• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nighttime Cooling

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Nighttime Cooling Is an Effective Method for Improving Milk Production in Lactating Goats Exposed to Hot and Humid Environment

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kamata, Yasuhiro;Niino, Noriko;Taniyama, Yoshihiko;Kinjo, Kazuhide;Matayoshi, Ayano
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.966-975
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    • 2015
  • Heat production in ruminants follows a diurnal pattern over the course of a day peaking 3 hours following afternoon feeding and then gradually declining to its lowest point prior to morning feeding. In order to clarify the cooling period most effective in reducing decreases in feed intake and milk production, experiments were carried out based on the diurnal rhythm of heat production and heat dissipation. In experiment 1, the effects of hot environment on milk production were investigated. The animals were kept first in a thermoneutral environment ($20.0^{\circ}C$, 80.0%) for 12 days, they were then transitioned to a hot environment ($32^{\circ}C$, 80.0%) for 13 days before being returned to second thermoneutral environment for a further 12 days. In experiment 2, the effectiveness of daytime cooling or nighttime cooling for improving milk production in hot environment was compared. While ten lactating Japanese Saanen goats (aged 2 years, weighing 41.0 kg) during early lactation were used in experiment 1, ten lactating goats (aged 2 years, weighing 47.5 kg) during mid-lactation were used in experiment 2. The animals were fed 300 g of concentrated feed and excessive amounts of crushed alfalfa hay cubes twice daily. Water was given ad libitum. The animals were milked twice daily. When exposed to a hot environment, milk yield and composition decreased significantly (p<0.05). Milk yield in the hot environment did not change with daytime cooling, but tended to increase with nighttime cooling. Compared to the daytime cooling, milk components percentages in the nighttime cooling were not significantly different but the milk components yields in the nighttime cooling were significantly higher (p<0.05). The results indicate that nighttime cooling is more effective than daytime cooling in the reduction of milk production declines in lactating goats exposed to a hot environment.

Simulation of Radiative Property Effects on Radiant Cooling of Opaque Surface (비 투과면 복사 냉각에 대한 복사 물성의 영향 예측)

  • Byun, Ki-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2009
  • The effects of surface radiative properties on the radiant cooling of opaque surfaces under clear sky condition are studied. Two types of surfaces, one gray and the other selective, are compared. For the nighttime cooling, black surface gives the lowest plate temperature and on the other hand the ideal selective surface gives the highest temperature. The reverse is true when there is an insolation. Equivalent radiative heat transfer coefficient of radiant cooling without convection is about $1{\sim}7\;W/m^2-K$ for the range of values studied. The surface with black within the $6{\sim}13\;{\mu}m$ band else zero emissivity could be regarded as a black surface for the nighttime radiant cooling purposes. However, lower band limit of $4\;{\mu}m$ is preferred to $6\;{\mu}m$ for small insolation situations.

Study on the Variation of Nighttime Cooling Rate Associated with Urbanization (도시화에 의한 야간 대기 냉각율 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Soon-Hwan;Park, Myung-Hee;Kim, Hea-Dong
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 2008
  • In order to clarify the urbanization intensity of Daegu Metropolitan and its characteristics, comparative study on the variation of the cooling rate of two different sites was carried out using observation data for 40 years by Korea Meteorological Adminstration. Daegu Metropolitan and Chupungnyung represent well urbanized and rural areas, respectively. In comparison with Chupungnyung, yearly mean temperature at Daegu Metropolitan increases rapidly and especially the differences of minimum temperature increasing rate during 40 years becomes greater. These differences of regional warming are caused by the different urbanization intensity between two sites. And the impact of anthropogenic heat due to urbanization should be stronger in nighttime than in daytime. Sensible heat advection by regional wind during 6 hours from 18 LST contributes to atmospheric cooling. For this reason wind speed is in proportion to cooling rate of atmosphere. However, wind after 24 LST induces the warm air advection and makes decrease the cooling rate in urban area. Although the cooling rates between Daegu Metropolitan and Chupungnyung are some different, the variation tendencies of cooling rate of two site are almost same. Therefore atmospheric cooling rate in nighttime tends to be associated with the intensity of wind speed.

Effects of Extending Duration of Nighttime Road Construction (도로품질 향상을 위한 야간 도로공사 시간확대의 영향분석)

  • Lee, Dongmin;Choi, Junseong;Park, Jejin;Park, Yongjin
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.153-162
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSES : This study was conducted to analyze the effects arising from extending the duration of nighttime road construction on improving road quality and durability. METHODS : Most previous studies estimating the social cost of various construction conditions did not consider road pavement cooling time as a factor in improving road pavement quality. This study investigated the feasibility of achieving higher road quality and durability by extending the duration of nighttime road construction time extension. For this investigation, the effects of such an extension on traffic conditions were analyzed based on micro-simulation studies and scenario-based cost-benefit analyses, using factors including traffic volume, delay, construction cost, and road pavement cooling time. RESULTS : The results of the traffic simulation studies and cost-benefit analyses indicate that the current road construction method that emphasizes completing nighttime road construction by 6 a.m. reduces pavement life while causing relatively little traffic delay. If the night construction time is instead extended to 2 p.m., road pavement lifetime is increased, reducing road re-construction cost. These savings are greater than the cost of congestion arising from extending the duration of nighttime construction. CONCLUSIONS : The current nighttime construction durations need to be extended in order to efficiently manage roads and reduce road management costs.

Evaluation of Mitigation Effect of Upo-Swamp on the Air temperature Variation with Nighttime Cooling Rate (야간 냉각율을 이용한 우포늪의 기온변화 완화효과 평가)

  • Park, Myung-Hee;Kim, Hae-Dong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.309-319
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    • 2011
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of Upo-swamp upon local thermal environment with nighttime cooling rate. To do this, we set up the AWS(Automatic Weather observation System) over the central part of Upo-swamp on the early October 2007. We conducted the study by comparing the AWS data with another weather data observed by several meteorological observations of the Korea Meteorological Administration located at the vicinity of Upo-swamp for one year. The air temperature of Upo-swamp was higher than that of the surrounding in cold-climate season. But it was opposite in warm-climate season. We confirmed that Upo-swamp roles to mitigate the daily and annual air temperature ranges. And the daily air temperature variation of Upo-swamp lagged behind the land one. This phenomenon represent that the heat reservoir capacity of Upo-swamp is much larger than that of the ground.

Nocturnal Radiant Cooling during the Winter by the Plate Viewing the Sky (겨울 야간 하늘에 노출된 평판에 의한 복사냉각 실험)

  • Byun, Ki-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2008
  • The radiant cooling(RC) effects are studied during the winter night. The plate was viewing the nighttime sky. The data were collected at the rooftop of the Engineering building at the Dongguk University in Seoul, Korea. As observed during the summer night, the plate temperature was lower than ambient temperature under the RC favorable conditions. The parameters under study are the wind velocity, cloud index, and visibility for given system size and surface condition. The results follow the same tendency with these parameters as observed from the previous study for the summer night. As long as the wind velocity is less than around 2 m/s, the radiant cooling was observed with the system under study. In some cases, the radiant cooling temperature differences (RCTD) are higher than those for the summer night. The larger the RCTD as the wind velocity decreases and as the sky becomes clear.

The Experimental Study of Radiant Cooling Test System under Different Covers (복사냉각 시스템에서 커버의 영향)

  • Byun, Ki-Hong;Smith, Theodore F.
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.797-802
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    • 2007
  • The effects of window cover on the performance of the plate type radiant cooling test system are studied. The cover materials tested are 2mm, 1mm, 0.7mm glass, Cokin 007 filter, and PVC film. The measurements are performed during the September nights of 2005 at the rooftop of the building in Seoul. The equivalent height of the building is about a building with twelve floors. The radiant cooling performance of the black painted and aluminum film coated plate are compared under no cover condition. Also the results are compared when the system has cover over the plate. In general, the covers reduce the radiant cooling temperature differences during the nighttime. Among these covers, the PVC film cover shows the best performance. In some cases, the plate with PVC film cover shows lower temperatures than the system without cover.

Modeling of Stochastic Properties of Internal Heat Generation of an Office Building for Slab Cooling Storage (사무소건물의 슬래브축냉을 위한 내부발열부하의 확률적 성상 모델화)

  • Jung, Jae-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.23 no.12
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    • pp.836-842
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    • 2011
  • It has been shown that the air-conditioning system with slab cooling storage is effective in cutting peak load and utilizing nighttime electric power. The stochastic properties of internal heat generation which has great influence on the cooling load are examined in this paper. Based on the measured cooling load and electric power consumption in an office building with slab cooling storage, stochastic time series models to simulate these random processes are investigated. Furthermore, a calculated result by an optimal control method of thermal analysis taking into account the internal heat is compared with the measured cooling load.

Nocturnal Radiant Cooling by a Plate Viewing the Sky (야간 하늘에 노출된 평판의 복사냉각효과)

  • Byun, Ki-Hong
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1300-1305
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this experiment is to study the radiant cooling effects by a plate directly viewing the nighttime sky. The measurements are performed at a rooftop of the Engineering building at the Dongguk University in Seoul during the month of August in 2004. The radiant cooling effects are compared using three different types of plate surfaces such as galvanized Iron, black painted, and aluminum film coated galvanized iron plate. Among these plates, the black painted surface show the lowest temperature that is lower than its ambient temperature. The maximum radiant cooling temperature difference, that is ambient temperature minus plate temperature, observed is about 5K..

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Nocturnal Radiant Cooling Experiment by a Plate Viewing the Sky (야간 하늘에 노출된 평판의 복사냉각 실험)

  • Byun Ki-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.605-610
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this experiment is to study the radiant cooling effects by a plate directly viewing the nighttime sky. The measurements are performed on a rooftop of the Engineering building at the Dongguk University in Seoul during the month of August in 2004. The radiant cooling effects are compared using three different types of plate sufaces, namely, galvanized iron, black painted, and aluminum film coated galvanized iron plate. Among these plates, the black Painted surface showed the lowest temperature that is lower than the ambient temperature. The maximum radiant cooling temperature difference, which is ambient temperature minus plate temperature, observed is about 5 K.