• Title, Summary, Keyword: Need for Cognition

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A Study on Perceived Quality affecting the Service Personal Value in the On-off line Channel - Focusing on the moderate effect of the need for cognition - (온.오프라인 채널에서 지각된 품질이 서비스의 개인가치에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 -인지욕구의 조정효과를 중심으로-)

  • Sung, Hyung-Suk
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.111-137
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    • 2010
  • The basic purpose of this study is to investigate perceived quality and service personal value affecting the result of long-term relationship between service buyers and suppliers. This research presented a constructive model(perceived quality affecting the service personal value and the moderate effect of NFC) in the on off line and then propose the research model base on prior researches and studies about relationships among components of service. Data were gathered from respondents who visit at the education service market. For this study, Data were analyzed by AMOS 7.0. We integrate the literature on services marketing with researches on personal values and perceived quality. The SERPVAL scale presented here allows for the creation of a common ground for assessing service personal values, giving a clear understanding of the key value dimensions behind service choice and usage. It will lead to a focus of future research in services marketing, extending knowledge in the field and stimulating further empirical research on service personal values. At the managerial level, as a tool the SERPVAL scale should allow practitioners to evaluate and improve the value of a service, and consequently, to define strategies and actions to address services for customers based on their fundamental personal values. Through qualitative and empirical research, we find that the service quality construct conforms to the structure of a second-order factor model that ties service quality perceptions to distinct and actionable dimensions: outcome, interaction, and environmental quality. In turn, each has two subdimensions that define the basis of service quality perceptions. The authors further suggest that for each of these subdimensions to contribute to improved service quality perceptions, the quality received by consumers must be perceived to be reliable, responsive, and empathetic. Although the service personal value may be found in researches that explore individual values and their consequences for consumer behavior, there is no established operationalization of a SERPVAL scale. The inexistence of an established scale, duly adapted in order to understand and analyze personal values behind services usage, exposes the need of a measurement scale with such a purpose. This need has to be rooted, however, in a conceptualization of the construct being scaled. Service personal values can be defined as a customer's overall assessment of the use of a service based on the perception of what is achieved in terms of his own personal values. As consumer behaviors serve to show an individual's values, the use of a service can also be a way to fulfill and demonstrate consumers'personal values. In this sense, a service can provide more to the customer than its concrete and abstract attributes at both the attribute and the quality levels, and more than its functional consequences at the value level. Both values and services literatures agree, that personal value is the highest-level concept, followed by instrumental values, attitudes and finally by product attributes. Purchasing behaviors are agreed to be the end result of these concepts' interaction, with personal values taking a major role in the final decision process. From both consumers' and practitioners' perspectives, values are extremely relevant, as they are desirable goals that serve as guiding principles in people's lives. While building on previous research, we propose to assess service personal values through three broad groups of individual dimensions; at the self-oriented level, we use (1) service value to peaceful life (SVPL) and, at the social-oriented level, we use (2) service value to social recognition (SVSR), and (3) service value to social integration (SVSI). Service value to peaceful life is our first dimension. This dimension emerged as a combination of values coming from the RVS scale, a scale built specifically to assess general individual values. If a service promotes a pleasurable life, brings or improves tranquility, safety and harmony, then its user recognizes the value of this service. Generally, this service can improve the user's pleasure of life, since it protects or defends the consumer from threats to life or pressures on it. While building upon both the LOV scale, a scale built specifically to assess consumer values, and the RVS scale for individual values, we develop the other two dimensions: SVSR and SVSI. The roles of social recognition and social integration to improve service personal value have been seriously neglected. Social recognition derives its outcome utility from its predictive utility. When applying this underlying belief to our second dimension, SVSR, we assume that people use a service while taking into consideration the content of what is delivered. Individuals consider whether the service aids in gaining respect from others, social recognition and status, as well as whether it allows achieving a more fulfilled and stimulating life, which might then be revealed to others. People also tend to engage in behavior that receives social recognition and to avoid behavior that leads to social disapproval, and this contributes to an individual's social integration. This leads us to the third dimension, SVSI, which is based on the fact that if the consumer perceives that a service strengthens friendships, provides the possibility of becoming more integrated in the group, or promotes better relationships at the social, professional or family levels, then the service will contribute to social integration, and naturally the individual will recognize personal value in the service. Most of the research in business values deals with individual values. However, to our knowledge, no study has dealt with assessing overall personal values as well as their dimensions in a service context. Our final results show that the scales adapted from the Schwartz list were excluded. A possible explanation is that although Schwartz builds on Rokeach work in order to explore individual values, its dimensions might be especially focused on analyzing societal values. As we are looking for individual dimensions, this might explain why the values inspired by the Schwartz list were excluded from the model. The hierarchical structure of the final scale presented in this paper also presents theoretical implications. Although we cannot claim to definitively capture the dimensions of service personal values, we believe that we come close to capturing these overall evaluations because the second-order factor extracts the underlying commonality among dimensions. In addition to obtaining respondents' evaluations of the dimensions, the second-order factor model captures the common variance among these dimensions, reflecting the respondents' overall assessment of service personal values. Towards this fact, we expect that the service personal values conceptualization and measurement scale presented here contributes to both business values literature and the service marketing field, allowing for the delineation of strategies for adding value to services. This new scale also presents managerial implications. The SERPVAL dimensions give some guidance on how to better pursue a highly service-oriented business strategy. Indeed, the SERPVAL scale can be used for benchmarking purposes, as this scale can be used to identify whether or not a firms' marketing strategies are consistent with consumers' expectations. Managerial assessment of the personal values of a service might be extremely important because it allows managers to better understand what customers want or value. Thus, this scale allows us to identify what services are really valuable to the final consumer; providing knowledge for making choices regarding which services to include. Traditional approaches have focused their attention on service attributes (as quality) and service consequences(as service value), but personal values may be an important set of variables to be considered in understanding what attracts consumers to a certain service. By using the SERPVAL scale to assess the personal values associated with a services usage, managers may better understand the reasons behind services' usage, so that they may handle them more efficiently. While testing nomological validity, our empirical findings demonstrate that the three SERPVAL dimensions are positively and significantly associated with satisfaction. Additionally, while service value to social integration is related only with loyalty, service value to peaceful life is associated with both loyalty and repurchase intent. It is also interesting and surprising that service value to social recognition appears not to be significantly linked with loyalty and repurchase intent. A possible explanation is that no mobile service provider has yet emerged in the market as a luxury provider. All of the Portuguese providers are still trying to capture market share by means of low-end pricing. This research has implications for consumers as well. As more companies seek to build relationships with their customers, consumers are easily able to examine whether these relationships provide real value or not to their own lives. The selection of a strategy for a particular service depends on its customers' personal values. Being highly customer-oriented means having a strong commitment to customers, trying to create customer value and understanding customer needs. Enhancing service distinctiveness in order to provide a peaceful life, increase social recognition and gain a better social integration are all possible strategies that companies may pursue, but the one to pursue depends on the outstanding personal values held by the service customers. Data were gathered from 284 respondents in the korean discount store and online shopping mall market. This research proposed 3 hypotheses on 6 latent variables and tested through structural equation modeling. 6 alternative measurements were compared through statistical significance test of the 6 paths of research model and the overall fitting level of structural equation model. and the result was successful. and Perceived quality more positively influences service personal value when NFC is high than when no NFC is low in the off-line market. The results of the study indicate that service quality is properly modeled as an antecedent of service personal value. We consider the research and managerial implications of the study and its limitations. In sum, by knowing the dimensions a consumer takes into account when choosing a service, a better understanding of purchasing behaviors may be realized, guiding managers toward customers expectations. By defining strategies and actions that address potential problems with the service personal values, managers might ultimately influence their firm's performance. we expect to contribute to both business values and service marketing literatures through the development of the service personal value. At a time when marketing researchers are challenged to provide research with practical implications, it is also believed that this framework may be used by managers to pursue service-oriented business strategies while taking into consideration what customers value.

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A Study on Cognition about 119 Rescue·First Aid Team - Gwangju Area College Student as the Central Figure - (119구조·구급대에 대한 인식도 조사 연구 - 광주지역 보건계열과 비보건계열 대학생을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Kab-Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.141-152
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to provide the basic materials for searching the way of improvement to heighten the emergency medical welfare level by one step further. To achieve this purpose, the subjects of this study were selected 452 college students in Gwangju, using a random sampling method. The statistical analysis methods utilized for analyzing the collected data are frequency analysis, $x^2$ test. The conclusions obtained from these analyses are as following ; 1. In question about necessary optimum number of persons for rescue first aid activity, health and non-health major college students responded by 39.2%, 45.3% respectively that rescue team 15 people, first aid team 3 people is most suitable. But there was no significant difference in major department(p<0.05). 2. In question about security of the public health doctor and the emergency medical technician, all health and non-health major college students are recognizing necessity urgently, but there was no significant difference in major department(p<0.05). 3. In question about 119 rescue first aid team member applying for an examination qualification grant to the department of EMT's graduate, all health and non-health major college students were highest by 52.9%, 52.4% respectively in "necessity" item. But there was no significant difference in major department(p<0.05). 4. Because rescue first aid equipment level appears higher than 41.7% in non-health major college student's case by 54.2% in health major college student's case, health major college students are recognizing that equipment level should be supplemented more but there was no significant difference in major department(p<0.05). 5. In question about equipment supplement, all health and non-health major college students appeared highest by 64.8%, 69.3% in accident type different special equipment. But there was no significant difference in major department(p<0.05). 6. In question about rescue ambulance car size, we could know being thinking that health and non-health major college student each 61.2%, 56.5% is small and narrow that large size of the rescue ambulance amount need. But there was no significant difference in major department(p<0.05). 7. In question about patient's state is worsened, because rescue first aid equipment is inferior, health major college student responded sometimes 55.1%, many 29.5%. very many by 11.5%, while non-health major college student responded 65.8%, 23.1%, 4.0% respectively. There was significant difference in major department(p<0.05). 8. In question about emergency patient must utilize for 119 rescue ambulance car, all health and non-health major college students appeared highest by 38.8%, 41.3% in "not so" item. In question about rescue first aid team's first-aid treatment ability improves more, all health and non-health major college students appeared highest by 58.1% and 58.7% respectively in "improve" item. In question about "119 rescue ambulance car must go more rapidly than now", all health and non-health major college students are recognizing that should be quicker by 58.1%, 60.9% respectively. When called to 119 all health and non-health major college students responded highest by 55.5%, 53.3% respectively that we must receive first-aid treatment direction from a doctor. In question about "119 rescue ambulance car must be made the pay system", all health and non-health major college students responded 74%, 80% respectively in "not so" item. There was significant difference in major department(p<0.05). In conclusions, In oder to provide superior rescue first aid service to people, a public health doctor should be placed in the situation room inside the fire station so that the doctor could instruct the proper emergency treatment suitable for each situation to the rescue first aid team. Also, national education about a first-aid treatment that do to all people is necessarily necessary in emergency delivery system and this should be spread extensively through school education and broadcasting medium and education should be gone side by side, and see that will can save emergency patients' life which is more when these education consists continuously fixed period for public institution of policeman, fire officer etc. specially. And for reinforcement of patient transfer system, public organization must procure special ambulance car so that emergency patient receive first aid treatment while transfer.

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Preference and Tourism Behaviors of the Tourists to the Travel-Destinations in the Eastern Area of Chonnam Province (전남 동부지역 관광지의 선호도와 관광행태에 관한 연구)

  • Chu, Myung-Hee;Lee, Joeng-Rock;Kim, Jae-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.115-131
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    • 1996
  • Tourism is multi-faceted phenomenon which involves movement to stay in destinations outside the normal place of residence. Thus, tourism is a composite phenomenon which incorporates the diversity of variables and relationships to be found in the tourist travel process. Tourism-behaviors are of major economic and social significance. With the growth of mass-tourism, the government departments of tourism is to provide many tourist facilities, to develop travel destination and tourism resources. At same time, the growth of mass-tourism has prompted perceptive travellers to raise many questions concerning the many travel destination and the tourism resources of encouraging further tourism demand. Most of tourism have a mental in their minds about various objects. This allowed him to choose tourism destination as a important rules. In tourism geography, behavioral approach to wildness, tourism resources and places has risen since 1960's. The tourist profile can be viewed under two major categories: the tourist social-economic and behavioral characteristic. Particulary, the motivations, attitude, need, values and preference of travel destinations are of crucial importance in contributing to their desion-making process. In this view, this paper is emprical study investigated travel patterns and behavioral characteristic of tourists and potential tourist in East Chonnam. The purpose of this paper is to show the spatial preference and tourism behavior of travel destinations. For this study, we are undertaken the questionary method employed by recreation geographers in order to collect research data for the East Chonnam-citizens functioned as a major tourist demand. The East Chonnam Province have many tourist-places including national park, provincial park, and local tourist-places. Thus, citizen of the East Chonnam evaluate many tourist-places very high, but evaluate the facilities of tourist place very low. The high ranks of preferences to travel destinations among tourist-places are Hyangilam, Geomoon island, Odongis land, Songkwang temple. The major travel destinations occurred the temporary travel trip are Odong island, Sunam temple, Songkwang temple. Heungkook temple, Hyangilam which are the type of mountainous in located inland. The relationship between the degree of preference and tourism behavior of travel trip for the travel destinations does not correlate each other. The result of analysis about the degree of seasonal preferences presented spatial differences according to characteristics of tourist-places. The typical travel destination are divided into seasons : Odong island. Mt. Backwoon, Goemoon island of spring, Goemoon island, Sungbul valley, Banggukpo beach of summer, Songkwang temple, Mt. Pal young of fall. The future of tourism will be rapidly grow with increase of personal mobility and leisure time, chang of tourism behavior. Thus, it is imperative that planning and development for tour-root, facilities of tourist-places should be implemented to increase tourism demand.

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A Study on the Factors affecting the Utilization of Waterscape Facilitiesin Apartment Complexes based upon Resident Perception - Focused on the Factors of Planning·Design, Maintenance and Usage - (주민인식에 기반한 아파트단지 내 수경시설 이용 영향 요인 분석 - 계획·설계, 유지·관리, 이용 행태를 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Do-Hwan;Cho, Se-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.62-75
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    • 2017
  • This study analyzes the multiple effects of the following three aspects of waterscape facilities within apartment complexes: planning/designing, maintenance/management, and use of the facilities and suggests primary documents that will be fundamental for the methods to accelerate the implementation of waterscape facilities. A survey and analysis was conducted among a few of the most representative private apartment complexes in Seoul in accordance with the management and operation of waterscape facilities. The analysis used frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, reliability test, t-test, and PLS regression analysis. The research findings are as follows: first, the degree of use of waterscape facilities was found to be low regardless of the levels of operation, but residents' preference for the facilities was shown to be high, thus indicating there are still high expectations on the part of residents. Second, regardless of whether the facilities are being operated efficiently, the two items of location and display method under the section of planning and designing and the two items of aptitude and convenience under the section of use were found to positively affect the operation and use of waterscape facilities. Particularly, the item of freshness, cleanliness was shown to be directly and indirectly correlated with obsolescence, administration costs, and noise, which negatively affect the operation. Third, it was found that the administration costs itself that had been shown as the most negative factor of operating landscaping facilities in previous research did not cause problems in the residential area where the facilities are not operated efficiently. The finding suggests that the administration costs do not matter but that in the case of experience- and entertainment-typed facilities that residents want, they are linked to problems that do not introduce the desired facilities. Fourth, it was found that various aspects of planning, designing, maintaining, and using facilities interconnect and affect one another in the process of operating and using waterscape facilities resulting in the need to have a comprehensive approach to these three factors of planning, design, maintenance, management, and utilization. This study proposes that the needs and values of residents should be reflected to activate the introduction of landscaping facilities in the apartment complexes.

The Effect of Users' Personality on Emotional and Cognitive Evaluation in UCC Web Site Usage (UCC(user-created-contents) 웹 사이트에서 사용자의 인성이 감정적, 인지적 평가와 UCC 활용에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Yun-Ji;Kang, So-Ra;Kim, Woo-Gon
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.167-190
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    • 2010
  • The research conducted here focuses on the effect of factors that affect the behavior of UCC (User Created Content) website users, other than user's rational recognition of how useful a UCC website can be. Most discussions in the existing literature on information systems have focused on users' evaluation how a UCC website can help to attain the users' own goals. However, there are other factors and this research pays attention to an individual's 'personality,' which is stable and biological in nature. Specifically, I have noted here that 'extroversion' and 'neuroticism,' the two common personality factors presented in Eysenck's most representative 'EPQ Model' and 'Big Five Model,' are the two personality factors that affect a site's 'usefulness,' by this I mean how useful does the user consider the website and its content. How useful a site is considered by the user is the other factor that has been regarded as the antecedent factor that influences the adoption of information systems in the existing MIS (Management Information System) research. Secondly, as using or creating a UCC website does not guarantee the user's or the creator's extrinsic motivation, unlike when using the information system within an organization, there is a greater likelihood that the increase in user's activities in relation to a UCC website is motivated by emotional factors rather than rational factors. Thus, I have decided to include the relationship between an individual's personality and what they find pleasurable in the research model. Thirdly, when based on the S-O-R Paradigm of Mehrabian and Russell, the two cognitive factors and emotional factors are finally affected by stimulus, and thus these factors ultimately have an effect on an individual's respondent behavior. Therefore, this research has presented an assumption that the recognition of how useful the site and content is and what emotional pleasure it provides will finally affect the behavior of the UCC website users. Finally, the relationship between the recognition of how useful a site is and how pleasurable it is to useand UCC usage may differ depending on certain situational conditions. In other words, the relationship between the three factors may vary according to how much users are involved in the creation of the website content. Creation thus emerges as the keyword of UCC. I analyzed the above relationships through the moderating variable of the user's involvement in the creation of the site. The research result shows the following: When it comes to the relationship between an individual's personality and what they find pleasurable it is extroverted users who have a greater likelihood to feel pleasure when using a UCC website, as was expected in this research. This in turn leads to a more active usage of the UCC web site because a person who is an extrovert likes to spend time on activities with other people, is sensitive to new experiences and stimuli and thus actively responds to these. An extroverted person accepts new UCC activities as part of his/her social life, rather than getting away from this new UCC environment. This is represented by the term 'Foxonomy' where the users meet a variety of users from all over the world and contact new types of content created by these users. However, neuroticism creates the opposite situation to that created by extroversion. The representative symptoms of neuroticism are instability, stress, and tension. These dispositions are more closely related to stress caused by a new environment rather than this creatingcuriosity or pleasure. Thus, neurotic persons have an uneasy feeling and will eventually avoid the situation where their own or others' daily lives are frequently exposed to the open web environment, this eventually makes them have a negative attitude towards the web environment. When it comes to an individual's personality and how useful site is, the two personality factors of extroversion and neuroticism both have a positive relationship with the recognition of how useful the site and its content is. The positive, curious, and social dispositions of extroverted persons tend to make them consider the future usefulness and possibilities of a new type of information system, or website, based on their positive attitude, which has a significant influence on the recognition of how useful these UCC sites are. Neuroticism also favorably affects how useful a UCC website can be through a different mechanism from that of extroversion. As the neurotic persons tend to feel uneasy and have much doubt about a new type of information system, they actively explore its usefulness in order to relieve their uncomfortable feelings. In other words, neurotic persons seek out how useful a site can be in order to secure their own stable feelings. Meanwhile, extroverted persons explore how useful a site can be because of their positive attitude and curiosity. As a lot of MIS research has revealed that the recognition of how useful a site can be and how pleasurable it can be to use have been proven to have a significant effect on UCC activity. However, the relationship between these factors reveals different aspects based on the user's involvement in creation. This factor of creationgauges the interest of users in the creation of UCC contents. Involvement is a variable that shows the level of an individual's mental effort in creating UCC contents. When a user is highly involved in the creation process and makes an enormous effort to create UCC content (classed a part of a high-involvement group), their own pleasure and recognition of how useful the site is have a significantly higher effect on the future usage of the UCC contents, more significantly than the users who sit back and just retrieve the UCC content created by others. The cognitive and emotional response of those in the low-involvement group is unlikely to last long,even if they recognize the contents of a UCC website is pleasurable and useful to them. However, the high-involvement group tends to participate in the creation and the usage of UCC more favorably, connecting the experience with their own goals. In this respect, this research presents an answer to the question; why so many people are participating in the usage of UCC, the representative form of the Web 2.0 that has drastically involved more and more people in the creation of UCC, even if they cannot gain any monetary or social compensation. Neither information system nor a website can succeed unless it secures a certain level of user base. Moreover, it cannot be further developed when the reasons, or problems, for people's participation are not suitably explored, even if it has a certain user base. Thus, what is significant in this research is that it has studied users' respondent behavior based on an individual's innate personality, emotion, and cognitive interaction, unlike the existing research that has focused on 'compensation' to explain users' participation with the UCC website. There are also limitations in this research. Firstly, I divided an individual's personality into extroversion and neuroticism; however, there are many other personal factors such as neuro-psychiatricism, which also needs to be analyzed for its influence on UCC activities. Secondly, as a UCC website comes in many types such as multimedia, Wikis, and podcasting, these types need to be included as a sub-category of the UCC websites and their relationship with personality, emotion, cognition, and behavior also needs to be analyzed.