• Title, Summary, Keyword: NTS

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Localization of Sensory Neurons Innervating the Rat Intestine Using the Cholera Toxin B Subunit(CTB) and Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase(WGA-HRP) (표지방식을 이용한 흰 쥐 복강 내장을 지배하는 감각신경세포체와 신경섬유의 표지부위)

  • Lee, Dong-Hyup;Lee, Chang-Hyun;Lee, Moo-Sam
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.75-96
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    • 1998
  • The local arrangement of sensory nerve cell bodies and nerve fibers in the brain stem, spinal ganglia and nodose ganglia were observed following injection of cholera toxin B subunit(CTB) and wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase(WGA-HRP) into the rat intestine. The tracers were injected in the stomach(anterior and posterior portion), duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon or descending colon. After survival times of 48-96 hours, the rats were perfused and their brain, spinal and nodose ganglia were frozen sectioned ($40{\mu}m$). These sectiones were stained by CTB immunohistochemical and HRP histochemical staining methods and observed by dark and light microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. WGA-HRP labeled afferent terminal fields in the brain stem were seen in the stomach and cecum, and CTB labeled afferent terminal fields in the brain stem were seen in all parts of the intestine. 2. Afferent terminal fields innervating the intestine were heavily labeled bilaterally gelalinous part of nucleus of tractus solitarius(gelNTS), dorsomedial part of gelNTS, commissural part of NTS(comNTS), medial part of NTS(medNTS), wall of the fourth ventricle, ventral border of area postrema and comNTS in midline dorsal to the central canal. 3. WGA-HRP labeled sensory neurons were observed bilaterally within the spinal ganglia, and labeled sensory neurons innervating the stomach were observed in spinal ganglia $T_2-L_1$ and the most numerous in spinal ganglia $T_{8-9}$. 4. Labeled sensory neurons innervating the duodenum were observed in spinal ganglia $T_6-L_2$ and labeled cell number were fewer than the other parts of the intestines. 5. Labeled sensory neurons innervating the jejunum were observed in spinal ganglia $T_6-L_2$ and the most numerous area in the spinal ganglia were $T_{12}$ in left and $T_{13}$ in right. 6. Labeled sensory neurons innervating the ileum were observed in spinal ganglia $T_6-L_2$ and the most numerous area in the spinal ganglia were $T_{11}$ in left and $L_1$ in right. 7. Labeled sensory neurons innervating the cecum were observed in spinal ganglia $T_7-L_2$ and the most numerous area in the spinal ganglia were $T_{11}$ in left and $T_{11-12}$ in right. 8. Labeled sensory neurons innervating the ascending colon were observed in spinal ganglia $T_7-L_2$ in left, and $T_9-L_4$ in right. The most numerous area in the spinal ganglia were $T_9$ in left and $T_{11}$ in right. 9. Labeled sensory neurons innervating the descending colon were observed in spinal ganglia $T_9-L_2$ in left, and $T_6-L_2$ in right. The most numerous area in the spinal ganglia were $T_{13}$ in left and $L_1$ in right. 10. WGA-HRP labeled sensory neurons were observed bilaterally within the nodose ganglia, and the most numerous labeled sensory neurons innervating the abdominal organs were observed in the stomach. 11. The number of labeled sensory neurons within the nodose ganglia innervating small and large intestines were fewer than that of labeled sensory neurons innervating stomach These results indicated that area of sensory neurons innervated all parts of intestines were bilaterally gelatinous part of nucleus tractus solitarius(gelNTS), dorsomedial part of gelNTS, commissural part of NTS (comNTS), medial part of NTS, wall of the fourth ventricle, ventral border of area postrema and com NTS in midline dorsal to the central canal within brain stem, spinal ganglia $T_2-L_4$ and nodose ganglia. Labeled sensory neurons innervating the intestines except the stomach were observed in spinal ganglia $T_6-L_4$. The most labeled sensory neurons from the small intestine to large intestine came from middle thoracic spinal ganglia to upper lumbar spinal ganglia.

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The effect of artemisinin on the rabbit IgG accelerated nephrotoxic serum glomerulonephritis in mice (개똥쑥에서 분리(分離)된 artemisinin이 가토(家兎) IgG에 의해 유발(誘發)된 생쥐의 현독성(賢毒性) 혈청사구체현염(血淸絲球體賢炎)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Zhu, Quan
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.335-336
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    • 1996
  • Artemisinin, a new antimalarial to treat patients infected with strains of Plasmodium jalciparum, derived from the plant Artemisia annua Linn, has immunopharmacologic actions such as enhence the PHA -induced lymphocyte transformation rate, increased the weight of spleen but reduced the weight of thymus, reduced phagocytic function of peritoneal macrophage, remarkably reduced the level of serum IgG and hemolysin fonning capacity (sentitized with SRBC), inhibited the activity of Ts cells of donor mice by supraoptimal immunuization(SOI), but enhenced activity of Ts cells of recipient mice by SOI. These results suggested that Ts cells may be the target cells of artemisinin. To the serum complement C3 level of plasmodium berghei-infeted mice, artemisinin (i. m,) could remarkly increase it. The artemisinin also obviously reduced the prostaglandin E(PGE) in the mouse hind paw swelling induced by carrageenin. Numerous studies have demonstrated that pharmacologic doses of PGE attenuate the development of immunocomplex nephritis. Some autologous immune mechanisms may be invoolved In the pathogensis of some types of glomurulonephritis. Glomerular abnormalities can be induced in animals by variety of immunological manipulations. The resulting disorder has many clinical and pathogical similarities to the disease in human. Our purpose was therefore to test the ability of the artemisinin to lessen the severity of rabbit IgG accelerated nephrotoxic serum glomerulonephritis in mice model. Mice which had treated with rabbit IgG and NTS, administrated with saline, showed Significant inceases of urinary protein, cholesterol level, and decrease of serum albumin in NS group. On the contrary, By i.g. adminstration of artemisinin at dose of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg for 14 days after NTS injection, shown that artemisinin inhibited the nephritic changes in some parameters by means of urinary protein(p<0.05, p<0.01) and serum choleterol(p<0.05, p<0.01) and albumin (p<0.05, p<0.01), blood urea nitrogen (p<0.05, p<0.01), serum albumin(p<0.05, p<0.01); Cyclophosphamide(i.p. 10mg/kg for 14d) had almost same effect as the artemisinin had. Morphological studies shown that The picture of kidney from the mouse with NTS-nephritis accerated with rabbit IgG, treated with i.g. saline as the control, the mesangiocapillary were enlarged and proliferated; There were inflammatory cells infiltrating around the glomeruli; The ethelial cell were proliferated in the wall of Bowman's capsule. Histopatholological picture of kidney from the NTS-nephritis accerated with rabbit IgG mouse treated with i.p. 10mg/kg cyclophosphamide as the positive control. No siginicant histopathological evidence were found. Treaded with i.p. 12.5mg/kg artemisinine, the picture shown that mesangiocapillary were lightly proliferated; There were inflammatory cells infiltrating around the glomeruli; Treaded with i.p. 25mg/kg artemisinine, The picture shown that the mesangiocapillary were lightly proliferated; Treaded with i.p. 50mg/kg artemisinine, The picture shown that both the mesangiocapillary proliferated and the inflammatory cells infiltrating around the glomeruli are less than treated with saline, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg artemisinine. On the basis of these studies we conclude that the artemisinin can relieve pathological change caused by NTS-nephritis aacerated with rabbit IgG.

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Involvement of Serotonergic Mechanism in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius for the Regulation of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Rats (흰쥐의 혈압 및 심박동수 조절에 대하여 Nucleus Tractus Solitarius 부위의 Serotonin성 기전의 역할)

  • Lee, Yong-Kyu;Hong, Ki-Whan;Yoon, Jae-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1989
  • In this study, it was aimed to investigate the role of serotonergic neurotransmission in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) for the central regulation of blood pressure and heart rate and its involvement in baroreceptor reflex activation in rats. A microinjection of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into the NTS produced decreases in blood pressure and heart rate. Maximal decreases were $34.4{\pm}1.6$ mmHg and $41.7{\pm}10.2$ beats per min by 300 pmol of 5-HT. Microinjections of ${\alpha}-methylnor-adrenaline$ $({\alpha}-MNE)$ and clonidine manifested similar decreases in blood pressure and heart rate. The hypotensive and bradycardial effects of 5-HT were blocked by previous applications of 5-HT antagonists, ritanserin, methysergide and ketanserin into the NTS, respectively. By pretreatment with reserpine and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, i.c.v.), both hypotensive and bradycardial effects of 5-HT were significantly attenuated. Pretreatment with 5, 7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT, i.c.v.) enhanced the hypotensive and bradycardial effects of 5-HT. Similarly, following pretreatment with 6-OHDA, the effects of clonidine were increased. Pretreatment either with 5,7-DHT or 6-OHDA significantly attenuated the sensitivity of baroreflex produced either by phenylephrine or by sodium nitroprusside. When either 5,7-DHT or 6-OHDA was injected into the NTS $(5,7-DHT;\;8{\mu}g\;6-OHDA;\;10{\mu}g)$, both of the baroreflex sensitivities were impaired. In the immunohistochemical study, the injection of 6-OHDA into the the NTS led to reduction of axon terminal varicosity, however, the injection did not reduce the numbers of catecholaminergic cell bodies. Likewise, when 5,7-DHT was injected into the NTS, the varicosity of serotonergic axon terminals was markedly reduced. Based on these results, it is suggested that (1) stimulation of serotonergic receptors in the NTS leads to decreases in blood pressure and heart rate as observed with the stimulation of catecholaminergic system, (2) both serotonergic and catecholaminergic receptors may be located postsynaptically, and (3) the serotonergic neurons as well as catecholaminergic neurons may have a close relevance for the activation of baroreflex.

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Motion Estimation using Genetic NTSS Method (Genetic NTSS 기법을 이용한 움직임 추정)

  • Park, Ji-Yeong;Baek, Sun-Hwa;Jeon, Byeong-Min
    • Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1115-1122
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    • 2000
  • 기존의 블록 정합 알고리즘인 FS(Full Search) 알고리즘은 정확한 움직임 벡터를 구할 수 있으나 요구되는 계산량이 많다. 반면에 국부 탐색을 하는 고속 블록 정합 알고리즘은 FS보다 빠른 탐색을 할 수 있으나 FS 보다 정합 오차가 크다. 본 연구는 전역탐색을 하는 유전자 알고리즘에 빠른 탐색을 하는 블록 정합 알고리즘인 NTSS(New Three Ste Search)알고리즘을 제안한다. 제안한 방법에서 각 염색체는 움직임 벡터를 표현하며 초기 염색체는 탐색 공간의 중심 탐색점 가까이에 고정적으로 발생시키고 각 염색체는 MSE(Mean Square Error)값으로 평가된다. 평가된 염색체 중 작은 MSE값을 가지는 염색체가 NTSS의 탐색점 수만큼 다음 세대의 탐색점으로 선택된다. 선택된 염색체는 세대를 거치면서 돌연변이 연산과 교배연산이 행해지고 이 때 돌연변이 연산의 크기는 NTSS의 탐색 단계 크기가 된다. 제안한 세대 수 만큼 반복 후 최소의 MSE 값을 가지는 유전자가 해당 블록의 움직임 벡터가 된다. 시뮬레이션 결과 제안한 방법을 가장 우수한 성능을 가지는 FS와 유사한 MSE 값을 얻을 수 있었고 동시에 FS에서 요구되는 계산량에 비해 많은 계산량을 줄일 수 있었다.

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Interface Specification Modeling for Distributed Network Management Agent of IMT-2000 Based on Applicable Service Independent Building Blocks (Applicable SIB에 의한 IMT-2000 분산 망관리 에이전트의 인터페이스 스펙 모델링)

  • Park, Soo-Hyun
    • Journal of Information Technology Services
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.119-139
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    • 2002
  • It is noteworthy that IMT -2000 communication network based on All-HP/AIN(Advanced Intelligent Network) should accomodate current and future wire/wireless AIN service easily through integration and gearing AIN construction elements. In this paper. Intelligent Farmer model(I-Farmer Model) and methodology are suggested in order to solve the several problems including standardization on implementation of Q3 interface in Telecommunication Management Network(TMN) agents which is caused by heterogeneous platform environment and future maintenance. Also this paper proposes ITI algorithm transforming the system which is designed by I-Farmer model to Interface Specification Model(ISM) applying the I-Farmer model. In addition to ITI algorithm. we suggest NTS(Node to SIB) algorithm converting entity node and ILB/OLB component in agent system designed by the I-Farmer model to SIB of AIN GFP(Global Functional Plane) and to ASIB for application program.

An Study Adaptive Winoow Size based NTSS Algorithm (적응형 윈도우 크기 기반 NTSS(New Three-Step Search Algorithm) 알고리즘 방법)

  • 유종훈;오승준;안창범
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.451-453
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    • 2004
  • NTSS(New Three-Step Search Algorithm)는 대표적인 Fast BMA(Block Matching 시gorithm)인 TSS(Three-Step Search Algorithm)에 중앙 편향적(Center-Biased) 특성을 고려하여 향상시킨 방법이다. 그러나 NTSS는 움직임이 작은 영상인 경우에는 TSS보다 개선된 성능을 보여주지만, 움직임이 큰 영상에 대해서는 TSS와 큰 차이가 없으며 탐색영역이 커질수록 오히려 성능이 떨어지는 단점이 있다. 본 논문에서는 움직임 벡터의 특성에 맞는 탐색영역을 적용시킴으로써 탐색영역의 증가로 발생되는 NTSS의 단점을 보완하여 움직임이 큰 영상에 대해서도 향상된 성능을 갖는 방법을 제안한다. 제안된 방법을 적용 하였을때 움직임이 작은 영상에서는 기존의 방법과 동등한 결과를 얻었으며 움직임이 큰 영상에서는 최고 0.5db이상 성능이 개선되었다.

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Time-Series Neural Network Modeling of Pulsed Ion Energy Pattern and Applications to Plasma Monitoring (펄스드 이온에너지 패턴의 신경망 시계열 모델링과 플라즈마 감시에의 응용)

  • Kim, Su-Yeon;Kim, Byung-Whan
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1855-1856
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    • 2008
  • 본 연구에서는 공정 중에 민감하게 반응하는 플라즈마로부터 수집되는 이온에너지 분포(IED : Ion Energy Distribution)와 시계열 신경망 모델링을 결합한 플라즈마 감시 기술을 개발하였다. NIEA(Non-invasive ion analyzer)를 이용하여 IED를 측정하였으며, 모델링에 사용된 신경망은 자기 상관 시계열 신경망(A-NTS : Auto-Correlated Neural Time-Series)이다. 모델 개발을 위한 학습과 테스트 데이터로는 Duty ratio 100%에서 수집한 IED를 이용하였으며, 개발된 모델의 감시 성능은 60%에서 수집된 IED로 평가하였다. 학습인자 k와 m의 범위는 각각 1-3 으로 총 9종류의 (k, m) 조합에 대해서 모델 성능을 평가하였다. 신경망 은닉층 뉴런수는 2-9의 범위에서 최적화하였다. 최적화된 모델은 (2, 3)과 뉴런수 2에서 구해졌으며, 0.335의 예측 에러를 보였다. 60% IED 데이터로 평가한 결과 플라즈마 고장에의 민감도는 62% 이상이었다. 이는 IED의 A-NTS 모델이 플라즈마 고장의 감시에 효과적으로 적용될 수 있음을 의미한다.

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Different Age Distribution between Campylobacteriosis and Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis in Hospitalized Korean Children with Acute Inflammatory Diarrhea

  • Shim, Jung Ok;Chang, Ju Young;Kim, Ahlee;Shin, Sue
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.1202-1206
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    • 2017
  • We investigated recent epidemiologic trends regarding campylobacteriosis vs. nontyphoidal salmonellosis (NTS), a previously known leading cause of bacterial enterocolitis in Korean children. Among 363 hospitalized children with acute inflammatory diarrhea, Campylobacter (18.7%) was the most frequently detected pathogen using multiplex polymerase chain reaction tests followed by Salmonella (15.4%). Children with campylobacteriosis were older than children with NTS (112.6 months [interquartile range (IQR) 66.0-160.1] vs. 53 months [IQR 31.0-124.0], P < 0.001) and had higher prevalences of abdominal cramping and stool hemoglobin. Campylobacteriosis may be suspected as a primary cause of acute inflammatory diarrhea in hospitalized school-aged Korean children and adolescents.

The Effect of LR3 Acupuncture on Blood Pressure and C-fos Expression in Hypertensive Rats Induced by 2K1C (침자(鍼刺)가 혈압(血壓) 및 신경계(神經系) 혈압중추(血壓中樞) c-fos 발현에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kang Dong-Hwan;Yun Yeo-Chung;Kim Jeong-Sang;Kim Won-Jae;Na Chang-Su
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2002
  • The frequency of the hypertension is increasing as the life level is improved and an average span of the life is extended since we approached modern stage. The hypertension is also dangerous disease which raises fatal complication for example with the bleeding aproplexy and the ischemic attack. The medicinal treatment about the hypertension is required patients to take continually. The acupuncture have been introduced because a medicine-chemical treatment hasn't good influence on the human body. It recently has been processed that studies acupuncture effect for blood pressure and have been found out that blood pressure go down. The object of this study observe the effect of LR3 acupuncture on hypertension in Renal Hypertension RAT induced by 2K1C. The 2K1C model was based on renin-angiotensin system. We put the silver clip in renal artery to induce renal hypertension. We try to observe that LR3 acupuncture influence on the blood pressure and c-fos expression in CVLM, NTS, RVLM. In results, the blood pressure was decreased during acupuncture than before acupuncture, after acupuncture. The heart rate was also decreased during acupuncture than before acupuncture, after acupuncture. The LR3 acupuncture significantly effects on blood pressure and heart rate (P<0.05). The increased expression of c-fos was shown in CVLM, NTS, but not in RVLM. In conclusion, LR3 was relived the action of control upon the hypertension and related with medulla, particularly CVLM, NTS. It needs to be closely examined pharmacological mechanism and studied combination with other acupoints.

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