• Title, Summary, Keyword: NTS

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Effect of Glutamate on the Vestibulo-Solitary Projection after Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Hypotension in Conscious Rats

  • Li, Li-Wei;Ji, Guang-Shi;Yang, Yan-Zhao;Ameer, Abdul Nasir;Kim, Min Sun;Park, Byung Rim;Jin, Yuan-Zhe
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2015
  • Orthostatic hypotension is most common in elderly people, and its prevalence increases with age. Attenuation of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex (VSR) is commonly associated with orthostatic hypotension. In this study, we investigated the role of glutamate on the vestibulo-solitary projection of the VSR pathway to clarify the pathophysiology of orthostatic hypotension. Blood pressure and expression of both pERK and c-Fos protein were evaluated in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) after microinjection of glutamate into the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) in conscious rats with sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hypotension that received baroreceptor unloading via sinoaortic denervation (SAD). SNP-induced hypotension increased the expression of both pERK and c-Fos protein in the NTS, which was abolished by pretreatment with glutamate receptor antagonists (MK801 or CNQX) in the MVN. Microinjection of glutamate receptor agonists (NMDA or AMPA) into the MVN increased the expression of both pERK and c-Fos protein in the NTS without causing changes in blood pressure. These results indicate that both NMDA and AMPA receptors play a significant role in the vestibulo-solitary projection of the VSR pathway for maintaining blood pressure, and that glutamatergic transmission in this projection might play a key role in the pathophysiology of orthostatic hypotension.

Chemical Ranking and Scoring Methodology for the Drinking and non-drinking Groundwater pollutants: CROWN (Chemical Ranking of Groundwater PollutaNts) (음용 및 비음용 지하수 우선관리대상 항목 선정기법: CROWN (Chemical Ranking of Groundwater PollutaNts))

  • An, Youn-Joo;Lee, Woo-Mi;Jeong, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.16-25
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    • 2013
  • The Korean groundwater law regulates 20 groundwater contamination parameters, including 14 specific harmful substances. Expanding the number of groundwater quality standards are needed to cope with recent groundwater quality deterioration due to the use of various chemicals. Chemical ranking and scoring system (CRS) is a scientific tool to sort priority chemicals by considering exposure and toxicity potentials. In this study, we developed a CRS for scoring and ranking of possible groundwater pollutants and screened priority substances to be later considered in the Korean standard expansion. Chemical Ranking Of groundWater pollutaNts (CROWN) incorporates important parameters consisting of exposure potential, human and water ecotoxicity, interests, and certainty. Furthermore, CROWN additionally evaluated existence of other media standards to consider impacts by contamination of other media. The 197 substances that were common to 9 countries were selected first. CROWN evaluated and ranked each chemical, and finally suggested priority substances. Suggested priority substances were classified into two groups according to the groundwater use purposes: drinking and non-drinking. The priority substances were further classified into $1^{st}$ and $2^{nd}$ group priorities. The $1^{st}$ group consists of 75 substances, including the all the Korean groundwater standard parameters. CROWN will be used in selecting groundwater pollutants for possible inclusion in the Korean standard expansion.

Nontyphoid Salmonella Prevalence, Serovar Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance in Slaughter Sheep

  • Cetin, Ece;Temelli, Seran;Eyigor, Aysegul
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.21-33
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    • 2020
  • This study aimed to determine the current prevalence, serovar distribution and antimicrobial resistance rate and patterns of nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS) in slaughter sheep and their edible offal. While filling the gap of up to date related information in Turkey, data presented is also of significance since contamination of ovine meat, its products and offal with this pathogen is threat to public health due to their considerably high consumption rates in our country. Current NTS carriage in 200 apparently healthy slaughter sheep by ISO 6579:2002, 6579:2002/A1:2007 standard bacteriology (ISO) was 5% (10/200) (4 fecal content - 2%, 3 mesenterial lymph node - 1.5%, 3 kidney - 1.5%) out of 1,400 samples (0.7%), with no isolation from carcass, liver, gallbladder, spleen. Real-time PCR was in substantial agreement to ISO in confirming Salmonella-suspect isolates (Relative Trueness: 93.6%). S. Newport (40%) was the predominant serovar, followed by the second prevalent serovars as S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky (20%), and by S. Umbilo and S. Corvallis (10%). Four and 6 out of 10 NTS isolates were susceptible (40%) and resistant (60%) to 18 antimicrobials, respectively. S. Typhimurium isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR) to tigecycline and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, with one also resistant to cefepime. S. Corvallis was MDR to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and pefloxacin. The predominance of S. Newport and first isolation of S. Corvallis in sheep in the world; first time isolations of Newport, Kentucky, Corvallis, Umbilo serovars from sheep in Turkey; and high antimicrobial resistance rates obtained in majority of the isolates highlights study findings.

Effects of oropharyngeal taste stimuli in the restoration of the fasting-induced activation of the HPA axis in rats (백서에서 금식으로 인한 스트레스 대응축 활성화의 회복조절기전에서 구강인두로부터 입수되는 다양한 맛 자극의 효과)

  • Yoo, Sang-Bae;Lee, Jong-Ho;Ryu, Vitaly;Jahng, Jeong-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.195-204
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    • 2011
  • Introduction: This study examined the regulatory mechanism underlying the meal-induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis activity. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were hired for two different experiments as follows; 1) rats received either 8% sucrose or 0.2% saccharin ad libitum after 48 h of food deprivation with the gastric fistula closed (real feeding) or opened (sham feeding). 2). rats received 5 ml of intra-oral infusion with 0.2% saccharin or distilled water after 48 h of food deprivation. One hour after food access, all rats were sacrificed by a transcardiac perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde. The brains were processed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry and the cardiac blood was collected for the plasma corticosterone assay. Results: Real feedings with sucrose or saccharin and sham feeding saccharin but not sucrose, following food deprivation decreased the plasma corticosterone level. c-Fos expression in the nucleus tractus of solitarius (NTS) of the fasted rats was increased by the consumption of sucrose but not saccharin, regardless of the feeding method. On the other hand, the consumption of sucrose or saccharin with real feeding but not the sham, induced c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the fasted rats. The intra-oral infusion with saccharin or water decreased the plasma corticosterone level of the fasted rats. Intra-oral water infusion increased c-Fos expression in both the PVN and NTS, but saccharin only in the NTS in the fasted rats. Conclusion: Neither restoration of the fasting-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone nor the activation of neurons in the PVN and NTS after refeeding requires the palatability of food or the post-ingestive satiety and caloric load. In addition, neuronal activation in the hypothalamic PVN may not be an implication in the restoration of the fasting-induced elevation of the plasma corticosterone by oropharyngeal stimuli of palatable food.

A Study on the Modeling and Analysis of Cell Delay Variation Compensation using Variable Timestamp Method in the Satellite TDMA Transmission (위성 TDMA 전송에서 가변타임스탬프 방식의 셀 지연변이 보상의 모델과 해석)

  • 김정호;박진양
    • Journal of the Korea Computer Industry Society
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    • v.2 no.11
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    • pp.1395-1406
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    • 2001
  • In order to cover a widespread service range, terrestrial/satellite-mixed network is being combined with terrestrial ATM network. This dissertation analyzes and investigates several previously existent CDV compensation methods in order to compensate CDV arising from interfacing satellite TDMA and ATM. Specifically to supplement the problems of timestamp and cell number counting methods, new Variable Timestamp method for CDV compensation is proposed. To evaluate the proposed method, MMPP(Markov Modulated Poisson Process), which can express VBR service very well, is selected as a cell input traffic model of terrestrial transmitting earth station. After several simulation, it is also confirmed that CDV compensation capability for VBR services is very superior to the cell number counting method. In this case, as the timestamp number Nts increases, CDV compensation capability increases, and the CDV distribution length is reduced.

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Detection of Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens using Pn17 and Pn34 DNA Probes

  • Park, Chan-Ho;Kim, Pan-Soon;Kim, Hwa-Sook;Min, Jeong-Bum;Hwang, Ho-Keel;Jang, Hyun-Sun;Cho, Ki-Woon;Baek, Dong-Heon;Kook, Joong-Ki
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2010
  • The DNA probes Pn17 and Pn34 were evaluated for their ability to specifically detect clinical strains of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens from a Korean population by dot blot hybridization. These probes were sequenced by extension termination and their specificity was determined by Southern blot analysis. The results revealed that the Pn17 sequence (2,517 bp) partially encodes an RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) and that Pn34 (1,918 bp) partially encodes both rpoB (1-169 nts) and the RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB'; 695-1918 nts). These probes hybridized with both HindIII- and PstI-digested genomic DNAs from the strains of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens used in this study. Interestingly, each of the hybrid bands generated from the HindIII-digested genomic DNAs of the two bacterial species could be used to distinguish between them via restriction fragment length polymorphism. These results thus indicate that Pn17 and Pn34 can simultaneously detect P. intermedia and P. nigrescens.

Preparation and Characterization of Advanced Organic Polymer - Inorganic Composite Gel Electrolyte for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (염료 감응 태양전지를 위한 고급 유기 고분자 - 무기 복합 겔형 전해질의 제조와 특성분석)

  • Akhtar, M. Shaheer;Park, Jung-Guen;Kim, Ui-Yeon;Lee, Hyun-Choel;Yang, O-Bong
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.350-354
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    • 2009
  • In this work, polymer - inorganic composites have prepared using polymer such as polyethylene glycol (PEG)/poly (methyl methacrylate, PMMA) and inorganic nanofillers materials such as TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The extensive structural, morphological and ionic properties revealed that the high surface area and tubular feature of nanofillers improved the interaction and cross-linking to polymer matrix which is significantly enhanced the ionic conductivity and electrical properties of composite electrolytes. Comparably high conversion efficiency ~4.5% has been observed by using the newly prepared PEG-TiNTs composite solid electrolyte as compared with PMMA-CNTs electrolyte based DSSCs (~3%). The detailed comparative properties would be discussed in term of their structural, morphology, ionic and photovoltaic properties.

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Introduction, Development, and Characterization of Supernodulating Soybean Mutant -Shoot Factor Regulation of Nodule Development in Supernodulating Soybean Mutant-

  • Lee, Hong-Suk;Kim, Yong-Wook;Park, Eui-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.28-31
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    • 1998
  • Nodule development was regulated partially by host plant factors originating in the shoots and roots. This study was performed to identify the origin of the factors regulating nodulation in supernodulating soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) mutant 'SS2-2' which was isolated recently from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis of 'Sinpaldalkong 2'. Self- and reciprocal-grafts were made among three soybean genotypes which consisted of two supernodulating mutants, SS2-2 and 'nts 382', and a normal nodulating Sinpaldalkong 2. Self-grafted supernodulating mutants were characterized by greater nodule number, nodule dry weight, and $C_2$H$_2$ reduction activity than self-grafted wild types. They were also characterized by relatively higher nodule to root dry weight. Significant shoot genotypic effects were observed on nodule number, nodule dry weight, and $C_2\;H_2$ reduction activity per plant, whereas varying root genotypes had no effects. From this result, it is surmised that supernodulating characters are controlled by a graft-transmissible shoot factor, and mutant SS2-2 may have similar nodulation mechanism to the former supernodulating nts 382. In all grafts, both supernodulating mutants and Sinpaldalkong 2 maintained the similar balance between above ground and below ground parts regardless of significant differences in partitioning of dry matter into root and nodule between supernodulating mutants and Sinpaldalkong 2.

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An Study Adaptive Window Size based NTSS Algorithm (적응형 윈도우 크기 기반 NTSS(New Three-Step Search Algorithm) 알고리즘 방법)

  • Yu, Jong-Hoon;Sohn, Chae-Bong;Oh, Seoung-Jun;Park, Ho-Jong;Ahn, Chang-Bum;Kang, Kyeong-Ok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference
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    • pp.53-56
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    • 2005
  • NTSS(New Three-Step Search Algorithm)는 대표적인 Fast BMA(Block Matching Algorithm)인 TSS(Three-Step Search Algorithm)에 중앙 편향적(Center-Biased) 특성을 고려하여 향상시킨 방법이다. 그러나 NTSS는 움직임이 작은 영상인 경우에는 TSS보다 개선된 성능을 보여주지만, 움직임이 큰 영상에 대해서는 TSS와 큰 차이가 없으며 탐색영역이 커질수록 오히려 성능이 떨어지는 단점이 있다. 본 논문에서는 움직임 벡터의 특성에 맞는 탐색영역을 적용시킴으로써 탐색영역의 증가로 발생되는 NTSS의 단점을 보완하여 움직임이 큰 영상에 대해서도 향상된 성능을 갖는 방법을 제안한다. 제안된 방법을 적용 하였을 때 움직임이 작은 영상에서는 기존의 방법과 동일한 결과를 얻었으며 움직임이 큰 영상에서는 최고 0.5dB이상 성능이 개선되었다.

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