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A Chemical Analysis of Airborne Particulates at the near Coast Site, Ul-jin Geun Gyungbook

  • Lee, Dong Sub;Park, Jin Sik
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.615-622
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    • 2015
  • East Asia is characterized by anthropogenic emissions resulting from the large population and fast economic growth of this region. Since the prevailing wind is westerly and northwesterly, emissions from Ul-jin can be expected to contribute to acidic deposition increase in downwind direction. Aerosols collected at the near coast site, Uljin geun, gyungbook and were analyzed for $NH_4{^+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Na^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Cl^-$, $SO_4{^{2-}}$, and $NO_3{^-}$ from Aug. 2012 to Feb. 2013. The seasonal averaged aerosol concentration showed the highest potassium and calcium ion in winter and the highest ammonium ion due to a meadow and high solar intensity in summer. Sodium and chloride ion showed the same ratio all seasons and sulfate and nitrate species showed the maximum value in winter Chemical components of aerosols collected at the near coast site, Uljin geun, gyungbook were lower by 16 to 73% than those collected at other similar environment site such as kanghwa, yangyang. Comparing air quality data at the near coast site, Uljin geun, gyungbook, There was found that Uljin coast site is less influenced by the sea salts(potassium, magnesium, calcium) and nss-$SO_4{^{2-}}$ percentage is 3~13% higher than similar condition site.

Ocean Response to Typhoon Rusa in the South Sea of Korea and in the East China Sea

  • Lee, Dong-Kyu;Niiler, Peter
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.60-67
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    • 2003
  • Typhoon Rusa passed over the East China Sea and crossed over the Korea Peninsula on August 31, 2002. The core of the typhoon passed directly over a data buoy mooring site at ($127^{\circ}45'E,\;34^{\circ}25'\;N$) and several ARGOS-tracked drifters capable of measuring salinity. Peak hourly mean wind speed reached 28 m/s at the mooring site and wind pattern in the East China Sea changed from southerly wind to northwesterly wind after the typhoon passage. Two or three days before the typhoon tile drifter displacement changed significantly and the region-wide circulation pattern changed from a northeastward current to a westward current one week after the typhoon had passed. The surface water in the East China Sea was cooled to about $4^{\circ}C$ under the typhoon core and a general cooling occurred in most of the East China Sea with the exception of the Chinese coast. The salinity as observed by the drifters in the East China Sea increased about 2 psu but the near-shore water along the Korean coast observed by the mooring was freshened about 3 psu. The freshening of near-shore water was caused by an intrusion of off-shore water rather than local freshening by typhoon precipitation.

Numerical Analysis with CFD Model for Site Designation in Urban Mountain Area (도심지 산악지형의 풍력발전 입지선정을 위한 전산유동해석 수치모의)

  • Lee, Hwa-Woon;Park, Soon-Young;Lee, Soon-Hwan;Kim, Dong-Hyuk
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.498-500
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    • 2009
  • When we urgently need to develop and supply an alternative energy, wind power is growing with much interest because it has relative low cost for generating power and small area for wind turbine. To estimate the wind power resource, it is necessary to make an observation first. Although the large wind farm and resources are near coast and mountain area, the wind energy in urban area has the strong thing of direct access to power generator. In this study, we estimate the probability of wind energy in urban mountain area using A2C (Atmospheric to CFD) model, which is used for horizontally urban scale phenomena. In the steady state results, the site C is most suitable for wind power in the point of the only wind speed. But, estimating the TKE and vertical wind shear, the site B is showing the better results than the site C.

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Community structure of Macrobenthic Fauna under Marine Fish Culture Cages near Tong-yong, Southern Coast of Korea (통영 인근 가두리 양식장 지역의 저서동물군집구조)

  • PARK Heung-Sik;CHOI Jin-Woo;LEE Hyung-Gon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2000
  • Benthic environments and composition of macrobenthic fauna around the marine fish culture cages were studied to clarify the effect of fish farming near Tongyong from August, 1995 to february, 1996. Sediment grain size and bottom dissolved oxygen under the fish cages were similar to that of a control site, but organic content was higher under the cages. Fewer species were found under the fish cages than under the control site, but conspicuously higher density was obtained under cages. Capitella capitals, Nebalia bipes were dominant infauna, and Asterina pertinifera and Astelias amurensis were dominant epifauna under the fish cage whereas Lumbrineris longifolia and Anphioplus sp. dominated in the control site. Diversity index showed seasonal variation under the fish cages, but showed little variation at the control site. The benthic fauna under the fish cages showed different community structures from the control site. As results, the fish culture cages affected the benthic environment and the community structure of benthic fauna by input of the organic content and biological effects such as dead shells.

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Marine Environmental Characteristics of Goheung Coastal Waters during Cochlodinium polykrikoides Blooms (Cochlodinium polykrikoides 적조 발생시의 한국 남해안 고흥 연안의 해양환경 특징)

  • Lee, Moon Ock;Kim, Byeong Kuk;Kim, Jong Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.166-178
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    • 2015
  • We investigated marine environmental characteristics of Goheung coastal areas in August where is known to be the first outbreak site of Cochlodinium polykrikoides (hereafter C. polykrikoides) blooms, based on the oceanographic data observed from 1993 to 2013 around the Korean southern coastal waters including Eastern China Sea by National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI). The data of NOAA/NGSST satellite images as well as numerical simulation results by Seo et al. [2013] were also used for analysis. Water temperatures at the surface and bottom layers in Goheung coast, i.e. Narodo, were $25.0^{\circ}C$ and $23.7^{\circ}C$ so that they were higher than $23.8^{\circ}C$ and $19.4^{\circ}C$ in Geoje coast where is a reference site, respectively. In addition, salinities at the surface and bottom layers in Goheung coast were 31.78 psu and 31.98 psu so that they were a little higher than 31.54 psu at the surface but a little lower than 32.79 psu at the bottom in Geoje coast, respectively. That is, the differences in water temperature or salinity between the surface and bottom layers in Goheung coast in August were not large compared to Geoje coast. This suggests that stratification in Goheung coast in August is fairly weak or may not be established. In addition, the concentrations of DIN and DIP at the surface layer were 0.068 mg/L ($4.86{\mu}M$) and 0.015 mg/L ($5.14{\mu}M$) in Goheung coast while 0.072 mg/L ($5.14{\mu}M$) and 0.01 mg/L ($0.32{\mu}M$) in Geoje coast, so they did not indicate a meaningful difference. On the other hand, when C. polykrikoides blooms, water temperature and salinity in August at the station 317-22 ($31.5^{\circ}N$, $124^{\circ}E$) of the East China Sea, where is near the mouth of Yangtze River, were $27.8^{\circ}C$ and 31.61 psu, respectively. Thus, water temperature was much higher whereas salinity was almost similar compared to Goheung coast. Furthermore, concentrations of $NO_3-N$ and $PO_4-P$ in the East China Sea in August were remarkably high compared to Goheung coast. When C. polykrikoides blooms, according to not only the image data of satellites NOAA/NGSST but also numerical experiment results by Seo et al.[2013], the freshwater out of Yangtze River was judged to clearly affect the Korean southern coastal waters. Therefore, the supply of nutrients in terms of Yangtze River may greatly contribute to the outbreak of C. polykrikoides blooms in Goheung coast in summer.

Considerations of Environmental Factors Affecting the Detection of Underwater Acoustic Signals in the Continental Regions of the East Coast Sea of Korea

  • Na, Young-Nam;Kim, Young-Gyu;Kim, Young-Sun;Park, Joung-Soo;Kim, Eui-Hyung;Chae, Jin-Hyuk
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.2E
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    • pp.30-45
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    • 2001
  • This study considers the environmental factors affecting propagation loss and sonar performance in the continental regions of the East Coast Sea of Korea. Water mass distributions appear to change dramatically in a few weeks. Simple calculation with the case when the NKCW (North Korean Cold Water) develops shows that the difference in propagation loss may reach in the worst up to 10dB over range 5km. Another factor, an eddy, has typical dimensions of 100-200km in diameter and 150-200m in thickness. Employing a typical eddy and assuming frequency to be 100Hz, its effects on propagation loss appear to make lower the normal formation of convergence zones with which sonars are possible to detect long-range targets. The change of convergence zones may result in 10dB difference in received signals in a given depth. Thermal fronts also appear to be critical restrictions to operating sonars in shallow waters. Assuming frequency to be 200Hz, thermal fronts can make 10dB difference in propagation loss between with and without them over range 20km. An observation made in one site in the East Coast Sea of Korea reveals that internal waves may appear in near-inertial period and their spectra may exist in periods 2-17min. A simulation employing simple internal wave packets gives that they break convergence zones on the bottom, causing the performance degradation of FOM as much as 4dB in frequency 1kHz. An acoustic experiment, using fixed source and receiver at the same site, shows that the received signals fluctuate tremendously with time reaching up to 6.5dB in frequencies 1kHz or less. Ambient noises give negative effects directly on sonar performance. Measurements at some sites in the East Coast Sea of Korea suggest that the noise levels greatly fluctuate with time, for example noon and early morning, mainly due to ship traffics. The average difference in a day may reach 10dB in frequency 200Hz. Another experiment using an array of hydrophones gives that the spectrum levels of ambient noises are highly directional, their difference being as large as 10dB with vertical or horizontal angles. This fact strongly implies that we should obtain in-situ information of noise levels to estimate reasonable sonar performance. As one of non-stationary noise sources, an eel may give serious problems to sonar operation on or under the sea bottoms. Observed eel noises in a pier of water depth 14m appear to have duration time of about 0.4 seconds and frequency ranges of 0.2-2.8kHz. The 'song'of an eel increases ambient noise levels to average 2.16dB in the frequencies concerned, being large enough to degrade detection performance of the sonars on or below sediments. An experiment using hydrophones in water and sediment gives that sensitivity drops of 3-4dB are expected for the hydrophones laid in sediment at frequencies of 0.5-1.5kHz. The SNR difference between in water and in sediment, however, shows large fluctuations rather than stable patterns with the source-receiver ranges.

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Algorithm of Predicting Swell-like Significant Waves in the East Coast of Korea (동해안 너울성 고파 예측 알고리즘)

  • Ahn, Suk Jin;Lee, Byeong Wook;Kwon, Seok Jae;Lee, Changhoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.2329-2341
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we develop an algorithm to predict swell-like significant waves in the east coast of Korea using the directional wave gauge which is installed near Sokcho. Using the numerical wave model SWAN, we estimate wave data in open sea from the wave data observed through the directional wave gauge. Then, using the wave ray method with the open-sea wave data as offshore boundary conditions, we predict the swell-like significant waves at several points in the east coast of Korea. We verify the prediction methods with the SWAN and wave ray methods by comparing numerically predicted data against either target or measured data at the observation site. We can improve the prediction of the swell-like significant waves in the east sea of Korea using both the real-time wave measurement system and the present prediction algorithm.

Changes of Tissue N Content and Community Structure of Macroalgae on Intertidal Rocky Shores in Tongyeong Area due to Sewage Discharge (통영 지역의 암반 조간대에서 배출수 유입으로 인한 해조 군집 구조와 엽체 내 질소 함량의 변화)

  • Kang, Yun-Hee;Park, Sang-Rul;Oak, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Jin-Ae;Chung, Ik-Kyo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.276-283
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    • 2009
  • Enrichment in nutrients coming from urban sewage outfalls can lead to eutrophication in coastal areas, which can also change the species composition and community structure of macro algal communities. We investigated the structure of the macro algal community within three rocky shores in order to assess any possible differences in their characteristics. Site 1 was located near Tongyeong city's sewage outfall, Site 2 was located near a public beach area, and Site 3 faced open channel of the Ocean. All three sites were located within the same stretch of the coast, where Site 2 was located between sites 1 and 3. We measured the nutrient concentration in water and the tissue nitrogen content in macro algae samples. Nutrients in the water column surrounding site 1 were high in ammonium ($30.2\pm1.8{\mu}M$), nitrate ($26.2{\pm}0.1{\mu}M$), and phosphate ($2.7{\pm}0.1{\mu}M$) content, and were characterized by low numbers of macroalgal species and species and a low species diversity index. In contrast, site 3 exhibited relatively low nutrient concentration levels and a high number of macroalgal species and a high species diversity index. Comparative analysis showed that the tissue nitrogen content of macroalgae were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the nutrient concentration in the water column. The tissue nitrogen content of green algae within site 1 was higher than the others sites. However, the tissue nitrogen content of brown algae was similar at all three sites. Thus, the tissue nitrogen content of macro algae and the macro algal community structure of intertidal rocky shores were dependent on location and the performance of macroalgal communities was dependent on water quality.

Characteristics of Vertical Variation of Wind Resources in Planetary Boundary Layer in Coastal Area using Tall Tower Observation (타워 관측 자료를 이용한 연안 대기 경계층 내 바람 자원의 연직 변동 특성)

  • Yoo, Jung-Woo;Lee, Hwa-Woon;Lee, Soon-Hwan;Kim, Dong-Hyeok
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.632-643
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    • 2012
  • Analysis of wind resources in Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) using long term observation of tall tower located near coast line of the Korean Peninsula were carried out. The data observed at Pohang, Gunsan and Jinhae are wind, temperature and relative humidity with 10 minute interval for one year from 1 October 2010. Vertical turbulence intensity and its deviation at Pohang site is smaller than those of other sites, and momentum flux estimated at 6 vertical layers tend to show small difference in Pohang site in comparison with other sites. The change of friction velocity with atmospheric stability in Pohang is also not so great. These analysis indicate the mechanical forcing due to geographical element of upwind side is more predominant than thermal forcing. On the other hand, wind resources at Gunsan and Jinhae are mainly controlled by thermal forcing.

A summertime near-ground velocity profile of the Bora wind

  • Lepri, Petra;Kozmar, Hrvoje;Vecenaj, Zeljko;Grisogono, Branko
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.505-522
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    • 2014
  • While effects of the atmospheric boundary layer flow on engineering infrastructure are more or less known, some local transient winds create difficulties for structures, traffic and human activities. Hence, further research is required to fully elucidate flow characteristics of some of those very unique local winds. In this study, important characteristics of observed vertical velocity profiles along the main wind direction for the gusty Bora wind blowing along the eastern Adriatic coast are presented. Commonly used empirical power-law and the logarithmic-law profiles are compared against unique 3-level high-frequency Bora measurements. The experimental data agree well with the power-law and logarithmic-law approximations. An interesting feature observed is a decrease in the power-law exponent and aerodynamic surface roughness length, and an increase in friction velocity with increasing Bora wind velocity. This indicates an urban-like velocity profile for smaller wind velocities and rural-like velocity profile for larger wind velocities, which is due to a stronger increase in absolute velocity at each of the heights observed as compared to the respective velocity gradient (difference in average velocity among two different heights). The trends observed are similar during both the day and night. The thermal stratification is near neutral due to a strong mechanical mixing. The differences in aerodynamic surface roughness length are negligible for different time averaging periods when using the median. For the friction velocity, the arithmetic mean proved to be independent of the time record length, while for the power-law exponent both the arithmetic mean and the median are not influenced by the time averaging period. Another issue is a large difference in aerodynamic surface roughness length when calculating using the arithmetic mean and the median. This indicates that the more robust median is a more suitable parameter to determine the aerodynamic surface roughness length than the arithmetic mean value. Variations in velocity profiles at the same site during different wind periods are interesting because, in the engineering community, it has been commonly accepted that the aerodynamic characteristics at a particular site remain the same during various wind regimes.