• Title, Summary, Keyword: NMA

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Effects of Silicone Softeners on the Performance of the In-Situ Polymerization and Crosslinking Treated Cotton Fabrics (In-Situ 중합과 가교에 의한 방추가공시 면직물의 물성에 미치는 실리콘 유연제의 영향)

  • Oh, Kyung-Wha
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.761-770
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    • 1996
  • The effects of mixed acid catalyst and silicone softeners on the in-situ polymerization and crosslinking (IPC) treatment of cotton fabrics were studied.4 mixture of magnesium chlo-ride and citric acid was used to catalyze the crosslinking reaction of cellulose with N-mothy-lolacrylamide, and the performance properties of treated fabrics were evaluated as compared with those treated with zinc nitrate, a classical DP catalyst. Three types of silicone softeners including aminofunctional polydimethylsiloxane, reactive polydimethylsiloxane of high viscosity, and hydroxy-end blocked reactive polydimethylsiloxane of low viscosity were each applied to the fabrics pre-treated with NMA by two step steam fixation process. The results indicate that the highly active mixed catalyst facilitates low temperature curing, which is beneficial when silicone sorttener is applied to NMA finished fabrics, providing better DP performance with a higher retention of mechanical properties. In conjunction with IPC treatment with NMA, silicone softeners significantly improve tear strength and abrasion resistance and wrinkle recovery angle. Thereby, 20% reduction in the amount of resin application may be achieved for satisfactory levels of DP performance when silicone softeners are used.

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Effect of DP Finishing Conditions on the Mechanical Properties and Hand of Cotton Fabrics (DP 가공조건이 면직물의 역학적 성질과 태에 미치는 영향)

  • 신윤숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.440-447
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    • 2000
  • The effects of DP finishing conditions including process technique and finishing agent on the mechanical properties and hand of cotton fabrics were investigated. 100% cotton fabrics were treated with NMA/DMDHEU and NMA/YF using wet-fixation and steam-fixation process. For comparison, conventional pad-dry-cure process was used with DMDHEU. After DP finishing, tensile and compressional resilience increased and bending hysteresis decreased, resulting in the improvement of dimensional stability of cotton fabric. WF and SF process rendered fabrics better shear properties, tensile energy, and compressional linearity and energy than PDC process. However, SF process produced fabrics with higher geometrical roughness than WF process. After DP finishing, primary hand values except Koshi increased, resulting in the increase of total hand value of cotton fabric.

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THE GALACTIC-SCALE MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN STARBURST GALAXIES NGC 2146 AND NGC 3628

  • TSAI, AN-LI;MATSUSHITA, SATOKI
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.499-502
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    • 2015
  • Starburst galaxies have strong star formation activity and generate large scale outflows which eject a huge amount of gas mass. This process affects galaxy activity, and therefore, the detailed study of nearby starburst galaxies could provide valuable information for the study of distant ones. So far there have been only a few studies of galactic-scale molecular outflows due to the sensitivity limitation of telescopes. Our study provides two nearby examples, NGC 2146 and NGC 3628. We used Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) CO(1-0) data, Chandra soft X-ray data, and NMA 3 mm data to study the kinematics of molecular outflows, their interaction with ionized outflows, and the star forming activity in the starburst region. We found that the gas ejected through molecular outflows is much more significant than that used to form stars.

Efficacy and Safety of Laser Surgery and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for Treating Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: a Network Meta-analysis

  • Wang, Li;Yu, Qiu-Yan;Liu, Yan;Zhu, Zhen-Li;Huang, Yuan-Wei;Li, Ke
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4281-4288
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    • 2016
  • Background: Traditional meta-analyses or systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been used to compare laser surgeries and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BHP), but they cannot provide a hierarchy regarding efficacy and safety of treatment. Objective: We therefore performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to compare and create hierarchies for efficacy and safety of TUPR and laser surgeries for BPH. Materials and Methods: We searched for reports of RCTs published up to April 25, 2015. After methodological quality assessment and data extraction, we performed an NMA to compare TURP and laser surgeries for BPH. Results: We ranked the treatments of TURP and laser surgeries for BPH. For IPSS at 6 months, holmium laser resection of the prostate (HoLRP) ranked the first-best and at 12 months, holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). For Qmax at 6 and 12 months, HoLEP ranked the first-best; for operative time it was TURP; for cathedral removal time, diode laser enucleation of the prostate (DiLEP) ranked the first-best. Conclusions: Although TURP is considered the gold standard for treating BPH, it is not better in terms of efficacy and safety compared with the laser surgery. Our NMA created hierarchies for the 9 types of surgery in terms of efficacy and safety, which should help clinicians choose the best approach for the individual patient.

EFFECTS OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITORS ON OSTEOCLAST-LIKE CELL FORMATION

  • Ahn, Seung-Kyu;Kim, Jung-Kun;Cha, Kyung-Suk
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.715-722
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    • 1995
  • Orthodontic tooth movement in response to orthodontic force results from actions of osteoclasts and osteeoblasts in the cell level. Convincing evidence has now been provided to support the view that osteoclasts are derived from mononuclear cells that originate in the bone marrow or other hematopoietic organs and they migrate to the bones via vascular routes. Nitric oxide(NO), which accounts for the biological properties of endothelium-derived relaxing factor(EDRF), is the endogenous stimulator of soluble guanylate cylase. The discovery of the formation of nitric oxide(NO) from L-arginine in mammalian tissues and its biological roles has, in the last 7 years, thrown new light onto many areas of research. Data from experiments in vitro showed that N-metyl-L-arginine(L-NMA) and L-nitro-L- arginine(L-NAME) are competitive inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase. This study suggest that the multinucleated cells in our culture have characteristics of osteoclasts and that the potential bone cell activity of nitric oxide in vitro may be mediated in part by stimulation of marrow mononuclear cells to form osteoclast-like cells. Bone marrow cells were obtaineed from tibia of 19-days old chick embryo. After sacrifice, tibia was quickly dissected and the bone were then split to expose the medullary bone. The cells were attached for 4 hours and the nonadherent cells were collected. Marrow cells weere cultured in 96-well plate in medium 199. To examine the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells(MNCs), $10^{-8}\;M\;Vit=D_3$ and various concentration of L-NMA and L-NAME weere added at the beginning of cultures and with each medium change. After 7 days of culture. tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(TRAP) staining was performed for microscopic evaluation. Cells haying more than three nuclei per cell were counted as MNCs. The obsrved results were as follows;1. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamine $D_3$ stimulated the osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in cultures of chick embryo bone marrow. 2. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors(NOSI ; N-NMA, N-NAME) stimulated the osteoclast-like cells in cultures of chick embry bone marrow. 3. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamine$D_3$ and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors did not appear to have additive effect on the generation of TRAP-positive MNCs. These results suggest that nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may stimulate the osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation and fusion in cultures of chick bone marrow.

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An Experimental Study on the Biological Specificity of Nitric Oxide and Nitric Oxide Synthetase in Periodontium-Related Cells (치주조직 유관세포에서의 Nitric Oxide 및 Nitric Oxide Synthetase의 생물학적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Hyung-Jin;Yoon, Dong-Whan;You, Hyung-Keun;Shin, Hyung-Shik
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.883-908
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    • 1997
  • Bone remodeling is characterized by the coupling of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. The process is tightly regualted at the local level by an incompletely known netwotk of peptide and non-peptide fators. Nitric oxide(NO), synthesized by nitric oxide synthetase(NOS) from L-arginine, is becoming recognized as an important bioregualtory molecule in a variety of tissue, but little is known about its possible role in periodontal tissue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of nitric oxide synthetase(NOS) in inflamed gingiva and the effects of cytokine on the expression of NOS protein. The expression of NOS in gingival tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for $NOS_1$, $NOS_2$, $NOS_3$. The effect of cytokine on the expression of NOS in human periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast-like HOS cells by western blot analysis. Further, we studied that NO functions in periodontal ligament cells as a regulatory molecule. PDL cells incubated with NOS inhibitor and donor. The protein expression, type I collagen & non-collagenous protein, nitrate production and cell proliferation were evaluated The results were as follows. 1. $NOS_1$, $NOS_2$, $NOS_3$ was rarely distributed in healthy gingiva, but stronger stained in gingival epithelium, endothelial cells, and mononuclear cells of inflammed gingiva. 2. The cytokine stimulated $NOS_1$, and $NOS_3$ protein were not inducing or inhibitory effect to compared with control in PDL and HOS cells. 3.Incubation of cells with combination of $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IFN-{\gamma}$, LPS result in a time dependant increase in $NOS_2$ expression, reaching a maximal level after 24 hours of stimulation. 4. The osteonectin protein inhibitory effect of NMA, inhibitor of NOS, was reversed by Larginine in dose dependant manner. 5. NMA decreased cell poliferation and nitrate production, but the inhibitory efffect of NMA was also prevented by the NO donor, sodium nitropruiside. These results suggest that exogenously synthesized NO was playing a stimulating effect on cell proliferation or on non-collagenous protein expression. Therefore NO have an important role in mediation of localized bone destruction associated inflammatory bone disease such as periodontitis.

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Endogenous Nitric Oxide Strengthens Doxorubicin-induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Cell Lines (Doxorubicin에 의한 내인성 산화질소가 인간 대장암 세포주에서의 세포사멸에 미치는 효과)

  • Im, Soon Jae;Kim, Ji Hye;Kim, Min Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1137-1143
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    • 2014
  • Doxorubicin is a general chemotherapy drug widely used for a number of cancers. However, the correlation between endogenous nitric oxide ($NO^{\bullet}$) levels and chemoresistance to doxorubicin remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of endogenous $NO^{\bullet}$ on the anticancer activity of doxorubicin in human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 with different p53 status. The cells were treated with either doxorubicin alone or in combination with the $NO^{\bullet}$ synthase (NOS) inhibitor $N^G$-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMA). Doxorubicin differentially inhibited the growth of both the HCT116 (p53-WT) and HT29 (p53-MUT) cells, which was mitigated by cotreatment with NMA. Further studies revealed that inhibition of endogenous $NO^{\bullet}$ mitigated doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in the HCT116 and HT29 cells, as evidenced by apoptotic DNA fragmentation and the sub-G1 peak of apoptotic markers. Apoptosis was delayed in the HT29 cells, and its magnitude was greatly reduced, underscoring the importance of the modulation of p53 in the response. RT-PCR analysis revealed that doxorubicin down-regulated levels of inhibitors of the apoptosis family (cellular IAP-1 and-2). Collectively, these data show that induction of apoptosis by doxorubicin in human colon cancer cells is possibly related to modulation of endogenous $NO^{\bullet}$, the expression of the IAP family of genes, and the status of p53. The underlying mechanisms may represent potential targets for adjuvant strategies to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy for colon cancer.

Study of Living Quarter Fire Protection for PSA AoC (PSA AoC 획득을 위한 Living Quarter Fire Protection 고찰)

  • Heo, Jun
    • Special Issue of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • pp.96-99
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    • 2015
  • Norwegian Continental Shelf(NCS) is known as rich oil & gas reservoir and takes one third(1/3) of total continental shelf of Europe.(As of year 2013, Norway ranked third in the world in terms of exporting natural gas.) Until recent low oil price stream, development of oil & gas in NCS was active and perceived as profitable business. This paper describes study of living quarter fire protection for PSA AoC to prepare for likely increasing demands of offshore projects in NCS field.

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Role of Nitric Oxide Produced During Endotoxic Shock in Sympathetic Nervous Function (Endotoxin에 의해 생성된 혈관의 nitric oxide가 교감신경계에 미치는 영향)

  • 박관하
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.195-201
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    • 1996
  • Endotoxic shock causes death in humans and animals via extreme hypoperfusion of peripheral organs. A massive production of nitric oxide (NO) both from the endothelical cells and smooth muscle cells has been proposed as a possible mechanism in this process. Since NO attenuated the contractility to vasoconstricting agents such as norepinephrine (NE) by directly acting on the smooth muscle cells, this mechanism was considered mainly as a postsynaptic mechanism. In this research it was investigated whether NO, thus released, also participates in the presynaptic events for the regulation of vascular tone in endotoxic shock. The role of NO was studied by adding NO donors or NO synthase inhibitor $N^\omega $methyl-L-arginine (NMA) in stimulated sympathetic nerves of the mesenteric vascular bed and the Langendorff heart of rats. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, reduced the pressor responses of isolated mesenteric artery either to electrical stimulation or exogenously administered phenylephrine (PE). In this mesentery, although neither agent influenced NE release, in the presence of the adrenergic $\alpha_2$-receptor antagonist yohimbine, elecrical stimulation-evoked NE release was augumented by SNP. In the heart SNP facilitated the NE release induced by electrical stimulation, while NMA had no effect. From these results it is proposed that there exists a local reflex phenomenon in the junction between the sympathetic nerve terminals and the smooth muscle of resistance blood vessels; by which sympathetic responses are reduced by NO at the postjunctional level while NO facilitates NE release contributing to augumentation of sympathetic tone. All these facts suggest that NO produced during endotoxic shock has dual effects: whereas NO blunts the vasoconstrictive activity of NE at the postsynaptic level, NO presynaptically facilitates the release of NE from sympathetic nerve terminals.

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