• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nicotine dependence

Search Result 91, Processing Time 0.042 seconds

Changes in Smoking Practices and the Process of Nicotine Dependence (금연 실천과 니코틴 의존도의 변화과정에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Tae-Min;Lee, Ju-Yul;An, Ji-Young
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
    • /
    • v.27 no.4
    • /
    • pp.123-129
    • /
    • 2010
  • Objectives: The aim of this study is to seek an effective way to support smoking cessation by analyzing any change to the pattern of nicotine dependence according to the change in time. Methods: The study was conducted with 800 male smokers who had participated in smoking cessation programs at public health centers from July 16, 2005 to July 15, 2008. Latent growth curve modeling approach was used for data analysis. Results: From the developmental trajectory of individual nicotine dependence, while nicotine dependence of smokers with high nicotine dependence in the first year was slightly decreased in the third year, smokers with low nicotine dependence in the year showed dramatically lower nicotine dependence in the third year. Compared with those who did not successfully quit smoking, the initial value of nicotine dependence of those who successfully quit smoking in the first and the second year was low. Over the years, nicotine dependence was decreased. Conclusion: From this study it was demonstrated that nicotine dependence was reduced through the practice of smoking cessation and reduced nicotine dependence was a factor which affects successful smoking cessation. These results indicate that multiple attempts to quit smoking finally reduces nicotine dependence. Reduced nicotine dependence is likely to increase the possibility of successful smoking cessation.

Can Urinary Cotinine Predict Nicotine Dependence Level in Smokers?

  • Jung, Hyun-Suk;Kim, Yeol;Son, Jungsik;Jeon, Young-Jee;Seo, Hong-Gwan;Park, So-Hee;Huh, Bong Ryul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.11
    • /
    • pp.5483-5488
    • /
    • 2012
  • Background: Although nicotine dependence plays a role as a main barrier for smoking cessation, there is still a lack of solid evidence on the validity of biomarkers to determine nicotine dependence in clinical settings. This study aimed to investigate whether urinary cotinine levels could reflect the severity of nicotine dependence in active smokers. Materials and Methods: Data regarding general characteristics and smoking status was collected using a self-administered smoking questionnaire. The Fagerstr$\ddot{o}$m test for nicotine dependence (FTND) was used to determine nicotine dependence of the participants, and a total of 381 participants were classified into 3 groups of nicotine dependence: low (n=205, 53.8%), moderate (n=127, 33.3%), and high dependence groups (n=49, 12.9%). Stepwise multiple linear regression model and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analyses were used to determine the validity of urinary cotinine for high nicotine dependence. Results: In correlation analysis, urinary cotinine levels increased with FTND score (r=0.567, P<0.001). ROC curves analysis showed that urinary cotinine levels predicted the high-dependence group with reasonable accuracy (optimal cut-off value=1,000 ng/mL; AUC=0.82; P<0.001; sensitivity=71.4%; specificity=74.4%). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, the total smoking period (${\beta}$=0.042, P=0.001) and urinary cotinine levels (${\beta}$=0.234, P<0.001) were positively associated with nicotine dependence, whereas an inverse association was observed between highest education levels (>16 years) and nicotine dependence (${\beta}$=-0.573, P=0.034). Conclusions: The results of this study support the validity of using urinary cotinine levels for assessment of nicotine dependence in active smokers.

Work-Associated Stress and Nicotine Dependence among Law Enforcement Personnel in Mangalore, India

  • Priyanka, R;Rao, Ashwini;Rajesh, Gururaghavendran;Shenoy, Ramya;Pai, BH Mithun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.829-833
    • /
    • 2016
  • Purpose: To investigate the work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Demographic details, stress factors experienced at work and nicotine dependency were the variables studied. The extent of stress factors experienced at work was assessed using the Effort-Reward Imbalance scale (ERI). Nicotine dependence was measured using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST). Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Three hundred and four law enforcement personnel participated in the study, among whom 68 had the presence of one or more habits like tobacco smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol use. The mean effort score was $15.8{\pm}4.10$ and the mean reward and mean overcommitment scores were $36.4{\pm}7.09$ and $17.8{\pm}5.32$ respectively. Effort/Reward ratio for the total participants was 1.0073 and for those with nicotine habit was 1.0850. Results of our study demonstrated no significant association between domains of ERI scale and presence of habits but work associated stress was associated with the presence of one or more habits. Compared to constables, head constables had 1.12 times higher risk of having a nicotine habit. Conclusions: Our study implies job designation is associated with nicotine habits. However, there was no association between work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore.

Influencing Factors of Social Nicotine Dependence in University Students (보건·간호계열 대학생의 사회적 니코틴 의존도 영향요인)

  • Jo, Eun-Joo;Kim, Hye-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.145-157
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives : This study identified factors that influenced social nicotine dependence in university students using descriptive methods. Methods : Data were collected 429 university students from 2 universities in B metropolitan city. The analytical methods were the t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe's test, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results : There were significant differences in social nicotine dependence according to gender (t=3.359, p=.001), smoking status (t=8.915, p=.000), religion (t=3.841, p=.022), economic status (t=3.632, p=.027) and grade (t=8.466, p=.000). Social nicotine dependence was weakly correlated with anxiety (r=.113, p<.05). Meaningful variables that explain social nicotine dependence were anxiety, self-efficacy self-esteem, female, smokers and no religion. Conclusions : It is necessary to develop a comprehensive smoke-free policy that considers social nicotine dependence to improve the cultural and social awareness of the associated health hazards of smoking, and to develop smoking cessation education and smoking prevention programs that improve the self-efficacy and self-esteem of university students.

A Study on the Practice Level of Yangseng (Traditional Health Behavior) according to Nicotine Dependence (니코틴 의존도에 따른 양생 실천 수준에 대한 조사 연구)

  • Kang, Hee-Chul
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
    • /
    • v.24 no.1
    • /
    • pp.93-102
    • /
    • 2013
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the practice level of Yangseng according to nicotine dependence. Methods : The subjects of this study were 137 male smokers in their thirties and forties, who visited Wonmi Public Health Center. They were evaluated with Fagerstorm's test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and Tool in Measuring Yangseng (TMY). By FTND score, they were divided into three groups; the mild nicotine dependent group, moderate group and severe group. Results : In TMY score, there were statistically significant differences in the characteristics of Diet, Activity & Rest, Sleep and total score among the three groups. The value of FTND comparing the values of Mind, Diet, Activity & Rest, Sleep and total score in this study resulted in negative correlations, which showed statistical significance. Conclusions : The above results suggest that there are significant relations between nicotine dependence and the practice level of Yangseng. These results can be used for planning a smoking cessation program and a Yangseng health promotion program based on Korean traditional medicine.

A Preliminary Comparison of the Efficacy of Auricular Acupuncture, Transdermal Nicotine Patch and Combination Therapy for Smoking Cessation (금연 이침과 경피적 니코틴 패치 및 병용 요법 간의 금연 효과에 대한 예비적 비교 연구)

  • Kang, Hee-Chul
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
    • /
    • v.24 no.2
    • /
    • pp.179-188
    • /
    • 2013
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare three therapies - auricular acupuncture, transdermal nicotine patch and therapy - in combination with auricular acupuncture and nicotine patch. Methods : The subjects of this study included 188 male smokers in their 20s, 30s, 40s and 50s, who visited Wonmi Public Health Center. They were evaluated with the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence, amounts of daily smoking and success rate of smoking cessation. The subjects decided on a therapy method strictly of their own choice. They were divided into three groups according to the therapy; auricular acupuncture group (62 persons), nicotine patch group (69 persons) and combination therapy group (57 persons). Results : All three groups resulted in statistically significant reducing effects of nicotine dependence and amounts of daily smoking. In the combination therapy group, nicotine dependence was significantly decreased by more than those of the other groups. There were no statistically significant differences in decrements of daily smoking and success rate of smoking cessation among the three groups. Conclusions : The above results suggest that auricular acupuncture and transdermal nicotine patch have significant effects of smoking cessation. If they are combined, it is expected that therapies for smoking cessation would be developed.

Influencing Factors on the Nicotine Dependence of Shift Workers (교대 근무자의 니코틴 의존도에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Kim, Young-sun;Do, Eun-Young
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.17 no.6
    • /
    • pp.132-141
    • /
    • 2017
  • The factors influencing nicotine dependence of smoking shift workers (154 samples), working in manufacturing industry, were investigated. 23.4% of the sample showed moderate nicotine dependence while 14.3% did severe dependence. Nicotine dependence showed statistically significant difference with respect to sex, disease, and health condition and was positively correlated with occupational stress. Occupational stress, sex, and disease were identified as the influential factors, explaining 43.9%, and should be the basis for intervention to reduce nicotine dependence.

Determinants of Nicotine Dependence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • Sim, Yun Su;Lee, Jin Hwa;Kim, Ki Uk;Ra, Seung Won;Park, Hye Yun;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Kim, Deog Kyeom;Shin, Kyeong-Cheol;Lee, Sang Haak;Hwang, Hun Gyu;Ahn, Joong Hyun;Park, Yong Bum;Kim, Yu-Il;Yoo, Kwang Ha;Jeong, Ina;Oh, Yeon-Mok;Lee, Sang-Do;KOLD Investigators
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.80 no.3
    • /
    • pp.277-283
    • /
    • 2017
  • Background: Smoking cessation is the most powerful intervention to modify progress of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and nicotine dependence is one of the most important determinants of success or failure in smoking cessation. We evaluated nicotine dependence status and investigated factors associated with moderate to high nicotine dependence in patients with COPD. Methods: We included 53 current smokers with COPD in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease II cohort enrolled between January 2014 and March 2016. Nicotine dependence was measured by using Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). Cognitive function was assessed by Korean version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Results: The median FTND score was 3, and 32 patients (60%) had moderate to high nicotine dependence. The median smoking amount was 44 pack-years, which was not related to nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high education status (odds ratio, 1.286; 95% confidence interval, 1.036-1.596; p=0.023), age <70 (odds ratio, 6.407; 95% confidence interval, 1.376-29.830; p=0.018), and mild to moderate airflow obstruction (odds ratio, 6.969; 95% confidence interval, 1.388-34.998; p=0.018) were related to moderate to high nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Nicotine dependence does not correlate with smoking amount, but with education level, age, and severity of airflow obstruction. Physicians should provide different strategies of smoking cessation intervention for current smokers with COPD according to their education levels, age, and severity of airflow obstruction.

Heaviness of Smoking Index, Number of Cigarettes Smoked and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence Among Adult Male Malaysians

  • Lim, K.H.;Idzwan, M. Feisul;Sumarni, M.G.;Kee, C.C.;Amal, N.M.;Lim, K.K.;Gurpreet, K.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.343-346
    • /
    • 2012
  • Two methods of identifying smokers with high nicotine dependence, the heaviness of smoking index (HSI) and number of cigarettes per day (CPD) were compared with the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). The HSI, CPD and the FTND were administered to 316 adult Malaysian male, daily smokers aged between 25-64 years old in the Malaysian NCD Surveillance-1 Survey using a two-stage stratified random sampling of enumeration blocks and living quarters, via an interview based on a validated questionnaire. The cut-off point for classification of high nicotine dependence on the HSI was a score of four or higher, and for the heavy smoking category, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. Classification using each method was compared with classification by the FTND (score of six or more) as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistics for concordance between both measures and the FTND were evaluated. The HSI gave a similar prevalence rate of high nicotine dependence as the FTND. There was substantial agreement between the HSI and the FTND (kappa=0.63.), with moderate sensitivity (69.8%) and high specificity (92.5%). However, prevalence of high nicotine dependence using the CPD was 7% lower than the FTND. The heavy smoking category also showed fair agreement with the FTND (kappa=0.45) and moderate sensitivity (67.0%), but specificity was high (86.9%). The findings indicate that the HSI can be used as an alternative to the FTND in screening for high nicotine dependence among daily smokers in large population-based studies, while CPD may not be a suitable alternative to the FTND.

Assessment of Nicotine Dependence among Smokers in a Selected Rural Population in Kerala, India

  • Jayakrishnan, R.;Mathew, Aleyamma;Lekshmi, Kamala;Sebastian, Paul;Finne, Patrik;Uutela, Antti
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.6
    • /
    • pp.2663-2667
    • /
    • 2012
  • Objectives: An attempt was made to understand the nicotine dependence of smokers selected for an ongoing smoking cessation intervention programme in rural Kerala, India. Methods: Data were collected from resident males in the age group of 18 to 60 years from 4 randomly allocated community development blocks of rural Thiruvananthapuram district (2 intervention and 2 control groups). Trained accredited social health activist workers were utilised to collect data from all groups through face to face interview. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) translated into the local language. The internal consistency of FTND was computed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Criterion validity (concurrent) was assessed by correlations of nicotine dependence scores with age at initiation of smoking and cumulative smoking volume in pack-years. Results: Among the 928 smokers identified, 474 subjects were in the intervention area (mean age = 44.6 years, SD = 9.66 years) and 454 in the control area (mean age = 44.5 years, SD = 10.30 years). The overall FTND score among current daily smokers was 5.04 (SD: 5.05). FTND scores in the control and intervention areas were 4.75 (SD: 2.57) and 4.92 (SD: 2.51) respectively. The FTND scores increased with age and decreased with higher literacy and socioeconomic status. The average FTND score was high among smokers using both bidi and cigarettes (mean 6.10, SD 2.17). Internal consistency analysis yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.70 in a subsample of 150 subjects, a moderate result. The association of the scale was strongest, with the number of pack-years smoked (rho = 0.677, p < 0.001). Conclusion: A moderate level of nicotine dependence was observed among smokers in the current study. Tobacco cessation strategies could be made more cost effective and productive if a baseline assessment of nicotine dependence is completed before any intervention.