• Title, Summary, Keyword: Nellore Steers

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Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profile Alters the Fatty Acid Profile and Quality of Beef from Confined Nellore Steers

  • Fiorentini, Giovani;Lage, Josiane F.;Carvalho, Isabela P.C.;Messana, Juliana D.;Canesin, Roberta. C.;Reis, Ricardo A.;Berchielli, Telma T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.976-986
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    • 2015
  • The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lipid sources with different fatty acids profile on meat fatty acids profile and beef quality traits of Nellore. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial body weight of $419{\pm}11kg$ (at $15{\pm}2mo$) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF), and soybean grains (SG). No effects of lipid sources were observed (p>0.05) on beef color, pH, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length. Beef from cattle fed PO had greater shear-force values (p<0.05) compared to beef from cattle fed WF. Deposition of main unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) was greater in treatments WF, SG, and LO, respectively, while the values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater when animals were fed LO. The inclusion of LO in the diet enhances the concentration of CLA in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat besides improving the atherogenicity index and elongase activity. As such, LO can be used with the aim to improve the quality of beef from confined Nellore cattle. Conversely, the use of PO is not recommended since it may increase the concentration of undesirable unsaturated fatty acids in muscle and subcutaneous fat, shear-force and the atherogenicity index.

Backgrounding steers on temperate grasses mixed with vetch and/or using energy supplementation

  • de Oliveira Lazzarotto, Eduardo Felipe Colerauz;de Menezes, Luis Fernando Glasenapp;Paris, Wagner;Molinete, Marcos Luis;Schmitz, Gean Rodrigo;Baraviera, Jose Henrique Ignacio;Farenzena, Roberta;de Paula, Adalberto Luiz
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.800-807
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The aim was to evaluate backgrounding beef steers on oat + ryegrass pastures mixed with vetch and/or using energy supplementation. Methods: A randomized block design with three treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were: grass + supplement (oat + ryegrass + supplementation), legume + supplement (oat + ryegrass + vetch + supplementation) and grass + legume (oat + ryegrass + vetch). A continuous grazing system with a variable stocking rate was used. Twenty-seven intact crossbred steers (1/4 Marchigiana, 1/4 Aberdeen Angus and 2/4 Nellore) aged 7 months old and average weight of 190 kg were used. Steers were supplemented at 1% of the body weight of ground corn. The experiment lasted 84 days, between May and August 2014. Behavioral assessments were performed two times per experimental period, for 24 hours. Results: The forage mass was different between treatments, being greater for steers fed without legume. The accumulation rate, forage allowance, and stocking rate did not differ between treatments due to the adequate adjustment of forage allowance. The final weight of animals, as well as the dry matter intake (kg/d), did not differ between treatments. However, forage intake was higher for non-supplemented animals in relation to supplemented steers. Supplement intake did not alter the total digestible nutrient intake due to pasture quality. Animals fed grass + supplement had higher live weight gain per area than those fed grass + legume. Animals without supplementation spent more time in grazing. Conclusion: Feeding behavior was not altered by mixing with vetch or supplementation. Non-supplemented animals started the grazing peak earlier and spent more time in grazing than those supplemented; however, the average daily gain was similar between treatments. The live weight gain per hectare was 47% higher in pastures in which the animals received supplementation compared with those mixed with vetch, a consequence of the substitutive effect.

Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers

  • Fiorentini, Giovani;Carvalho, Isabela P.C.;Messana, Juliana D.;Canesin, Roberta C.;Castagnino, Pablo S.;Lage, Josiane F.;Arcuri, Pedro B.;Berchielli, Telma T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1583-1591
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    • 2015
  • The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight${\pm}27kg$) were distributed in a duplicated $5{\times}5$ Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of $NH_3-N$ (p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO.

Nutritional Performance of Cattle Grazing during Rainy Season with Nitrogen and Starch Supplementation

  • Lazzarini, Isis;Detmann, Edenio;Filho, Sebastiao de Campos Valadares;Paulino, Mario Fonseca;Batista, Erick Darlisson;Rufino, Luana Marta de Almeida;Reis, William Lima Santiago dos;Franco, Marcia de Oliveira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1120-1128
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogen and starch on the nutritional performance of grazing cattle during the rainy season. Five rumen cannulated Nellore steers, averaging 211 kg of body weight (BW), were used. Animals grazed on five signal grass paddocks. Five treatments were evaluated: control (forage only), ruminal supplementation with nitrogen at 1 g of crude protein (CP)/kg BW, ruminal supplementation with starch at 2.5 g/kg BW, supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and starch (2.5 g/kg BW), and supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and a mixture of corn starch and nitrogenous compounds (2.5 g/kg BW), thereby resulting in an energy part of the supplement with 150 g CP/kg of dry matter (DM). This last treatment was considered an additional treatment. The experiment was carried out according to a $5{\times}5$ Latin square design following a $2{\times}2+1$ factorial arrangement (with or without nitrogen, with or without starch, and the additional treatment). Nitrogen supplementation did not affect (p>0.10) forage intake. Starch supplementation increased (p<0.10) total intake but did not affect (p<0.10) forage intake. There was an interaction between nitrogen and starch (p<0.10) for organic matter digestibility. Organic matter digestibility was increased only by supplying starch and nitrogen together. Nitrogen balance (NB) was increased (p<0.10) by the nitrogen supplementation as well as by starch supplementation. Despite this, even though a significant interaction was not observed (p>0.10), NB obtained with nitrogen plus starch supplementation was greater than NB obtained with either nitrogen or starch exclusive supplementation. Supplementation with starch and nitrogen to beef cattle grazing during the rainy season can possibly improve digestion and nitrogen retention in the animal.

Influence of polymer-coated slow-release urea on total tract apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation and performance of Nellore steers

  • Gardinal, R.;Calomeni, G.D.;Consolo, N.R.B.;Takiya, C.S.;Freitas, J.E. Jr;Gandra, J.R.;Vendramini, T.H.A.;Souza, H.N.;Renno, F.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.34-41
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of coated slow-release urea on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, blood glucose and urea concentration (Exp 1), and average daily gain (ADG; Exp 2) of steers. Methods: Exp 1: Eight ruminally fistulated steers [$503{\pm}28.5kg$ body weight (BW)] were distributed into a d $4{\times}4$ Latin square design and assigned to treatments: control (CON), feed grade urea (U2), polymer-coated slow-release urea A (SRA2), and polymer-coated slow-release urea B (SRB2). Dietary urea sources were set at 20 g/kg DM. Exp 2: 84 steers ($350.5{\pm}26.5kg$ initial BW) were distributed to treatments: CON, FGU at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (U1 and U2, respectively), coated SRA2 at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (SRA1 and SRA2, respectively), and coated SRB at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (SRB1 and SRB2, respectively). Results: Exp 1: Urea treatments (U2+SRA2+SRB2) decreased (7.4%, p = 0.03) the DM intake and increased (11.4%, p<0.01) crude protein digestibility. Coated slow-release urea (SRA2+-SRB2) showed similar nutrient digestibility compwared to feed grade urea (FGU). However, steers fed SRB2 had higher (p = 0.02) DM digestibility compared to those fed SRA2. Urea sources did not affect ruminal fermentation when compared to CON. Although, coated slow-release urea showed lower (p = 0.01) concentration of $NH_3-N$ (-10.4%) and acetate to propionate ratio than U2. Coated slow-release urea showed lower (p = 0.02) urinary N and blood urea concentration compared to FGU. Exp 2: Urea sources decreased (p = 0.01) the ADG in relation to CON. Animals fed urea sources at 10 g/kg DM showed higher (12.33%, p = 0.01) ADG compared to those fed urea at 20 g/kg DM. Conclusion: Feeding urea decreased the nutrient intake without largely affected the nutrient digestibility. In addition, polymer-coated slow-release urea sources decreased ruminal ammonia concentration and increased ruminal propionate production. Urea at 20 g/kg DM, regardless of source, decreased ADG compared both to CON and diets with urea at 10 g/kg DM.