• Title, Summary, Keyword: Narrator

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A Study of the Narrative Structure of ″Travel in Mujin″ (무진기행의 서술구조 연구)

  • 정연희
    • Lingua Humanitatis
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.179-196
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    • 2001
  • According to Formalist theory, form is not separate from content. Form does not merely convey or express content but can itself produce meaning. The close correlation of the narrative structure, more specifically the time structure of the narrative, and the narrative style of Kim Seung-Ok′s short story′"Travel in Mujin" provides a good example of this argument. The story opens with the first-person narrator, currently living in the bustling city of Seoul, back in his small provincial home town Mujin, where he brings up memories that had been hitherto suppressed. The revived memories are ordered into the narrator′s present thought structure, in effect bridging the vast psychological rift between the lost past and the present. The narrator′s travel in Mujin thus becomes a psychological journey, and Mujin becomes a psychological space where the narrator can experience the continuity of his own being. The "narrating I" excludes the principles of reality from his narrative, concentrating on the inner thoughts, recollections, psychological experience, and the level of consciousness of the "narrated I." This narrative attitude or style expresses the narrator-protagonist′s acceptance and affirmation of the thoughts and actions occur in Mujin (which he had till now been resistant to). It is also an affirmation of the narrative act itself. Before the travel back to Mujin, the narrator-protagonist′s thoughts about his home town was ambivalent-an attitude originating from nostalgia, together with the narrator-protagonist′s ambivalent attitude toward his youthful past. It is a reflection of the narrator-protagonist′s desire for purity intermingled with a disdain for his enervated existence in Seoul. This ambivalence is resolved by the "I" of the narrative present, and Mujin enables him to come to a renewed affirmation of his life.

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A Study on the Aesthetic Modernity of Baekseok′s Poetry (백석 시의 심미적 모더니티)

  • 진순애
    • Lingua Humanitatis
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.213-235
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this paper is to study on the aesthetic modernity of Baekseok's poetry. They say that Baekseok's poetry have the motives of the folk-customs and his native language which have been studied for the purpose of showing the subject character of Baekseok's poetry. Baekseok's poetry consisted of the dark imagery are based on the reality of our national loss and his lose living, so the approaching for the purpose of showing the subject character is more suitable for the understanding of the world of his poetry. But this paper Is approached by what the aesthetic modernity of Baekseok's poetry is, because the understanding of how the modem poetry are composed of is more important reading pattern on them. The special feature of his poetry is composed of the ironic poetics figured by the anti-subjectivity like the stylistic of the Imagism, the child narrator, and the pessimist narrator. His poetry written by the Imagism stand for the Apollo Modernism, and his poetry written by the child narrator and the pessimist narrator stand for the Dionysus Modernism. His poetry anti-subjected through the Imagism have been written with the motives of the home-nature and the native people, which have created the objective modernity. His poetry through the child narrator have been written with the motives of our folk-customs, and them through the pessimist narrator have been written with the paradoxical speech, which have created the subjective modernity. Especially, the Shamanism-poetry through the child narrator have created the aesthetik of the Schreckens. Others have created the ironic poetics through the anti-subjectivity and the exaggerated paradoxical rhetoric. In conclusion, it is more reasonable point of view that the special feature of Baekseok's poetry is based on the dual modernism like the Apollo and the Dionysus.

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Narrator as Collective 'We': The Narrative Structure of "A Rose for Emily"

  • Kim, Ji-Won
    • English Language & Literature Teaching
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.141-156
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    • 2011
  • This study purposes to explore the narrative of fictional events complicated by a specific narrator, taking notice of his/her role as an internal focalizer as well as an external participant. In William Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily," the story of an eccentric spinster, Emily Grierson, is focalized and narrated by a townsperson, apparently an individual, but one who always speaks as 'we.' This tale-teller, as a first-hand witness of the events in the story, details the strange circumstances of Emily's life and her odd relationships with her father, her lover, the community, and even the horrible secret hidden to the climactic moment at the end. The narrative 'we' has surely watched Emily for many years with a considerable interest but also with a respectful distance. Being left unidentified on purpose, this narrative agent, in spite of his/her vagueness, definitely knows more than others do and acts undoubtedly as a pivotal role in this tale of grotesque love. Seamlessly juxtaposing the present and the past, the collective 'we' suggests an important subject that the distinction between the past and the present is blurred out for Emily, for whom the indiscernibleness of time flow proves to be her hamartia. The focalizer-narrator describes Miss Emily in the same manner as he/she describes the South whose old ways have passed on by time. Like the Old South, Emily is desperately trapped in the past, since she has not been able to adjust to the changes brought on by time. In the end, the tragic story of Emily Grierson which takes place in Jefferson plainly seems to serve as an introduction to mature Faulkner.

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The Conversion of Narrative Strategy: from "An Outpost of Progress" to Heart of Darkness (서술 전략의 전환-「진보의 전초기지」에서 『어둠의 핵심』으로)

  • Lee, Man Sik
    • Journal of English Language & Literature
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.625-649
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    • 2011
  • Even though "An Outpost of Progress" and Heart of Darkness were based upon Joseph Conrad the sailor's same experience in Congo Free State, their narrative strategies are quite different. The realistic representation of "An Outpost of Progress," with which Conrad was not satisfied at all, was converted into the modernistic narrative strategy of Heart of Darkness so that the sympathetic power of the story should be improved. The conservative value system of realism is expressed by the omniscient author in "An Outpost of Progress," whereas the frame narrator of Heart of Darkness is proved to be an unreliable one whose norms and behavior are not in accordance with the implied author. The glorious history of the British Empire, which was proudly presented by the frame narrator at the beginning of Heart of Darkness, was strongly opposed by Marlow, another narrator, who said that the British Empire had been "one of the dark places of the earth" when ruled by the Roman Empire. The feeling of the frame narrator was uneasily changed into the gloomy mood when he described the Thames as the flow which "seemed to lead into the heart of an immense darkness" at the end of Heart of Darkness. Similar to the straightforward narrative strategy of representation in "An Outpost of Progress," the realistic approach of Part I in Heart of Darkness is considered by Conrad as insufficient to reveal the darkest truth of imperialism, which was declared by Kurtz as "The Horror! The Horror!" Thus Conrad uses the Chinese-box structure, in which Kurtz' episode is enveloped by Marlow's tale which is enclosed by the frame narrator's story, in order to penetrate into the mind of ordinary readers in the novelist's age of New Colonialism, while attacking the ideology itself of imperialism instead of critisizing its inefficiency and individualism.

A Study on 'the Character' in Adolfo Bioy Casares' Literature Works - Focusing on protagonist/antagonist, protagonist narrator/editor narrator (아돌포 비오이 까사레스 작품의 등장인물 연구 - 주인공과 반주인공, 주인공 화자와 편집자 화자를 중심으로)

  • Jeon, Yong Gab
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.25
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    • pp.453-482
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    • 2011
  • Until now and in the studying of fantastic literature, there has been likely to regard the character as secondary element, compared to their actions. However, it has to be recognized that the characters is a barometer to divide the boundary among the marvellous literature, or fantasy, magic realism, etc., in particular it is an important narrative element to understand an epistemological vision of fantastic literature. This thesis analyzes the characters, focusing on two dimensions divided such as between protagonist/antagonist and protagonist narrator/editor narrator. The characters in fantastic literature are usually set-up as people like ourselves, because it is necessary for the readers to consider the supernatural phenomenon as real world situation. The reason why many characters in fantastic literature usually meet a tragic end is that the structure of fantastic literature embedded unresolved supernatural confusion into ordinary order in the end, while antagonists are viewed as holders of extraordinariness and they are far from vero-similarity. Together with usual characters who represent the world of logic and reason, antagonists who seek to understand more about the universe totally and thus regarded as symbols of intuition and imagination and ultimately are the elements of fantastic literature. On the other hand, the "first person narrator" is divided between "protagonist narrator" who narrates the supernatural things through his/her own experience to readers and "editor narrator" who narrates the other's experiences. Particularly in the case of "editor narrator", he/she may narrates the stories with different explication and angle, which lead to hesitation and confusion for readers to identify between reality and unreality or natural logic and supernatural one. Even though there are various categories in fantastic literature, this thesis exclude 'neo fantastic', 'metaphysical fantastic' ones, characterized as a possibility of convergence with the secondary interpretation and symbolic implication. Beyond these materials, the literatures which involved with this thesis and analysis are normally related with traditional fantastic literary works which supernatural events intervene in real world and bring out collision between real and unreal, or natural and supernatural logics. Based on this criteria, this thesis chooses literary works such as "De los Reyes Futuros", "El Perjurio de la Nieve" written by Adolfo Bioy Casares who is a representative author in Latin American fantastic literature.

Irony in The Locked Room: A Biographer Searching for His Own Identity (『잠긴 방』의 아이러니: 자신의 정체성을 탐구하는 전기 작가)

  • Son, Dongchul
    • English & American cultural studies
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.95-116
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    • 2014
  • Paul Auster's The Locked Room, the third novel of The New York Trilogy, has been examined by many critics in terms of anti-detective fiction or postmodernism. However, this paper focuses upon how the author adopts and utilizes some key elements of the traditional detective novel and its literary tradition. Mystery storytelling is one of Auster's literary strategies and the theme of the double is another. For his novel Auster explores the theme of the double as in Poe's "William Wilson." In The Locked Room, the narrator "I" is described as a shadow of his childhood friend Fanshawe. After Fanshawe's disappearance "I" becomes a literary agent for his friend, and becomes a husband of his friend's wife and a father of his friend's child. Searching for information to write a biography of his friend, he realizes that his friend has always been living inside his skull condemned to a mystical solitude. When Fanshawe appears in the narrator's mind as an image of the door of a locked room, the locked room is also a metaphor for the closed consciousness of the narrator. In his strategy of mystery storytelling, Auster employs the quest of detective fiction as well as the irony of Oedipus the King, where the criminal pursued by the king turns out to be himself. The Locked Room starts with the mystery of Fanshawe's disappearance, and as the novel develops, the narrator pursues numerous clues about his biographical subject like a private eye. Ironically, however, he finds that the ghost of Fanshawe has always been with him and that this is inevitable. As the narrator resolves to quit his life as a double, he contrives to name a strange man Fanshawe as if he tries to turn his biographical subject into a fictional character in the same way Fanshawe has controlled the narrator like a character in Fanshawe's novel. Beaten by the fictional Fanshawe and recovering from a near-death experience, the narrator prepares for his final showdown with Fanshawe. The transcendence of his existence as a double is epitomized by his act to tear off the red notebook handed to him by Fanshawe, which confusingly delivers a message that a life is doomed to be a failure. The narrator's act to cut off Fanshawe's influence bespeaks his breaking out of his locked consciousness and a new start for his life with his own identity.

A Study on the First Person Narrator in Animation : Focusing on the narration of childhood experience as retrospection (애니메이션의 일인칭 서술자 연구 : 회상으로서의 유년 체험 서술을 중심으로)

  • Cho, Mi-Ra
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.31-45
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    • 2011
  • The paper holds its purpose to analyze the descriptive function and meaning of first person animation which the focalizer, character, and all narrators are indicated as 'I', For the purpose, the following was reviewed; the relation between 'I' as child memorizing the days of childhood as adult and the current 'I' as adult, and the aesthetic effect of experience and sense of the child on the audience reading the narration. The retrospective narrating situation of the adult narrator brings descriptive effect which comes from 'the tension between the experiencing self (self as child) and the narrative self (self as adult). The works focus on the content of child experience through the confession of the adult narrator, but the view of the adult always heading towards 'the present'. That is, the aesthetics contained by the first person narrator is related to endless arousal of the values of hidden and forgotten things. In addition, the descriptive method of child focalizer as 'the subject of experience' brings qualitative change which enables reasoning of the subject as itself, which is free from the view tamed by rational system. Becoming an adult, the lost ability of mimesis brings qualitative change by meeting with the generality of childhood sense. Therefore, it can be known that the meaning the narrator contains in the first person narrator condition of animation links with the degree of aesthetic completion of the work, but also, it is a highly strategic descriptive device which determinately affects even the acceptance of audiences regarding the work.

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Responding to the Spectral Voice of the Outcast: Reading of William Wordsworth's "The Thorn"

  • Kang, Heewon
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.36
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    • pp.37-59
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    • 2014
  • William Wordsworth's "The Thorn" revolves around the following questions: Who is Martha? Why does she go to the mountain top and repeat her doleful cry? To these questions, it gives us two different kinds of answers; one derives from the villagers, and the other from the narrator. This essay attempts to examine how the answers exemplify two different critical approaches to the problem of community, using Jacques Lacan's account of sexual difference in his seminar on Encore as a guiding thread of analysis. The important thing to retain here is that sexual difference in Lacan's seminar on Encore does not so much indicate biological determinations as two distinct forms of relating to the other which are intimately bound up with the question of how a community is constructed and maintained. The first form, called "masculine," suggests that it is a radical exception to a community that makes possible the community as a field of totality or sameness; the second form, called "feminine," shows that each of the subjects cannot be regarded as a member of a closed community which is guaranteed by the exceptionality, but as an exception that is radically singular. This in turn leads us to consider the possibility that the masculine form has to do with the villagers' effort to distinguish themselves from Martha and the feminine form with the way in which the narrator confronts and represents her. In the course of his formulation of sexuation graph, Lacan stresses that the masculine side must be supplemented by the feminine side, which allows us to elaborate on why, concerning Martha, the narrator does not just keep the completely different position from the villagers'. This is to say that the villagers' representation of Martha as an exception to the community should be supplemented by the narrator's attempt to tell Martha's story as the villagers do and at the same time to capture something of her enigmatic unrepresentability. Bearing in mind Charles Shepherdson's elaboration of traumatic memory, this essay also tries to clarify how the narrator preserves and even transmits something of Martha's truth that is embodied in her uncontrollable and unassimilable cry.

"Daffodil Gap": Reading Jamaica Kincaid's Lucy as Intertextual Interrogation of the Postcolonial Condition

  • Cho, Sungran
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.21
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    • pp.289-306
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    • 2010
  • In Jamaica Kincaid's novel Lucy, the narrator grows up with the burden of colonial legacies embedded with Englands' imperial disciplinary projects, its language, educational institutions, discourses. Colonial education interpellates the narrator into a colonial subject through its multiple ideological discourses and systems. Teaching the literature of England is the most insidious form of the Empire's disciplinary colonial projects, more powerful than military enforcement: Its mode of operation is creating phantasy and instigating and planting desire for such phantasy. As Homi Bhabha aptly theorizes as colonial mimicry and ambivalence, the narrator as colonial subject grows up split and confused as an ambivalent subject, simultaneously mimicking and desiring for the phantasized England as real, while resisting and criticizing such up-bringing and mimetic desire. This paper explores Kincaid's rhetorical strategy of employing Wordsworth's poem, "I Wandered as a Lonely Cloud," especially her use of the flower "daffodil." Employing the concept of "daffodil gap" suggested by postcolonial critics, this paper closely examines two episodes involving the flower daffodil in the novel, one in a colonial classroom and the other in a garden in a new world and suggests that Kincaid accomplishes intertextual critique of colonial education and imperial projects.

Gosijo's Literature Physiology Formed by Question

  • Park, Inkwa
    • International journal of advanced smart convergence
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.154-160
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    • 2018
  • Sometimes, literature therapy is done by literature question. Participants naturally get the effect of literature therapy depending on when and what questions we ask. This study aims to lead the discussion of Gosijo's literature physiology ignited by the question. Gosijo, the subject of the study, described the depressed present state of the poetic narrator in the first and second line. By the way, poetic narrator asked a question in the first phrase of the last line and led the action potential. And in the second phrase of the last line, the poetic narrator called the code of sadness and the sadness code came. We have plotted this as Emotion Codon. The result of Emotion Codon at this time was that the narrative of Gosijo ignites the literature therapy mechanism through sadness.