• Title, Summary, Keyword: NTS

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Ginsenoside Rg3 reduces the risk of neuronal cell death by attenuating reactive oxygen species and neurotrophins

  • Joo, Seong-Soo;Won, Tae-Joon;Hwang, Kwang-Woo;Lee, Do-Ik
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.134.1-134
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    • 2003
  • In regard to $A\beta$ toxicity and AD, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by macrophage families in response to $A\beta$ stimulation. In addition to this, neurotrophins (NTs) regulate the neuronal function as well as cell survival and the growth of various types of neurons in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS). As high expressions of the ROS and NTs are a routine findings in neuronal cell damage, we wanted to investigate whether Rg3 can inhibit the production of ROS and NTs primary cell cultures. (omitted)

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Effects of electroacupuncture on the expression of iNOS in Nuclei of solitary tract and Rostral ventrolateral medulla in spontaneously hypertensive rats (전침자극이 자연 발증 고혈압 흰쥐의 혈압 조절 중추에서 iNOS의 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Hye-Suk;Kim, Yu-Sung;Lee, Ji-Eun;Han, Kyung-Ju;Choi, Sun-Mi;Koo, Sung-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2006
  • Aims: Acupuncture has been used for the treatment of essential hypertension, but the efficacy and the mechanism of acupuncture in prevention of hypertension are still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) applied to Baekhoe (GV20) changes NO/NOS system during development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and thereby causes the delay of development of hypertension in SHR. Methods: The male SHR rats in the developmental stages of hypertension (7-8 weeks) were randomly divided into three groups (control group, GV20 acupuncture group, and tail acupuncture group). And the age matched Wistar Koyto Rats (WKY) were randomly divided into two groups (nagative control, GV20 acupuncture group). EA treatments (10Hz, 1mA, 0.1ms) were carried out for 25 min/day for five consecutive days. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was determined in conscious rats by the tail-cuff method using automatic BP mornitoring system. We investigated the activations of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in nuclei of solitary tract (NTS) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of SHR by the western blotting method. Results: The SBP after the termination of EA stimulation applied to the GV20 was stabilized at $169.14{\pm}3.67$ mmHg which is lower value than that of the control group. The SBP of control group was elevated to $178.14{\pm}3.49$ mmHg. In addition, we evaluated NOS activity as well as iNOS protein expression of NTS and RVLM in both of SHR and WKY. The iNOS activity in NTS was significantly higher in SHR than in WKY. Furthermore, the iNOS activity of NTS showed significant decreases in EA groups compare to that of non treated SHR group. Although iNOS expression of RVLM showed non significant changes between SHR and WKY, EA significantly enhanced the iNOS expression in SHR. Our data support the hypothesis that delayed development of hypertension and altered iNOS expression of NTS and RVLM by EA stimulations in SHR rats. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that acupuncture can change NO/NOS system in NTS and RVLM, and exert beneficial role on development of hypertension.

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Development of Vancomycin Dosing Nomogram Based on Clinical Pharmacokinetic Data of Korean Adult Patients (한국성인환자의 임상약동학 자료를 이용한 반코마이신 용량설정표 (nomogram)의 개발)

  • 배성미;김상일;강문원;조혜경
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2001
  • This research developed an intravenous (IV) vancomycin dosing nomogram based on the clinical pharmacokinetic data of Korean adult patients. Total 99 pairs of steady-state peak and trough serum concentrations of vancomycin were obtained from 73 adult patients in a tertiary general hospital. Serum vancomycin concentrations were determined to assess the appropriateness of initial vancomycin dosing. Only 47.2% of the cases were within therapeutic range. To characterize the clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) of vancomycin, PK parameters including elimination rate constant ( $K_{e}$) half-life( $T_{1}$2/), clearance (C $l_{van}$), volume of distribution ( $V_{d}$) were calculated by using one-compartment, first order pharmacokinetic equations. PK parameters were evaluated based on the differences of patients'renal function and age. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between C $l_{van}$ and $C_{cr}$ (C $l_{van}$ = -1.89+0.914 $C_{cr}$ , r=0.763) and between $K_{e}$ and $C_{cr}$ , ( $K_{e}$=-0.0037+0.00139 $C_{cr}$ =0.724). The relationship between $K_{e}$ and $C_{cr}$ , and the mean $V_{d}$ were utilized for developing the nomogram to individualize the initial dosing regimen of vancomycin for the patients with various degrees of renal functions. The nomogram may be used as an efficient tool to determine safe and effective doses of vancomycin for the Korean adult patients.nts.nts.nts.s.nts.

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Ion Chromatography of Anions with Indirect UV-Photometric Detection by using Naphthalene Trisulfonic Acid and Naphthalene Disulfonic Acid as an Eluent (Naphthalene Trisulfonic Acid 및 Naphthalene Disulfonic Acid을 이용한 음이온 간접자외선흡광검출 이온크로마토그래피)

  • Lee, Kwang-Pill;Cheon, Hwi-Kyung;Seo, Hyun-Kyung;Kwon, Se-Mog;Park, Keung-Shik;Tanaka, Kazuhiko;Ohta, Kazutoku
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.111-115
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    • 1999
  • Single column anion chromatography by indirect UV detection was applied to the determination of 7 common anions($H_2PO_4^-$, $Cl^-$, $NO_2^-$, $NO_3^-$, $I^-$, $SO_4^{2-}$, $SCN^-$). A low capacity silica-based anion-exchange column(TSK guardgel QAE-SW; ca. 0.3 meq./g; 4.6 mm i.d${\times}$150 mm) was used. In separating common anions, we compared naphthalene trisulfonic acid(NTS) and naphthalene disulfonic acid(NDS) to find more sensitive, selective and rapid separation method. And cations and anions can be separated simultaneously in 0.20 mM NTS-5% acetonitrile-water.

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Effect of Vestibulosympathetic Reflex and Baroreflex on Expression of pERK in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius following Acute Hypotension in Conscious Rats

  • Jiang, Xian;Lan, Yan;Jin, Yuan-Zhe;Park, Joo Young;Park, Byung Geon;Ameer, Abdul Nasir;Park, Byung Rim
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.353-358
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    • 2014
  • Control of blood pressure is maintained by the interaction between the arterial baroreflex and vestibulosympathetic reflex during postural changes. In this study, the contributions of vestibular receptors and baroreceptors to the maintenance of blood pressure following acute hypotension were compared in terms of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase (pERK) expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS). Expression of pERK in the NTS was measured in conscious rats that had undergone bilateral labyrinthectomy (BL) and/or sinoaortic denervation (SAD) 5, 10, 20, and 40 min following acute hypotension induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) infusion. Expression of pERK increased significantly in the NTS in the control group following SNP infusion, and the expression peaked at 10 min after SNP infusion. The number of pERK positive neurons increased following SNP infusion in BL, SAD, and BL+SAD groups, although the increase was smaller than in control group. The BL group showed a relatively higher reduction in pERK expression than the SAD group, and the pERK expression in the NTS was localized to the caudal portion of the nuclei in the BL and SAD groups. These results suggest that the vestibular receptors may play a key role in maintaining blood pressure following acute hypotension; thus, the vestibular system may contribute to compensate for orthostatic hypotension.

Dispersion and Flocculation Behavior of Metal Oxide in Organic Solvent

  • Fujii, Katsuya;Yamamoto, Hideki;Shibata, Junji
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.353-356
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    • 2001
  • The relation between the flocculation and dispersion of metal oxide powders and the properties of solvents, such as dielectric constant and solubility parameter, was investigated for TiO$_2$, $Al_2$O$_3$and Fe$_2$O$_3$particles. The particle size and median diameter of these metal oxides were measured in many organic solvents, from which the effect of solvents on the flocculation and dispersion of metal oxide powders was considered. The metal oxide powders of TiO$_2$, $Al_2$O$_3$and Fe$_2$O$_3$tend to disperse in a solvent of higher polarity, whereas they are apt to flocculate in a solvent of low dielectric constant, because the Hamaker constant between the particles becomes larger in such a solvent. There we, however, some solvents that do not obey these tendencies. It is possible to evaluate the flocculation and dispersion of these metal oxide powders in many solvents by using numeral balances of Hansen’s three-dimensional solubility parameter (f$_{d}$, f$_{p}$ and f$_{h}$). There exists a solvent giving the optimal dispersion for each metal oxide, and the optimal dispersion point of f$_{d}$, f$_{p}$ and f$_{h}$ is determined by the combination of various metal oxide powders and solvents.nts.nts.nts.

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Genetic Mapping of Hypernodulation in Soybean Mutant SS2-2

  • Lee, Suk-Ha;Ha, Bo-Keun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.416-419
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    • 2001
  • Hypernodulation soybean mutant, SS2-2, is characterized with greater nodulation and nitrogen fixing ability in the root nodule than its wild type, Shinpaldalkong 2. The present study was performed to identify a genetic locus conferring hypernodulation in soybean mutant SS2-2 and to determine whether the gene controlling the hypernodulation of SS2-2 is allelic to that controlling the supernodulation of nts382 mutant. Hybridization studies between SS2-2 and Taekwangkong revealed that the recessive gene was responsible for the hypernodulation character in soybean mutant SS2-2. Allelism was also tested by crossing supernodulating mutant nts382 and hypernodulating mutant SS2-2 that both hypernodulation and supernodulation genes were likely controlled by an identical locus. Molecular marker mapping of hypernodulation gene in SS2-2 using SSR markers confirmed that the gene conferring hypernodulation was located at the same loci with the gene conferring supernodulation. It is interesting to note that the same gene controlled the super- and hyper-nodulation characters, although SS2-2 and nts 382 exhibited differences in the amount of nodulation in the root system. Further genetic studies should be needed to clarify the genetic regulation of super- and hyper-nodulation in soybean.

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Non-Native Teachers' English Language Teaching Improvement through Multimedia Applications (멀티미디어 응용을 통한 비원어민 영어 교사의 수업 개선)

  • Lee, Il-Suk
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2010
  • In the past, Korean English language learners focused on knowledge of grammatical structures. Thus Korean trained instructors, who focused on explaining the grammar structures, were seen as being preferable for teaching in EFL (English as a foreign language) classrooms. However, with the focus changed to speaking capability Koreans now desire 'fluent' English more than 'accuracy' seeing if possible (Mottos, 1997). Current study has been concerned about the issue of how non-native learners of English perceive the difference between native teachers (NTs) and non-native teachers (non-NTs) of English in the context of ELT classroom. The study explores the issues and problems the followed and how non-NTs can enhance teaching practice of speaking and listening lessons through multimedia application.

A Study on The Comparative Characteristics of Track-Guided Bus System (궤도버스시스템 특성비교연구)

  • 임성빈;지길룡
    • Journal of the Korean Professional Engineers Association
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.88-98
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    • 1997
  • For Improving gradually inferior environment of public transportation system, it is necessary to introduce new transit System(NTS). NTS is defined as automated economicm system for it's operation . The Track Guided Bus System (TGBS) is one of the NTS, which is possible operating on the track or road surface and the system has actually many advantages. This study was concentrated on investigating the characteristics of TGBS, comparing to the other public transportation system and appraising the advantages of it on the benefit of the passenger side as well as investor, and then suggested applicable routes. As the result of the study, it is concluded that the advantage of this system is less transfering and initial low investment. Applicable route is the demand of passengers in the range of PPHPD 5,000~39,600, which is more than bus but not more than subway.

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Spray Characteristics according to Fluid Properties and Electric Parameters of Electrospray (정전분무의 유체 물성치와 정전 매개변수 따른 분무특성)

  • Kim, JiYeop;Hong, Jung Goo
    • Journal of ILASS-Korea
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2020
  • Electrospray is used in various industries because it can produce continuous and uniform droplets. However, it is difficult to find optimal spraying condition due to lack of data in various conditions. In this study, various conditions were divided into electric parameters and fluid property. The electric parameters set Nozzle to Substrate(NTS), nozzle diameters and the fluid property set viscosity and conductivity as conditions. In this study, it observes spray patterns, Sauter Mean Diameter(SMD) according to conditions. As a result, fluid properties had a greater effect on the cone-Jet mode than on the nozzle diameter, NTS, and flowrate. All of solutions have Stable cone-jet mode at voltage of 8.5 kV, NTS of 20 mm and nozzle diameter of 0.2 mm. SMD has 27% different depending on viscosity and conductivity. The increased flowrate and viscosity are rising break-up length and thickening jet also jet is thinned by increased conductivity. Experiments have confirmed that the jet is thickened by increased flowrate and viscosity, and that the jet is thinned by conductivity.