast-firmming effects of cosmetics. This study included a total of 30 healthy Korean females aged 20-50 years. A cosmetic product was applied by massaging it onto the breast twice a day for 8 weeks. Measurement of breast girth with a tape ruler, 2D and 3D digital image analyses, and Moir$\acute{e}$ topographic analysis were performed before and following the treatment. The application of a cosmetic onto the breast significantly increased breast girth at 2, 4 and 8 weeks without a significant change in underbreast girth, implicating the breast might be augmented. The 2D image analysis indicated that the arc length of the breast which represents the surface distance from the nipple to the periphery of the under-breast was significantly increased at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The height of the breast which represents the perpendicular distance from the nipple to the periphery of the under-breast was also increased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks. The 3D image analysis of body surface also demonstrated a significant increase of breast volume at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Moir$\acute{e}$ topographic analysis indicated that breast sagging was significantly reduced at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The results of this study suggest that Moir$\acute{e}$ topography in combination with 2D and 3D digital image analyses may be useful for evaluating the breast-augmenting effects of cosmetics.