• Title, Summary, Keyword: NTS

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The Criteria, Procedure, and Classification of Traffic-Sensitive and Non-Traffic-Sensitive Components: A Case of CDMA Mobile System

  • Kim, Moon-Soo
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.777-786
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    • 2006
  • Since the introduction of competition in the telecommunication market due to the growth of the interconnection between heterogeneous networks, particularly fixed and mobile networks, the interconnection charge based on traffic-sensitive (TS) and non-traffic-sensitive (NTS) costs has become more important. Although there have been many studies of the public switched telephone network (PSTN), previous studies of TS and NTS costs in mobile networks are very few. In this paper, as a pilot study, we propose three criteria and a procedure for the classification of TS and NTS costs based on mobile systems. The three criteria are the following: function type, investment requirement, and main exhaust driver. Moreover, for a CDMA mobile system, strongly TS, strongly NTS, and mixed components are classified by the proposed criteria and procedure. The proposed criteria, procedure, and classification can provide a systematic and useful guideline to decide the scope of mobile facilities and to determine the terminating cost on mobile networks from fixed networks.

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PROP Taster Status and the Rejection of Foods with Added Tastants

  • Lee, Yun-Mi;Prescott, John;Kim, Kwang-Ok
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.1066-1073
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    • 2008
  • Sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) tasting predicts sensitivity to food qualities as well as rejection of some strong tasting foods. Using consumer rejection threshold (CRT) method, this study aimed to assess whether systematic changes in the taste intensities of familiar foods would lead to earlier rejection of these products by PROP tasters than by PROP non-tasters. Subjects rated the intensity of PROP solution and were divided into tasters (Ts) and non-tasters (NTs). And Ts were further divided into medium-tasters (MTs) and super-tasters (STs). Difference thresholds and CRTs were then evaluated for caffeine in coffee, citric acid in orange juice, and for NaCl in beef soup. For each food, Ts were more sensitive to variations in tastants than NTs. Ts also rejected more bitter coffee, more sour orange juice, and less salty beef soup more readily than did NTs. Comparisons among NTs, MTs, and STs gave fewer clear differences.

Effect of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid on the Gustatory Nucleus Tractus Solitarius in Rats

  • Kim, Mi-Won;Park, Ha-Ok;Pahng, Mong-Sook;Park, Sang-Won;Kim, Sun-Hun;Jung, Ji-Yeon;Jeong, Yeon-Jin;Kim, Won-Jae
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2005
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is known as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the neurons of the central nervous system. However, its detailed action mechanisms in the rostral gustatory zone of the nucleus tractus solitarius (rNTS) have not been established. The present study was aimed to investigate the distribution, role and action mechanisms of GABA in rNTS. Membrane potentials were recorded by whole cell recordings in isolated brain slices of the rat medulla. Superfusion of GABA resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in input resistance in the neurons in rNTS. The change in input resistance ws accompanied by response to a depolarizing pulse were diminished by GABA. Superfusion of the slices with either $GABA_A$ agonist, muscimol, $GABA_B$ agonist, baclofen or $GABA_C$ agonist, TACA, decreased input resistance and reduced the nerve activity in association with membrane hyperpolarization. It is suggested that inhibitory signals playa role in sensory processing by the rNTS, in that GABA actions occur through activation of $GABA_A,\;GABA_B\;and\;GABA_C$ receptor. These results suggest that GABA has an inhibitory effect on the rNTS through an activation of $GABA_A,\;GABA_B\;and\;GABA_C$ receptors and that the GABAergic inhibition probably plays an important role in sensory processing by the rNTS.

Single-walled Hollow Nano-tubes and Nano-balls Assembled from the Aluminogermanante Precursors (Aluminogermanate Precursor의 자기조합(Self-assembly)을 통한 단일 벽을 갖는 나노-볼형 및 나노-튜브형 광물 유도)

  • Song, Yun-Goo;Bac, Bui Hoang;Lee, Young-Boo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.501-507
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    • 2009
  • Ordered single-walled hollow aluminogermanate (ALGE) nano-balls(NBs) and nano-tubes(NTs) have been self-assembled from the ALGE precursors having an Al/Ge ratio of 1.33 using simple pH-control. The hollow ALGE NBs with average monodisperse diameters of 5 nm and chemistry of Al/Ge=1.5~1.6 were formed through structural assembly in the ALGE solution (Al/Ge=1.33) highly basified to pH=13(Na/Al=28~30) and followed by immediate acidification to pH=9. When the basified solution(pH=13) were acidified to pH=4, ALGE S-NTs (Short-fiber nano-tubes) with diameters of 3.3 nm, 15~20 nm in length, and chemistry of Al/Ge=2.6~2.8 were successfully synthesized. Whereas the solution was basified to pH=9, and subsequently acidified to pH=4, L-NTs(Long-fiber nano-tubes) with >100 nm in length were synthesized for the first time. The self-assembly of the hollow NBs, S-NTs, and L-NTs form the ALGE precursors can be explained by the degree of $H^+$-dissociation of the -Ge-OH inner surfaces, which was controlled by amount of $Na^+$ and pH conditions of ALGE precursor solutions. This results indicate that target forms of ALGE nanomaterials can be synthesized by simple pH controls.

Sorption of Arsenite Using Nanosized Mackinawite (FeS)-Coated Silica Sand (나노 크기 매킨나와이트로 코팅된 규사를 이용한 아비산염의 흡착)

  • Lee, Seungyeol;Kang, Jung Chun;Park, Minji;Yang, Kyounghee;Jeong, Hoon Young
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.185-195
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    • 2012
  • Due to the high reduction and sorption capacity as well as the large specific surface area, nanosized mackinawite (FeS) is useful in reductively transforming chlorinated organic pollutants and sequestering toxic metals and metalloids. Due to the dynamic nature in its colloid stability, however, nanosized FeS may be washed out with the groundwater flow or result in aquifer clogging via particle aggregation. Thus, these nanoparticles should be modified such as to be built into permeable reactive barriers. This study employed coating methods in efforts to facilitate the installation of permeable reactive barriers of nanosized mackinawite. In applying the methods, nanosized mackinawite was coated on non-treated silica sand (NTS) and chemically treated silica sand (CTS). For both silica sands, the maximum coating of mackinawite occurred around pH 5.4, the condition of which was governed by (1) the solubility of mackinawite and (2) the surface charge of both silica and mackinawite. Under this pH condition, the maximum coating by NTS and CTS were found to be 0.101 mmol FeS/g and 0.043 mmol FeS/g respectively, with such elevated coatings by NTS likely linked with impurities (e.g., iron oxides) on its surface. Arsenite sorption experiments were performed under anoxic conditions using uncoated silica sands and those coated with mackinawite at the optimal pH to compare their reactivity. At pH 7, the relative sorption efficiency between uncoated NTS and coated NTS changed with the initial concentration of arsenite. At the lower initial concentration, uncoated NTS showed the higher sorption efficiency, whereas at the higher concentration, coated NTS exhibited the higher sorption efficiency. This could be attributed to different sorption mechanisms as a function of arsenite concentration: the surface complexation of arsenite with the iron oxide impurity on silica sand at the low concentration and the precipitation as arsenic sulfides by reaction with mackinawite coating at the high concentration. Compared to coated NTS, coated CTS showed the lower arsenite removal at pH 7 due to its relatively lower mackinawite coating. Taken together, our results indicate that NTS is a more effective material than CTS for the coating of nanosized mackinawite.

Nitric Oxide (NO) Inhibites the Neuronal Activities in the Rat Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

  • Kim, Mi-Won;Park, Mun-Sung;Ryu, Sun-Youl;Jung, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Sun-Hun;Kim, Min-Seok;Kim, Won-Jae;Jeong, Yeon Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2004
  • Nitric oxide (NO) system has been implicated in a wide range of physiological functions in the nervous system. However, the role of NO in regulating the neural activity in the gustatory zone of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) has not been established. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of NO in the gustatory NTS neurons. Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing about 50 g, were used. Whole cell patch recording and immunohistochemistry were done to determine the electrophysiological characteristics of the rostral gustatory nucleus of the tractus solitaries and distribution of NO synthases (NOS). Neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunoreactivity was strongly detected along the solitary tract extending from rostral to caudal medulla. Resting membrane potentials of NTS neurons were $-49.2{\pm}2\;mV$ and action potential amplitudes were $68.5{\pm}2\;mV$ with a mean duration measured at half amplitude of $1.7{\pm}0.3\;ms$. Input resistance, determined from the response to a 150 ms, -100 pA hyperpolarizing current pulse, was $385{\pm}15\;M{\Omega}$, Superfusion of SNAP or SNP, NO donors, produced either hyperpolarization (68%), depolarization (5%), or no effect (27%). The hyperpolarization was mostly accompanied by a decrease in input resistance. The hyperpolarization caused by SNAP or SNP increased the time to initiate the first action potential, and decreased the number of action potentials elicited by current injection. SNP or SNAP also markedly decreased the number of firing neural discharges of the spontaneous NTS neural activity under zero current. Superfusion of L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor, slightly depolarized the membrane potential and increased the firing rate of NTS neurons induced by current injection. ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ameliorated the SNAP-induced changes in membrane potential, input resistance and firing rates. 8-Br-cGMP, a non-degradable cell-permeable cGMP, hyperpolarized the membrane potential and decreased the number of action potentials. It is suggested that NO in the gustatory NTS has an inhibitory role on the neural activity of NTS through activating soluble guanylate cyclase.

Developmental Changes of Gustatory Neurons in Nucleus of Solitary Tract in Rats

  • Kim, Mi-Won;Kim, Won-Jae;Mistretta, Charlotte
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 2000
  • To learn the developmental changes in intrinsic electrophysiological properties of the second order taste neurons, whole cell recordings from the developing nucleus of the solitary tract neurons were done in brainstem slices of postnatal rats. Rats aged from postnatal 0 to 21 days (P0-P21) were used, being divided into 3 age groups: postnatal first week (P0-P7 days), second week (P8-P14 days), and third week (P15-P21 days). Slices containing gustatory NTS were cut horizontally in the thickness of $300\;{\mu}m.$ Whole cell recordings were obtained from neurons in response to a series of hyperpolarizing and depolarizing current pulses. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of the rostral NTS (rNTS) neurons were compared among the age groups. Depolarizing current pulses evoked a train of action potentials in all neurons of all age groups. The resting membrane potential and input resistance of the neurons did not show any significant differences during the postnatal 3 weeks. The time constant, however, decreased during the development. Duration of action potential measured at half maximum amplitude was longer in younger age groups. Both the maximum rate of rise and the maximum rate of fall in the action potential increased during the first 3 weeks postnatal. Electrophysiologically more than half neurons were type III. In summary, it is suggested that developmental changes in electrophysiological properties in rNTS occur during the first three weeks in rats.

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Hyperpolarized 129 NMR Study of TiO2 Nanotubes

  • Lee, Sang-Man;Lee, Soon-Chang;Mehrotra, Vandana;Kim, Hae-Jin;Lee, Hee-Cheon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.511-514
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    • 2012
  • A continuous flow hyperpolarized (HP) $^{129}Xe$ NMR spectroscopy was employed for the first time to investigate $TiO_2$ nanotubes (Ti-NTs) synthesized from commercial nanoparticles with different reaction times. A single peak attributing to channels for Ti-NTs was observed for variable temperature HP $^{129}Xe$ NMR spectra. It was also noted that there is alteration in value for heat of adsorption, ${\Delta}H$ from $12.6{\pm}1.3$ to $16.4{\pm}0.4kJ/mol$ and variation in chemical shift of the xenon adsorbed in channels, ${\delta}_s$ from $120{\pm}2\sim135{\pm}9ppm$ which were closely correlated to channel length and it was shown that P25-24 Ti-NTs with longest channel is most favorite Ti-NTs for Xe adsorption.

Changes of Hairy vetch Biomass by Different Seeding Methods and Rice Growth and Soil Physicochemical Properties by Its Incorporation in Paddy

  • Jeon, Weon-Tai;Ryu, Jin-Hee;Seong, Ki-Yeong;Kim, Min-Tae;Kang, Hang-Won;Lee, Jae-Eun;Jung, Chan-Sik;Kim, Wook-Han
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.270-275
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    • 2013
  • Hairy vetch can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere as a leguminous cover crop. This research was carried out to determine optimum seeding method of hairy vetch and application effect in paddy. Field experiment was conducted at Sinheung series (fine loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) from Sep. 2011 to Oct. 2012 at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), RDA, Suwon, Gyeonggi province, Korea. Hairy vetch used in the study was 'Cheongpyungbora', developed by National Institute of Crop Science. Seeding methods of hairy vetch consisted of Broadcasting Before Rice Harvesting (BBRH), Partial Tillage Seeding (PTS), Minimum Tillage Seeding (MTS), No Tillage Seeding (NTS), and Drill Seeding (DS). Both MTS and NTS showed the highest biomass among the seeding methods. The rice yield of MTS and NTS significantly increased compared to conventional fertilization (CF). Also soil properties including organic matter and bulk density were improved by incorporation of hairy vetch. Therefore, we suggested that MTS and NTS could be used to produce hairy vetch and rice in paddy.

Effects of Cholecystokinin Octapeptide on Neuronal Activities in the Rat Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

  • Rhim, Hye-Whon;Park, Chan-Woong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2000
  • Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gastrointestinal hormone which plays an important role in satiety and gastric motility. It is also widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, where it appears to be involved in the central control of anxiety, feeding behavior and nociception. Two distinct CCK receptor types, $CCK_A$ and $CCK_B,$ have been found in the brain. Both CCK receptors coexist in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which is the primary center for the coordination of peripheral and central activities related to gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and respiratory functions. In order to study ionic actions of CCK on each type of receptor, we investigated the effects of CCK-8S on neurons located in the NTS of the rat using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brainstem slices. Application of CCK-8S, under current clamp, produced a membrane depolarization accompanied by action potential firing. This CCK-evoked excitation was dose-dependent $(10\;nM{\sim}10\;{\mu}M)$ and observed in more than 60% of NTS neurons. Under voltage clamp conditions, CCK-8S induced an inward current with a notably increased spontaneous excitatory synaptic activity. However, CCK-8S did not significantly change the amplitude of pharmacologically isolated and evoked EPSP(C)s. Using selective $CCK_A$ and $CCK_B$ receptor antagonists, we observed two different effects of CCK-8S, which suggest $CCK_A$ receptor-mediated inhibitory and $CCK_B$ receptor-mediated excitatory effects in the NTS. These results may help to explain the ability of CCK to modulate gastrointestinal and other reflex systems in the NTS.

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