• Title, Summary, Keyword: NKG2D

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Inhibition of Oncogenes Affects the Expression of NKG2D Ligands in Cancer Cells (k-ras와 c-myc, wnt 억제에 의한 NKG2D 리간드의 발현변화)

  • Heo, Woong;Lee, Young Shin;Bae, Jaeho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1216-1222
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    • 2013
  • NK cells are lymphoid immune cells that participate in innate immunity to protect against foreign pathogens and transforming cells. It is known that the activity of NK cells is regulated by a balance between activating and inhibitory signals rather than specific antigens. One important activating signal is mediated by the NKG2D receptor, which recognizes NKG2D ligands on cancer cells. Therefore, tumor cells that express sufficient amounts of NKG2D ligands could be eliminated by NKD2D+ cells, including NK cells. Oncogenes drive tumor cells to apoptosis resistant and uncontrolled proliferation by altered expression of many critical genes. Therefore, the expression of NKG2D ligands may be affected by oncogenes. This study focused on increasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to NK cells by regulating the expression of NKG2D ligands influenced by three oncogenes: k-ras, wnt, and c-myc. We demonstrated that inhibition of k-ras and c-myc increased the expression of NKG2D ligands and enhanced the susceptibility of cancer cells to NK cells. On the contrary, inhibition of the wnt pathway decreased MICA and ULBP1 transcripts. Although the decreased transcription of NKG2D ligands by inhibition of the wnt pathway, surface proteins of NKG2D ligands were not changed, and the susceptibility of HCT-116 cells was unaffected. The results demonstrate that the transcription of NKG2D ligands are regulated deferentially by the k-ras, c-myc, and wnt pathways and that the cytotoxicity of NK cells solely depends on the amount of surface NKG2D ligands.

Regulation Roles of MICA and NKG2D in Human Renal Cancer Cells

  • Jia, Hong-Ying;Liu, Jun-Li;Yuan, Ming-Zhen;Zhou, Cheng-Jun;Sun, Wen-Dong;Zhao, Jing-Jie;Wang, Jue;Liu, Ling;Luan, Yun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3901-3905
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    • 2015
  • Objective: Our aim was to investigation the roles of MHC class I chain-related gene A(MICA) and natural killer cell group 2D(NKG2D) in human renal cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The expression of membrane MICA (mMICA) on renal cells and NKG2D on NK cells were detected by flow cytometry (FCM); the content of sMICA were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the distribution of mMICA on renal tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry; the interaction between MICA and NKG2D was observed by antibody closed method. Results: Our results showed that the expression of mMICA in renal cancer tissues was significantly higher than in controls, where the soluble MICA was not expressed. Cytotoxic activity of NK cells was significantly reduced after exposure to NKG2D and MICA antibodies (P<0.05), and serum containing sMICA can obviously lower the function of NKG2D (P<0.05). Conclusions: The interaction of mMICA and NKG2D play important roles in mediation of cytotoxicity of NK cells in RCC. On the other hand, sMICA may mediate tumor immune escape through down- regulated NKG2D expression.

CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ Lymphocyte Subgroups and their Surface Receptors NKG2D and NKG2A in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Yu, Da-Ping;Han, Yi;Zhao, Qiu-Yue;Liu, Zhi-Dong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2685-2688
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    • 2014
  • Background: To explore the prevalence of lymphocyte subgroups $CD3^+$ $CD4^+$ and $CD3^+$ $CD8^+$ and their surface receptors NKG2D and NKG2A in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with NSCLC were divided into different groups according to different clinical factors (TNM staging, pathological patterns and genders) for assessment of relations with $CD3^+$ $CD4^+$ and $CD3^+$ $CD8^+$ and the surface receptors NKG2D and NKG2A of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. Results: Patients in the advanced group had evidently lower levels of $CD3^+$ $CD4^+$ but markedly higher levels of $CD3^+$ $CD8^+$ in peripheral blood than those with early lesions (p<0.05). In addition, NSCLC patients in the advanced group had obviously higher $CD3^+$ $CD4^+$ NKG2D and $CD3^+$ $CD8^+$ NKG2A expression rates but lower $CD3^+$ $CD4^+$ NKG2A and $CD3^+$ $CD8^+$ NKG2D expression rates (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences between NSCLC patients with different genders and pathological patterns in expression levels of lymphocyte subgroups $CD3^+$ $CD4^+$ and $CD3^+$ $CD8^+$ and their surface receptors NKG2D and NKG2A. Conclusions: Unbalanced expression of surface receptors NKG2D and NKG2A in $CD3^+$ $CD4^+$ and $CD3^+$ $CD8^+$ lymphocytes may be associated with a poor prognosis, greater malignancy and immunological evasion by advanced cancers, related to progression of lung cancer.

Interleukin-18 Synergism with Interleukin-2 in Cytotoxicity and NKG2D Expression of Human Natural Killer Cells

  • Qi, Yuan-Ying;Lu, Chao;Ju, Ying;Wang, Zi-E;Li, Yuan-Tang;Shen, Ya-Juan;Lu, Zhi-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7857-7861
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    • 2014
  • Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunity. Interleukin (IL)-18 is an immunoregulatory cytokine that induces potent NK cell-dependent anti-tumor responses when administrated with other cytokines. In this study, we explored the effects of combining IL-18 and IL-2 on NK cytotoxicity as well as expression levels of the NK cell receptor NKG2D in vitro. Freshly isolated PBMCs were incubated for 48 h with IL-18 and IL-2, then CD107a expression on $CD3^-CD56^+$ NK cells was determined by three-colour flow cytometry to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NK cells against human erythroleukemia K562 cells and human colon carcinoma HT29 cells. Flow cytometric analysis was also employed to determine NKG2D expression on NK cells. The combined use of IL-18 and IL-2 significantly increased CD107a expression on NK cells compared with using IL-18 or IL-2 alone, suggesting that the combination of these two cytokines exerted synergistic enhancement of NK cytotoxicity. IL-18 also enhanced NKG2D expression on NK cells when administered with IL-2. In addition, blockade of NKG2D signaling with NKG2D-blocking antibody attenuated the up-regulatory effect of combining IL-18 and IL-2 on NK cytolysis. Our data revealed that IL-18 synergized with IL-2 to dramatically enhance the cytolytic activity of human NK cells in a NKG2D-dependent manner. The results appear encouraging for the use of combined IL-18 and IL-2 in tumor immunotherapy.

Recovery of NK(CD56+CD3-) Cells after One Year of Tenofovir Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

  • Lee, Hwan Hee;Kang, Hyojeung;Cho, Hyosun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1204-1208
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    • 2017
  • Natural killer (NK) cells have been reported to be dysfunctional in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. However, the functional recovery of NK cells under antiviral therapeutic agents in CHB was not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic changes of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in terms of their functional markers (CD16, NKG2A, NKG2D) during tenofovir therapy in CHB. The frequency of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in CHB patients was significantly increased after 12 months of tenofovir therapy when compared with baseline. The expression levels of CD16+/CD56+CD3- and NKG2A+/CD56+CD3- cells were also affected by tenofovir treatment. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the proportion of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells and HBV DNA (log copies/ml) in CHB patients.

5-Fluorouracil and Interleukin-2 Immunochemotherapy Enhances Immunogenicity of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through Upregulation of NKG2D Ligands

  • Zhao, Lei;Wang, Wen-Jia;Zhang, Jin-Nan;Zhang, Xing-Yi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.4039-4044
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    • 2014
  • Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of immunochemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells. Materials and Methods: In order to detect whether 5-FU+IL-2 could effectively inhibit tumor growth in vivo, we established an A549-bearing nude mouse model. The cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells was evaluated using a standard chromium release assay. To evaluate the relevance of NK cells in 5-FU+IL-2-mediated tumor inhibitory effects, we depleted NK cells in A549-bearing mice by injecting anti-asialo-GM-1 antibodies. Effects of 5-FU+IL-2 on the expression and promoter activity of NKG2D ligands (MICA/MICB) in A549 cells in vitro were also assessed. Results: In A549-bearing nude mice, combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth in comparison with monotherapy with 5-FU or IL-2 and enhanced the recognition and lysis of tumor cells by NK cells. Further study of mechanisms showed that NK cells played a vital role in the anticancer immune response of 5-FU+IL-2 immunochemotherapy. In addition, the combination therapy synergistically stimulated the expression and promoter activity of MICA/MICB. Conclusions: 5-FU and IL-2 immunochemotherapy significantly inhibited tumor growth and activated NK cytotoxicity in vivo, and these effects were partly impaired after depleting NK cells in tumor-bearing mice. Combination treatment of 5-FU and IL-2 upregulated the expression and the promoter activity of MICA/MICB in A549 cells, which enhanced the recognition of A549 cells by NK cells. All of the data indicated that immunochemotherapy of 5-FU and IL-2 may provide a new treatment option for patients with lung cancer.

Combination Doxorubicin and Interferon-α Therapy Stimulates Immunogenicity of Murine Pancreatic Cancer Panc02 Cells via Up-regulation of NKG2D ligands and MHC Class I

  • Wang, Wen-Jia;Qin, Si-Hao;Zhang, Ji-Wei;Jiang, Yue-Yao;Zhang, Jin-Nan;Zhao, Lei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9667-9672
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    • 2014
  • Background: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a malignant gastrointestinal cancer with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite severe side effects of chemotherapy, the use of immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy has emerged as a common clinical treatment. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the combined doxorubicin and interferon-${\alpha}$ (IFN-${\alpha}$) therapy on murine pancreatic cancer Panc02 cells in vitro and in vivo and underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: A Panc02-bearing mouse model was established to determine whether doxorubicin and interferon-${\alpha}$ (IFN-${\alpha}$) could effectively inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was evaluated using a standard LDH release assay. To evaluate the relevance of NK cells and CD8 T cells to the combination therapy-mediated anti-tumor effects, they were depleted in tumor-bearing mice by injecting anti-asialo-GM-1 antibodies or anti-CD8 antibodies, respectively. Finally, the influence of doxorubicin+interferon-${\alpha}$ (IFN-${\alpha}$) on the ligands of NK and T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Results: The combination therapy group demonstrated a significant inhibition of growth of Panc02 in vivo, resulting from activated cytotoxicity of NK cells and CTLs. Depleting CD8 T cells or NK cells reduced the anticancer effects mediated by immunochemotherapy. Furthermore, the doxorubicin+IFN-a treatment increased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) and NKG2D ligands on Panc02 cells, suggesting that the combined therapy may be a potential strategy for enhancing immunogenicity of tumors. All these data indicate that the combination therapy using doxorubicin and interferon-${\alpha}$ (IFN-${\alpha}$) may be a potential strategy for treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

The Poly-γ-ᴅ-Glutamic Acid Capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a Surrogate of Bacillus anthracis Capsule Induces Interferon-Gamma Production in NK Cells through Interactions with Macrophages

  • Lee, Hae-Ri;Jeon, Jun Ho;Rhie, Gi-Eun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.1032-1037
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    • 2017
  • The poly-${\gamma}$-$\small{D}$-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, provides protection of the bacterium from phagocytosis and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. We investigated crosstalk between murine natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages stimulated with the PGA capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a surrogate of the B. anthracis capsule. PGA induced interferon-gamma production from NK cells cultured with macrophages. This effect was dependent on macrophage-derived IL-12 and cell-cell contact interaction with macrophages through NK cell receptor NKG2D and its ligand RAE-1. The results showed that PGA could enhance NK cell activation by inducing IL-12 production in macrophages and a contact-dependent crosstalk with macrophages.

Advance Understanding and New Treatment of Alopecia Areata (원형탈모증(alopecia areata)의 최신 이해와 치료)

  • Kang, Kyung-Hwa
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1345-1354
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    • 2016
  • Alopecia areata (AA) is a common and tissue-specific autoimmune disease of hair follicle resulting in the loss of hair on the scalp and elsewhere on the body. Hair follicles is a unique organ because it has its own immune system and hormonal milieu and has a different immune state at each hair cycle stage. The collapses of anagen-dependent hair follicle immune privilege arise autoimmune attack, inducing ectopic MHC class I expression in the hair follicle epithelium and autoantigen presentation to autoreactive CD8+T cells, which results in AA. Clinical and experimental studies have pointed that psychological stress may also influence the hair follicle immune/hormone systems and contribute to the induction of AA. The key pathogenesis of AA is associated with immune privilege guardians (including ACTH, ${\alpha}-MSH$, and $TGF-{\beta}$), natural killer group 2D-positive (NKG2D+) cells (including NK and CD8+T cells), and stress hormones (including CRH and substance P). Effective treatments for AA are still demanded. One of the future targets of treatment will be the modification of hair follicle immune privilege including stress. Recent studies have reported that JAK inhibitors and immunomodulators used in other autoimmune disease, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis, Tregs, platelet-rich plasma therapy, statins, and prostaglandin anaolgues are effective for AA. Here the article reviews the recent understanding in the pathogenesis associated with perifollicular endocrine/immunology and new treatments of AA.

Generation of $CD2^+CD8^+$ NK Cells from c-$Kit^+$ Bone Marrow Cells in Porcine

  • Lim, Kyu-Hee;Han, Ji-Hui;Roh, Yoon-Seok;Kim, Bum-Seok;Kwon, Jung-Kee;You, Myoung-Jo;Han, Ho-Jae;Ejaz, Sohail;Kang, Chang-Won;Kim, Jong-Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2012
  • Natural killer (NK) cells provide one of the initial barriers of cellular host defense against pathogens, in particular intracellular pathogens. Because bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), lymphoid protenitors, can give rise to NK cells, NK ontogeny has been considered to be exclusively lymphoid. Here, we show that porcine c-$kit^+$ bone marrow cells (c-$kit^+$ BM cells) develop into NK cells in vitro in the presence of various cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-21, stem cell factor (SCF), and fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand (FLT3L)]. Adding hydrocortisone (HDC) and stromal cells greatly increases the frequency of c-$kit^+$ BM cells that give rise to $CD2^+CD8^+$ NK cells. Also, intracellular levels of perforin, granzyme B, and NKG2D were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. It was found that of perforin, granzyme B, and NKG2D levels significantly were increased in cytokine-stimulated c-$kit^+$ BM cells than those of controls. And, we compared the ability of the cytotoxicity of $CD2^+CD8^+$ NK cells differentiated by cytokines from c-$kit^+$ BM cells against K562 target cells for 28 days. Cytokines-induced NK cells as effector cells were incubated with K562 cells as target in a ratio of 100 : 1 for 4 h once a week. In results, $CD2^+CD8^+$ NK cells induced by cytokines and stromal cells showed a significantly increased cytotoxicity 21 days later. Whereas, our results indicated that c-$kit^+$ BM cells not pretreated with cytokines have lower levels of cytotoxicity. Taken together, this study suggests that cytokines-induced NK cells from porcine c-$kit^+$ BM cells may be used as adoptive transfer therapy if the known obstacles to xenografting (e.g. immune and non-immune problems) were overcome in the future.