• Title, Summary, Keyword: NK

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Effects of Feeding Nattokinase as Natural Feed Additives on Milk Production and Blood Metabolites in Lactating Dairy Cows (천연 사료첨가제 Nattokinase 공급에 따른 젖소의 산유능력 및 혈액성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Dong-Hyun;Park, Joong-Kook;Kim, Hyeon-Shup;Ki, Kwang-Seok;Lee, Hyun-June;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Kim, Mi-Kyoung;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Kim, Sang-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.553-563
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    • 2011
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of nattokinase (NK) additives on milk production and composition, and blood metabolites in dairy cows. The two kinds of nattokinase with high fibrinolytic activity were produced by two strains of bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefacines (NK1) and Bacillus subtilis (NK2). Total fifteen Holstein cows (average $1.83{\pm}0.37$ parity; average milk yield $23.2{\pm}3.2$ kg/d) were randomly assigned to three treatments (5 animals per treatment). Cows were fed TMR supplemented with 0g, 100g and 100g for control, NK1 and NK2 treatment, respectively for 4 weeks. Milk yield was significantly higher (p<0.05) for NK1 (22.89 kg/d) than for control (21.07 kg/d) and NK2 (21.36 kg/d). Somatic cell counts in NK treatments were significantly lower than that in control group (58,000 vs. 21,000 and 35,000 cells/ml, control vs. NK1 and NK2). Serum ALT levels in all treatment were similar to the range of 32.00~35.83 IU/L, but AST levels in NK1 (85.67 IU/L) was significantly decreased compared with those in control and NK2 (121.67 and 117.67 IU/L respectively). Serum T-CHO levels in NK1 (145.33 mg/dl) was significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared with that in control (179.00 mg/dl) and NK2 (176.17 mg/dl). This finding showed that NK1 additives could possibly have a positive effect in lactation performance of mid-lactation dairy cows by increasing milk yield, reducing somatic cell count, improving liver function and decreasing cholesterol in blood.

Inhibition of Cell Migration by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) in Human Natural Killer Cell Line, NK-92MI (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)에 의한 인간 자연 살해 세포(NK-92MI)의 Migration 억제)

  • Cheon, So-Young;Bang, Sa-Ik;Cho, Dae-Ho
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.247-251
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    • 2005
  • Background: Natural killer (NK) cells are CD3 (-) CD14 (-) CD56 (+) lymphocytes. They play an important role in the body's innate immune response. They can induce spontaneous killing of cancer cells or virus-infected cells via the Fas/Fas ligand or the granzyme/perforin systems. The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an important regulator for the body's stress response. It promotes proliferation and migration of various cancer cells through the CRH type 1 receptor under stress, and also inhibits NK or T cell activity. However, the relationship of CRH and NK cell migration to the target has not been confirmed. Herein, we study the effect of CRH on NK cell migration. Methods: We used the human NK cell line, NK-92MI, and tested the expression of CRH receptor type 1 on NK-92MI by RT-PCR. This was to examine the effect of CRH on tumor and NK cell migration, thus NK cells (NK-92MI) were incubated with or without CRH and then each CRH treated cell's migration ability compared to that of the CRH untreated group. Results: We confirmed that CRH receptor type 1 is expressed in NK-92MI. CRH can decrease NK cell migration in a time-/dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These data suggest CRH can inhibit NK cell migration to target cells.

Enhancement of Murine NK cell Activity in vitro by Red Ginseng Acidic Polysaccharide

  • Choi, Hye-Sook;Sohn, Eun-Wha;Rhee, Dong-Kwon;Pyo, Suh-Kneung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.278-282
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    • 2009
  • The in-vitro immunomodulatory function of the activity of murine natural-killer (NK) cells induced by redginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) was examined. RGAP induced the significant enhancement of NK cell activity against the Yac-1 tumor cells. The treatment of splenocytes cultured with RGAP for 16 h resulted in a significant increase in NK activity at the E:T ratio of 100:1, and in a 239 and 250% increase at 10 and $100{\mu}g$/ml, respectively. We also demonstrate that RGAP treatment increased the production of interferon (IFN)-$\gamma$ (17-125%) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$ (15-100%), suggesting that the increase in NK cell cytotoxicity could be due to the enhancement of the NK cell production of both cytokines. In addition, RGAP had a stimulating effect on lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogens. Overall, these results suggest that RGAP has an immunopotentiating effect on NK cells, which can support the development of clinical studies on RGAP.

Snake Venom synergized Cytotoxic Effect of Natural Killer Cells on NCI H358 Human Lung Cancer Cell Growth through Induction of Apoptosis

  • Oh, Jae Woo;Song, Ho Sueb
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : I investigated whether snake venom can synergistically strengthen the cytotoxic effects of NK-92 cells, and enhance the inhibition of the growth of lung cancer cells including NCI-H358 through the induction of death receptor dependent extrinsic apoptosis. Methods : Snake venom toxin inhibited cell growth of NCI-H358 Cells and exerted non influence on NK-92 cell viability. Moreover, when they were co-cultured with NK cells and concomitantly treated with $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin, more influence was exerted on the inhibition of growth of NCI-H358 cells than BV or NK cell co-culture alone. Results : The expression of Fas, TNFR2 and DR3 and in NCI-H358 lung cancer cells was significantly increased by co-culture of NK-92 cells and treatment of $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin, compared to co-culture of NK-92 cells alone. Coincidentally, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-8 - expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, demonstrated significant increase. However, in anti-apoptotic NF-${\kappa}B$ activities, activity of the signal molecule was significantly decreased by co-culture of NK-92 cells and treatment of $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin, compared to co-culture of NK-92 cells or snake venom toxin treated by NCIH358 alone. Meanwhile, in terms of NO generation, there is a significant increase, in co-culture of NK-92 cells with NCI-H358 cells as well as the co-culture of NK-92 cells and concomitant treatment of $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin. However, no synergistic increase of NO generation was shown in co-culture of NK-92 cells and treatment of $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin, compared to co-culture of NK-92 cells with NCI-H358 cells. Conclusion : Consequently, this data provides that snake venom toxin could be useful candidate compounds to suppress lung cancer growth along with the cytotoxic effect of NK-92 cells through extrinsic apoptosis.

Nursing Education in North Korea: Past 50 Years and Future (북한의 간호교육 -반세기동안의 변화와 전망-)

  • Yi, Ggod-Me
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.437-449
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: To understand the development of nursing education of North Korea after 1945. Method: First, collecting primary sources published in NK. Second, collecting secondary sources published in South Korea. Third, interview with South Korean medical personnels who visited NK. Forth, interview with medical personnels who escaped NK. Result: After 1945 NK increased health care facilities in short time and had the policy of training medical personnel in short time. Nursing education was focused on the basic practice. NK could begin free medical treatment for the laborer in 1947. Post Korean War restoration and free medical treatment system of national level in 1950s and 1960s served to the health promotion of NK population. The medical personnel training policy continued and the number of R.N. in NK had increased 13 times in 15 years. NK has tried to increase the quality of health care service and medical personnel since 1970s. Nursing education in medical colleges is three-year course but 6 month training courses in general hospitals continue. They focus on primary prevention and oriental medicine in nursing curriculum reflecting the characteristics of NK medial care. But English and high technology is very poor, and there is no computer related curriculum. Conclusion: nursing education in NK has developed reflecting the changes of NK society and health care since 1945. After 1980s NK is in deep economic depression and it is hard to recover from the state with their hands. In this state, we cannot expect the development of nursing education in NK.

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Immunomodulation of NK Cell Activity by Red Ginseng Acidic Polysaccharide (RGAP) in Ovariectomized Rats

  • Kim, Kyung-Suk;Pyo, Suh-Kneung;Sohn, Eun-Hwa
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 2009
  • The in-vitro immunomodulatory function of murine natural-killer (NK) cells induced by red-ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was examined in this study. The IL-2-induced NK cell activity was significantly decreased in the OVX rats compared to the sham groups, but the normally induced NK cell activity was not. RGAP, however, increased the NK cell activity in both groups, and this effect involved iNOS expression. The inhibition of iNOS activity did not increase the NK cell cytotoxicity by RGAP in the OVX rats. The data that were obtained also demonstrated that the expression of iNOS was increased in the spleen of the OVX rats. These results indicate that RGAP increases the tumoricidal activity of the NK cell in the OVX rats, which is a primed or activated state of innate immune cells resulting from the changes in cytokine production induced by estrogen-deficient stress. Therefore, RGAP has a synergistic effect on the NK cell activities, which are regulated by the iNOS signals in OVX rats. This suggests that RGAP is useful for potential therapeutic strategies as a nutrient in regulating the NK cells in OVX rats.

Neurotoxic Desensitizing Effect of Capsaicin on Peripheral Sensory Nerve Endings in Guinea Pig Bronchi (기니픽 기관지 말초신경에 대한 캡사이신의 탈감작 효과)

  • Jung, Yi-Sook;Cho, Tai-Soon;Moon, Chang-Hyun;Shin, Hwa-Sup
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 1997
  • In the present study, capsaicin-induced desensitization of peripheral sensory nerves were investigated by using guinea pig bronchi, in which these nerves are stimulated with cap saicin to produce a contractile response via the release of sensory neuropeptides such as substance P and neurokinin A. The contractile response to capsaicin was inhibited by the combination of CP96345 and SR 48968 suggesting that the excitatory effect of capsaicin is mediated via both the tachykinin NK-1 and NK-2 receptor. Capsaicin produced in vitro-desensitization in dose-dependent manner, but after this in vitro-desensitization the response to NK-1 and NK-2 receptor agonist did not change. Systemic administration (s.c.) of capsaicin also desensitized significantly bronchial tissues but could not produce any change in the contractile response to the selective agonists of NK-1 and NK-2 receptor. Therefore, the present results suggest that functional desensitization to capsaicin-induced contractile response in guinea pig bronchi does not involve NK-1 and NK-2 receptor, while excitatory effect of capsaicin is mediated via both NK-1 and NK-2 receptor. In conclusion, it is suggested that capsaicin- induced excitation and desensitization involves somewhat different pathways.

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Potential Probiotic Properties of Laetoeoeeus laetis NK34 Isolated from Jeotgal

  • Lee, Na-Kyoung;Noh, Ji-Eun;Choi, Gui-Hun;Park, Eun-Ju;Chang, Hyo-Ihl;Yun, Cheol-Won;Kim, Seung-Wook;Kang, Chang-Won;Yoon, Yoh-Chang;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.843-847
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    • 2007
  • Strain NK34 was characterized for probiotic use. Strain NK34 was named Lactococcus lactis NK34 based on API 50 CHL kit results and 16S rDNA sequencing. L. lactis NK34 was highly resistant to artificial gastric juice (pH 2.5) and artificial bile acid. Based on results from the API ZYM kit, 4 enzymes were produced. L. lactis NK34 was resistant to all antibiotics tested except for $10\;{\mu}g/mL$ roxithromycin and $10\;{\mu}g/mL$ erythromycin. The cholesterol-lowering effect of L. lactis NK34 was about 46.9%. Concentrations of interleukin $(IL)-1{\alpha}$ in the $20{\times}$ concentrated supernatant of L. lactis NK34 was about 361 pg/mL. L. lactis NK34 was also found to inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells due to MNNG-induced DNA damage. These results demonstrate the potential of L. lactis NK34 as a health-promoting probiotic.

Signaling for Synergistic Activation of Natural Killer Cells

  • Kwon, Hyung-Joon;Kim, Hun Sik
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.240-246
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    • 2012
  • Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in early surveillance against virus infection and cellular transformation, and are also implicated in the control of inflammatory response through their effector functions of direct lysis of target cells and cytokine secretion. NK cell activation toward target cell is determined by the net balance of signals transmitted from diverse activating and inhibitory receptors. A distinct feature of NK cell activation is that stimulation of resting NK cells with single activating receptor on its own cannot mount natural cytotoxicity. Instead, specific pairs of co-activation receptors are required to unleash NK cell activation via synergy- dependent mechanism. Because each co-activation receptor uses distinct signaling modules, NK cell synergy relies on the integration of such disparate signals. This explains why the study of the mechanism underlying NK cell synergy is important and necessary. Recent studies revealed that NK cell synergy depends on the integration of complementary signals converged at a critical checkpoint element but not on simple amplification of the individual signaling to overcome intrinsic activation threshold. This review focuses on the signaling events during NK cells activation and recent advances in the study of NK cell synergy.

Improved Anti-Cancer Effect of Curcumin on Breast Cancer Cells by Increasing the Activity of Natural Killer Cells

  • Lee, Hwan Hee;Cho, Hyosun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.874-882
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    • 2018
  • Curcumin is known to possess various biological functions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer activities. Natural killer (NK) cells are large lymphocytes that directly kill cancer cells. However, many aggressive cancers, including breast cancer, were reported to escape the successful killing of NK cells in a tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of curcumin in coculture of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 and NK (NK-92) cells. We found that curcumin had an immune-stimulatory effect on NK-92 by increasing the surface expression of the $CD16^+$ and $CD56^{dim}$ population of NK-92. We confirmed that the cytotoxic effect of NK-92 on MDA-MB-231 was significantly enhanced in the presence of curcumin, which was highly associated with the activation of Stat4 and Stat5 proteins in NK-92. Finally, this improved anticancer effect of curcumin was correlated with decreased expression of pErk and PI3K in MDA-MB-231.