• Title, Summary, Keyword: Natural organic matter

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Constituent of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and its Effect in Water (물 속의 자연 유기물 성분이 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Hokyong;Erdei, Laszlo;Kim, Jong-Ho
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2006
  • Natural organic matter (NOM) should be carefully considered in terms of its constituent and effect because NOM is complex substances that occur in spatially and seasonally varying concentrations in natural water. This review presents characteristics of natural organic matter present in water. These compounds mainly include humic substances, carbohydrates, proteins (amino acids), hexosamines, fats, oils, greases, and trace organic compounds (endocrine disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals and personal care products).

Effects of Organic Matter and pH on Chromium Oxidation Potential of Soil

  • Chung, Jong-Bae;Eum, Jin-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.346-351
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    • 2001
  • Oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) can increase availability and toxicity of chromium. In this study, possible mechanisms by which pH and organic matter can control the chromium oxidation and reduction in soil system were examined using four soils of different pHs and organic matter contents. Reduction of Mn-oxides occurred in the soils of higher organic matter content (4.0%), but Mn-oxide was quite stable during the incubation in the soil of pH 7.0 and 0.5% organic matter content. Manganese oxides can be reductively dissolved at lower pH and higher organic matter conditions. The soil of pH 7.0 and 4.0% organic matter content showed the highest Cr-oxidation potential. Reduction of soluble Cr(VI) was observed in all the soils examined. The most rapid reduction was found in soil of pH 5.5 and 4.0% organic matter content, but the reduction was slow in soil of pH 7.0 and 0.5% organic matter content. Thus, the reductive capacity of organic matter added soils was much higher as compared to other two soils of lower organic matter content. In all the soils examined, the reductive capacity of soluble chromium was much higher than the oxidative capacity. Organic matter was found to be the most important controlling factor in the chromium oxidation and reduction. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) could be a potentially useful remediation or detoxification process, and availability and toxicity of chromium in soil would be controlled by controlling organic matter content and pH of the soils.

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Comparison of Organic Matter Dynamics between Natural Deciduous Broad-Leaved Forest and Adjacent Artificial Evergreen Coniferous Forest

  • Takahiro, Ichikawa;Terumasa, Takahashi;Yoshito, Asano
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of the conversion of the forest management type from a natural deciduous broad-leaved forest to an artificial evergreen coniferous forest based on organic matter dynamics. We investigated the amounts and carbon contents of the forest floor and the litterfall, soil chemical characteristics and cellulose decomposition rates in the natural deciduous broad-leaved forest and adjacent artificial evergreen coniferous forest. In the artificial evergreen coniferous forest were planted Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) on the upper slope and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) on the lower slope. The soil carbon and nitrogen contents, CEC and microbial activity had decreased due to the conversion of the forest management type from a natural deciduous broad-leaved forest to an artificial Japanese cypress forest, and were almost the same for the conversion to a Japanese cedar forest. Under the same conditions, it is considered that the soil fertility was different by planting specific tree species because the organic matter dynamics were changed by them.

Study on Controlling Factors for Soil Structure in Creation of Man-made Tidal Flat (인공 간석지 창출에 있어서 토양구조를 결정하는 인자에 관한 연구)

  • 이정규;최영찬
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.587-592
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the controlling factors to construct tidal flat ecosystems having similar characteristics as natural ones. We transplanted the soil in a constructed tidal flat to a natural one and vice versa. Parameters monitored after these transplantations were silt content, organic matter, bacterial population and oxidation-reduction potential. Moreover, the relationship among silt content, organic matter and bacterial population was investigated by laboratory column experiment. The silt content, organic matter, bacterial population and vertical profile of oxidation-reduction potential in the soil transplanted from the constructed tidal flat to the natural one changed to similar values to those in the natural one. On the contrary, all the parameters for the soil transplanted from the natural tidal flat to the constructed one changed to similar values as those in the constructed one. The silt contents in thses two transplanted solis were in proportion to the organic carbon contents and bacterial population. Similarly, the bacterial population in laboratory column experiment increased with the increase in silt and organic matter contents. It seemed to be important to select a place to enhance accumulative of silt and/or to maintain the silt content by hydrodynamic control of seawater in order to construct a tidal flat having similar characteristics as natural one.

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Characterization of Natural Organic Matter in Spring Water

  • Yoo, Hee-Jin;Choi, Yoon-Ji;Cho, Kun
    • Mass Spectrometry Letters
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.90-94
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    • 2020
  • Interest in aspects of industrialization relating to human health has increased. Accordingly, the use of labels such as 'natural foods' and 'organic ingredients' has become more widespread, and greater emphasis is being placed on improving quality of life. Water is an essential element for human life, and water quality has a significant impact on human health. However, technology that can precisely determine the substances present in water is still lacking. This study was conducted to establish a complete mass spectrometry process, from pretreatment to analysis, to measure and characterize natural organic matter (NOM) in Korean spring water samples. Salts and other matrices were removed from the samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with two different columns (PPL and C18). After establishing an accurate analysis method, the experimental results were evaluated based on Van Krevelen diagrams and analysis of molar O/C and H/C ratios. The method for characterizing NOM introduced herein should facilitate evaluation of water quality.

Characterization of NOM Behavior and DBPs Formation in Water Treatment Processes (정수처리공정에서 NOM 거동과 소독부산물 발생특성)

  • Kim, Sang Eun;Gu, Yeun Hee;Yu, Myong Jin;Chang, Hyun Seong;Lee, Su Won;Han, Sun Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.395-407
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    • 2007
  • Disinfection by-products(DBPs) are formed through the reaction between chlorine and natural organic matter(NOM) in water treatment. For reducing the formation of chlorinated DBPs in the drinking water treatment, there is a need to evaluate the behavior of NOM fractions and the occurrence of DBPs for each fraction. Among the six fractions of NOM, the removal of HPOA and HPIN got accomplished through coagulation and sedimentation processes. Advanced water treatment processes were found to be most significant to remove the HPOA and HPON. It was found that HPOA made the most THMFP level than any other fractions and HPIA and HPOA formed higher HAAFP. The fraction of NOM with MW less than 1k Da was 32.5~54.3% in intake raw water. Mostly the organic matter with MW more than 1k Da was removed through coagulation and sedimentation in the drinking water treatment processes. In case of advanced water treatment processes, the organic matter with MW 1k~100k Da decreased by means of ozone oxidation for high molecular weight substances. As the result low molecular organic matter increased. In the BAC and GAC processes, the organic matter with MW less than 100k Da decreased.

Study on Construction of Soil Structure in Creation of Man-made Tidal Flat (인공 간석지 창출에 있어서 토양조성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeoung-Gyu;Suh, Hea-Dong
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the controlling factors to construct tidal flat ecosystems having similar characteristics as natural ones. We transplanted the soil in a constructed tidal flat to a natural one and vice versa. Parameters monitored after these transplantations were silt content, organic matter, bacterial population and oxidation-reduction potential. Moreover, the relationship among silt content, organic matter and bacterial population was investigated by laboratory column experiment. The silt content, organic matter, bacterial population and vortical profile of oxidation-reduction potential in the soil transplanted from the constructed tidal flat to the natural one changed to similar values to those In the natural one. On the contrary, all the parameters for the soil transplanted from the natural tidal flat to the constructed one changed to similar values as those in the constructed one. The silt contents in these two transplanted soils were in proportion to the organic carbon contents and bacterial population. Similarly, the bacterial population in laboratory column experiment increased with the increase in silt and organic matter contents. It seemed to be important to select a place to enhance accumulative of silt and/or to maintain the silt content by hydrodynamic control of seawater in order to construct a tidal flat having similar characteristics as natural one.

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Analysis of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Characteristics in the Geum River (금강 수계 자연유기물 특성 분석)

  • Yu, Soon-Ju;Kim, Chang-Soo;Ha, Sung-Ryong;Hwang, Jong-Yeon;Chae, Min-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2005
  • Natural organic matter(NOM) is defined as the complex matrix of organic material and abundant in natural waters. It affects the performance of unit operations for water purification. Several kinds of analytical indicators such as DOC, specific ultraviolet absorbance(SUVA), apparent molecular weight (AMW), fractionation and high performance size exclusive chromatography(HPSEC) have been used to understand characteristics and variations of NOM. This study aims to evaluate the characteristics of NOM in the Geum River system comprising with stream flows and reservoirs. It was identified that SUVA denoting the portion of humic substance in water ranged within 1.60~3.36. Using resin adsorbents, dissolved organic carbon(DOC) was fractionated into three classes: hydrophobic bases(HOB), hydrophobic acids(HOA) and hydrophilic substances(HI). HI dominates in all samples, collectively accounting for more than 62% of the DOC. HOA was the second dominated fraction and it varied considerably but accounted for about 30% of the DOC. The distribution of high molecular weight(HMW) measured by HPSEC being used to determine the molecular weight distribution of aquatic humic substances was 40.1% and 38.7% in reservoir and stream flow, respectively. The distribution of low molecular weight(LMW) in stream flow was 13.2% higher than that in reservoir. And apparent molecular weight less than 1KDa, which include the molecular weight of hydrophilic organic matter, occupied with 69.2% and 68.2% in stream flow and reservoir, respectively. While the molecular weight of 1 to 100 KDa including humic substances ranged with 18.6% and 21.6% in stream flow and reservoir, respectively. Seasonal variation of refractory dissolved organic carbon was similar to that of SUVA.

Particle and NOM Fouling in Ultrafiltration with Softening Pretreatment (연수화 전처리를 적용한 한외여과에서 입자상 물질 및 자연유기물 막오염)

  • Kweon, Ji-Hyang;Lawler, Desmond F.
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.534-541
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    • 2003
  • Membrane processes are now frequently considered for application in drinking water treatment. The biggest impediment for applying membrane processes is fouling that comes from mass flux (such as particle and organic matter) to the membrane surface and its pores due to convection flow through the membrane. Natural organic matter (NOM) has been reported as the most detrimental foulant. Some research also indicated that particles were often the dominant cause of fouling. Therefore, both NOM and particle fouling need to be examined to better understand fouling in ultrafiltration. Two waters from natural sources, Lake Austin water and Missouri River water, were selected. Both waters are relatively hard waters but has significantly different particle concentrations, which will elucidate effects of particles on membrane fouling. Precipitative softening is traditionally designed to remove hardness ions in hard waters but it can also remove particles and organic matter. Therefore, the integrated water treatment with softening and ultrafiltration is proposed as a promising option for hard waters. The three levels of softening were used to represent different degrees of pretreatment to ultrafiltration in terms of organic matter (i.e., NOM fouling) and precipitates (i.e., particle fouling by further precipitation). Results showed that natural particles in Missouri River water was detrimental foulants of ultrafiltration. As the levels of softening were increased, NOM and particle removal was increased, and thus fouling was decreased. Direct images of the surface of the membranes by scanning electron microscopy allowed observation of the different properties of particles caught in fibril networks of natural organic matter.