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Pest Surveillance by Using Internet (Internet을 활용한 병해충 발생예찰)

  • Song Yoo Han
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.415-445
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    • 1998
  • For effective prevention of the spreading and outbreak of crop insects and disease pests, an intensive Pest surveillance system was established to predict their density changes, and distribution. After their initial establishment by either immigration or overwintering, it is necessary to anticipate how they spread out geographically and predict where/when outbreaks are possible. The two major tools, boundary layer atmospheric model (Blayer) and the geographic information system(GIS), have been being developed to facilitate the prediction of pest occurrence in recent days. We are also developing the PeMos (Pest Monitoring System) that is able to manage the pest surveillance data collected from 152 pest monitoring stations in Korea. These three system related to the pest surveillance should be integrated into an internet based comprehensive database management system to facilitate information resources systematically organized and closely linked. Considering various data types and large data size in each system, a new special information management system is suggested. The integrated system should express complex types of information, such as text, multimedia, and other scientific data under the Internet environment. This paper discussed the major three systems, GIS, Blayer, and PeMos, relevant to the crop pest surveillance, then how they can be integrated in a comprehensive system under the Internet environment.

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A New Species of the Genus Cricotopus (Diptera: Chironomidce), a Pest of Rice in Seosan, Korea

  • Ree, Han-Il;Kim, Jin-Young
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.309-313
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    • 1998
  • We found some larvae of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) that Injured rice crops by feeding on seeds and/or roots in the reclaimed rice fields in Seosan, Chungchongnam-do, Korea, in May 1997, Four instar larvae were collected and reared in the laboratory. This pest species of the rice plant was identified as a new species of Cricotopus, similar to C. sylvestris. The main differences are the color pattern of the abdominal tergites. Both adult and immature stages of the new species are described with illustrations.

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Tolerance: An Ideal Co-Survival Crop Breeding System of Pest and Host in Nature with Reference to Maize

  • Kim, Soon-Kwon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2000
  • In nature, plant diseases, insects and parasites (hereafter called as "pest") must be co-survived. The most common expression of co-survival of a host crop to the pest can be tolerance. With tolerance, chemical uses can be minimized and it protects environment and sustains host productivity and the minimum pest survival. Tolerance can be applicable in all living organisms including crop plants, lifestocks and even human beings. Tolerant system controls pest about 90 to 95% (this pest control system often be called as horizontal or partial resistance), while the use of chemicals or selection of high resistance controls pest 100% (the most expression of this control system is vertical resistance or true resistance). Controlling or eliminating the pests by either chemicals or vertical resistance create new problems in nature and destroy the co-survial balance of pest and host. Controlling pests through tolerance can only permit co-survive of pests and hosts. Tolerance is durable and environmentally-friend. Crop cultivars based on tolerance system are different from those developed by genetically modified organism (GMO) system. The former stabilizes genetic balance of a pest and a host crop in nature while the latter destabilizes the genetic balance due to 100% control. For three decades, the author has implemented the tolerance system in breeding maize cultivars against various pests in both tropical and temperate environments. Parasitic weed Striga species known as the greatest biological problem in agriculture has even been controlled through this system. The final effect of the tolerance can be an integrated genetic pest management (IGPM) without any chemical uses and it makes co-survival of pests in nature.in nature.

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Biotypes of the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvara lugens (Stal) (벼멸구의 생태형)

  • Saxena R.C.;Barrion A.A.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.52-66
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    • 1983
  • The brown planthopper, N. lugens (Stal), has become a serious pest of rice in tropical Asia during the last decade. At high pest density, its feeding damage causes 'hopperburn' or complete wilting and drying of the rice plant. It also transmits grassy and ragged stunt virus diseases. The estimated losses caused by the pest in tropical Asia exceed $US\$300$ millions. While cultivation of resistant rice varieties has proved to be highly effective against the pest, their long-term stability is threatened because of the evolution of prolific biotypes which can destroy these varieties. At present, identification of biotypes is based principally on the differential reactions of host rice varieties to the pest and on host-mediated behavioral and physiological responses of the pest. Recent findings of morphological differences in adult rostrum, legs, and antennae, body parts that possess receptors for host plant location and discrimination, and cytological differences in N. lugens populations maintained as stock cultures strongly complement other biotype studies. So far, three N. lugens biotypes have been identified in the Philippines. Biotype I can survive on and damage varieties that do not carry and genes for resistance, while Biotype 2 survives on resistant varieties carrying Bph 1 gene and Biotype 3 on varieties carrying gene bph 2. However, none of these biotypes can survive on varieties with genes Bph 3 or bph 4. Several varieties which are resistant in the Philippines are susceptible in India and Sri Lanka as the South Asian biotypes of N. lugens are more virulent than Southeast Asian biotypes. To monitor the pest biotypes in different geographical regions and to identify new sources of resistance, an International Brown Planthopper Nursery has been established in many cooperating countries. The evolution of biotypes is an exceedingly complex process which is governed by the interactions of genetic and biological factors of the pest populations and the genetic makeup of the cultivated varieties. While the strategy for sequential release of varieties with major resistance genes has been fairly successful so far, the monegenic resistance of these varieties makes them vulnerable to the development of the pest biotypes. Therefore, present breeding endeavors envisage utilizing both major and minor resistance genes for effective control of the pest.

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Towards Integrated Pest Management of Rice in Korea

  • Lee, Seung-Chan
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.205-240
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    • 1992
  • In reality, it is a green revolution of the entire agricultural matrix in Korea that integrated pest control plays an important role in the possible breakthrough in rice self-sufficiency. In paddy agroecosystem as man-modified environment, rice is newly established every year by transplantation under diverse water regimes which affect a microclimate. Standing water benefits rice by regulating the microclimate, but it favors the multiplication of certain pets through the amelioration of the microclimate. Further, the introduction of high yielding varieties with the changing of cultural practices results in changing occurrence pattern of certain pests. In general, japonica type varieties lack genes resistant to most of the important pests and insect-borne virus diseases, whereas indica type possesses more genes conferring varietal resistance. Thus, this differences among indica type, form the background of different approaches to pest management. The changes in rice cultivation such as double cropping, growing high-yielding varieties requiring heavy fertilization, earlier transplanting, intensvie-spacing transplanting, and intensive pesticide use as a consequence of the adoption of improves rice production technology, have intensified the pest problems rather than reduced them. The cultivation of resistant varieties are highly effective to the pest, their long term stability is threathened because of the development of new biotypes which can detroy these varieties. So far, three biotypes of N. lugens are reported in Korea. Since each resistant variety is expected to maintain several years the sequential release of another new variety with a different gene at intervals is practised as a gene rotation program. Another approach, breeding multilines that have more than two genes for resistance in a variety are successfully demonstrated. The average annual rice losses during the last 15 years of 1977-’91 are 9.3% due to insect pests without chemical control undertaken, wehreas there is a average 2.4% despite farmers’insecticide application at the same period. In other words, the average annual losses are prvented by 6.9% when chemical control is properly employed. However, the continuous use of a same group of insecticides is followed by the development of pest resistance. Resistant development of C. suppressalis, L. striatellus and N. cincticeps is observed to organophosphorous insecticides by the mid-1960s, and to carbamates by the early 1970s in various parts of the country. Thus, it is apparent that a scheduled chemical control for rice production systems becomes uneconomical and that a reduction in energy input without impairing the rice yield, is necessarily improved through the implementation of integrated pest management systems. Nationwide pest forecasting system conducted by the government organization is a unique network of investigation for purpose of making pest control timely in terms of economic thresholds. A wise plant protection is expected to establish pest management systems in appropriate integration of resistant varieties, biological agents, cultural practices and other measures in harmony with minimizing use of chemical applications as a last weapon relying on economic thresholds.

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Food plants suitable for mass rearing of the coconut hispine beetle Brontispa longissima

  • Yamashita, Ai;Winotai, Amporn;Nakamura, Satoshi;Takasu, Keiji
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.57-61
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    • 2009
  • The invasive pest Brontispa longissima(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), native to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, has extended its distribution to Australia, Asia and Pacific islands and caused serious leaf damages of the coconut palm Cocos nuciferain the invaded regions. Although biological control using parasitic wasps has successfully reduced population density and leaf damage levels, this pest and its natural enemies have not been efficiently producedin conventional methods using young leaves of C. nucifera. In the present study, we examined suitability of plants easily available in Thailand and Japan for mass rearing of this pest to develop effective mass rearing system of this pest. Mature, green leaves of the palms were also suitable for immature development and adult reproduction of this pest. Since mature leaves of C. nucifera are more abundant and less contaminated with fungus than the unopened leaf buds, mature leaves could be a promising plant diet for mass rearing of B. longissima. Ornamental palms such as Hyophorbe lagenicaulis and Washingtonia filifera were also suitable for immature development and reproduction of B. longissima. Away from palms, the cattail Typha spp. can sustain immature development and adult reproduction of B. longissima. In the area where C. nucifera is rare or not available, W. filifera or Typha spp. would be good food plants for mass rearing of this pest.

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A New Species of Chigger Mite (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Rodents in Southwest China

  • Ren, Tian-Guang;Guo, Xian-Guo;Jin, Dao-Chao;Wu, Dian;Fletcher, Quinn E.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2014
  • This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 ${\mu}m$. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities.

Damage Report on a Newly Recorded Coleopteran Pest, Aphanisticus congener (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from Turfgrass in Korea

  • Kang, Byunghun;Kabir, Faisal Md.;Bae, Eun-Ji;Lee, Gwang Soo;Jeon, Byungduk;Lee, Dong Woon
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.274-279
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    • 2016
  • Aphanisticus congener is a newly recorded buprestid (Coleoptera) insect pest of turfgrass in Korea. This buprestid pest was initially found from turfgrass conservation site in a greenhouse in Jinju, Gyeongnam province, Korea in July, 2014. The Aphanisticus in the family Buprestidae is a leaf miner. A. congener is the close species of A. aeneus which was firstly reported as sugarcane leaf sucker in India. A. congener was active from early July to late August in the greenhouse. Damage by the insect led to drying out and browning of turfgrass leaf because larva fed on cell sap of leaves and adult fed on leaf surface. A. congener damaged Zoysia japonica, Z. sinica, Conodon dactylon, and Poa pratensis when adults were artificially released into potted turfgrasses in the laboratory. In green house, A. congener damaged Z. japonica, Z. macrostachya, Z. matrella, Z. sinica, Conodon dactylon, and hybrid zoysiagrass. However, no damage symptoms were observed from the same turfgrass accessions in the nearby field of the greenhouse. Thus, the new coleopteran pest may be a warm-adapted pest for turfgrass, damaging turfgrass leaf only in warmer conditions.

Meteorological Condition and Pest Management (기상환경과 병해충 발생 및 그 대책)

  • 현재선
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.361-370
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    • 1982
  • The effects of climatic factors on organisms lire variable and complex, and it, however, can be interpreted in terms of those on the distribution and those on the population densities. The distribution of an organism may largely be determined by the temperatures, except some temporal organisms which are depended on the air mass movements. Population density of an organism is determined by various climatic factors, such as previous winter temperature, temperature of growing season and rainfall. The start of growing season of the rice plants has been shifted to earlier since last decade in Korea. This may mean that the overall climatic condition during the growing season might be considerably different from those in past years, and such a difference in climatic conditions might have close relation with the recent status of the diseases and insect pests through direct effects on the physiology and population dynamics of the organisms, as well as through on the biotic associations of the pest organisms. The white back planthopper and brown planthopper have become the key insect pests in Korea in recent years. They are migratory and have high reproductive pontentials and more generations than average residential insects. The synchronization of the migrants and physiological condition of the rice plants seems to be the important factors in relation to the recent outbreaks of these insects; the high reproductive rate can be obtained with the growth stage of rice being 30-50 days after transplanting. The modication of the microclimate associated with high plant density and some other introduced new cultural techniques also have some relation with the outbreak. The key diseases of the rice are the blast disease, sheath blight and the bacterial leaf blight. For the rice blast, the seedling blast and leaf blast during the early growing season and the neck blast, have become more serious, the former may be related to hotbed nursery and the later may be related to the high humidity in early August, and synchronization of the heading time which has been shifted to early part from middle or late part of August. In general, for the rice diseases, the development of the new races have been the most serious which are largely resulted from the introduction of the new varieties, but it also seems to be related with the prolonged periods of the favorable condition associated with the shifted growing seasons. In general, the diseases and insect pest problems have become much more variable and complex, and control measures should be based on the thorough knowledge of the ecology of the pest organisms, that is, effects of various environmental factors on the disease cycle; spore release, spore deposition, infection, colonization and sporulation of the disease organisms, and those on the development, reproductive potentials, dispersal, age specific responses of the insects. The well organized real-time pest management systems, such as alfalfa weevil management system developed at the Purdue University in U.S., is the prime importance for the implementation of the pest management principles.

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PERMANENCE FOR THREE SPECIES PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM WITH DELAYED STAGE-STRUCTURE AND IMPULSIVE PERTURBATIONS ON PREDATORS

  • Zhang, Shuwen;Tan, Dejun
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
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    • v.27 no.5_6
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    • pp.1097-1107
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, three species stage-structured predator-prey model with time delayed and periodic constant impulsive perturbations of predator at fixed times is proposed and investigated. We show that the conditions for the global attractivity of prey(pest)-extinction periodic solution and permanence of the system. Our model exhibits a new modelling method which is applied to investigate impulsive delay differential equations. Our results give some reasonable suggestions for pest management.

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