• Title, Summary, Keyword: NF-kB

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The Effect of Cobrotoxin on $NF-{\kappa}B$ binding Activity in Raw264.7 cells

  • Yoo, Jae-Ryong;Song, Ho-Sueb
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2005
  • Cobrotoxin, a venom of Vipera lebetina turanica, is a group of basic peptidescomposed of 233 amino acids with six disulfide bonds formed by twelve cysteins. NF-kB is activated by subsequent release of inhibitory IkB and translocation of p50. Since sulfhydryl group is present in kinase domain of p50 subunit of NF-kB, cobrotoxin could modify NF-kB activity by protein-protein interaction. We therefore examined effect of cobrotoxin on NF-kB activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated Raw 264.7 mouse macrophages. Cobrotoxin suppressed the LPS and SNP-induced release of IkB and p50 translocation resulted in inhibition of DNA binding activity of NF-kB. Inhibition of NF-kB resulted in reduction of the LPS and SNP-induced production of inflammatory mediators NO and PGE2 generation. The inhibitory effect of cobrotoxin on the NF-kB activity were blocked by addition of reducing agents dithiothreitol and glutathione. These results demonstrate that cobrotoxin inhibits activation of NF-kB, and suggest that pico to nanomolar range of cobrotoxin could inhibit the expression of genes in the NF-kB signal pathway.

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A Cell-Based Assay System for Monitoring NF-$\kappa$B Activity in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes: A Screening Tool of the Antioxidants and Anti-inflammatories for Dermatological Purpose

  • Moon, Ki-Young;Hahn, Bum-Soo;Lee, Jinseon;Kim, Yeong-Shik
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2001
  • A cell-based assay system for monitoring NF-$textsc{k}$B activity was developed to determine the influence of activated NF-$textsc{k}$B in human HaCaT cells. The pNF-$textsc{k}$B-SEAP-NPT plasmid that permits expression of the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reported gene in response to the NF-$textsc{k}$B activity and contains neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT) gene for the geneticin resistance in host cells was constructed and transfected into human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Human HaCaT transfectant cells secreted the SEAP enzyme into the culture medium in a time-dependent manner until 72h. NF-$textsc{k}$B activities were measured in the SEAP reporter gene assay using a fluorescent detection method. The treatment of HaCaT cell transfectants with known antioxidants [e.g., N-acetyl-L-cysteine and vitamin C] showed inhibition of NF-$textsc{k}$B activity in a time-and concentration-dependent manner. The phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) known as a stimulator of NF-$textsc{k}$B expression demonstrated that it increased NF-$textsc{k}$B activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This assay system could be used to determine the quantitative measurement of NF-$textsc{k}$B activity in the human skin and allow the screening of anti-inflammatory agents from various synthetic chemicals and natural products for dermatological purpose. Abbrevitions used: NF-$textsc{k}$B, nuclear factor kappa B; I-$textsc{k}$B, Inhibitory kappa B; SEAP, secreted alkaline phosphatase; NPT, neomycin phosphotransferease; PCR, polymerase chain reaction: dNTP, deoxynucleoside triphosphates; DMEM, dulbecco’s modified eagle medium; FBS, fetal bovine serum; PBs, phosphate-buffered saline; MUP, 4-methylumbellifery phosphate; NAC, N-acetyl-L-cysteine; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; PMA, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate.

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Potential Role of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Suppression of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in Microglial Cell Line (BV-2)

  • Joo, Seong-Soo;Won, Tae-Joan;Lee, Do-Ik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.954-960
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    • 2004
  • Expression of the NF-$textsc{k}$B-dependent genes responsible for inflammation, such as TNF-$\alpha$, IL-1$\beta$, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), contributes to chronic inflammation which is a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases (i.e. Alzheimer's disease). Although NF-$textsc{k}$B plays a biphasic role in different cells like neurons and microglia, controlling the activation of NF-$textsc{k}$B is important for its negative feedback in either activation or inactivation. In this study, we found that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) inhibited I$textsc{k}$B$\alpha$ degradation to block expression of the NF-$textsc{k}$B-dependent genes in microglia when activated by $\beta$-amyloid peptide (A$\beta$). We also showed that when microglia is activated by $A\beta$42, the expression of A20 is suppressed. These findings place A20 in the category of ' protective ' genes, protecting cells from pro-inflammatory reper-toires induced in response to inflammatory stimuli in activated microglia via NF-$textsc{k}$B activation. In light of the gene and proteins for NF-$textsc{k}$B-dependent gene and inactivator for NF-$textsc{k}$B (I$textsc{k}$B$\alpha$), the observations now reported suggest that UDCA plays a role in supporting the attenuation of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO via inactivation of NF-$textsc{k}$B. Moreover, an NF-$textsc{k}$B inhibitor such as A20 can collaborate and at least enhance the anti-inflammatory effect in microglia, thus giving a potent benefit for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.uch as AD.

NF-kB Activation by Disruption of Microtubule Array during Myogenesis of L6 Cells

  • Sangmyung Rhee;Lee, Kun-Ho;Hyockman Kwon
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 1997
  • We have previously reported that NF-kB is involved in the regulation of nitric oxide synthase gene expression during differentiation of chick embryonic myoblasts. However, how NF-kB is timely activated during myogenesis remains elusive. One of the most prominent events in myogenesis is myoblast membrane fusion, which is accompanied with massive cytoskeletal reorganization. Here we show that the activity of NF-kB markedly increases in L6 rat myogenic cells that have just initiated morphological changes by treating nocodazole, a microtubule-disrupting agent. Furthermore, the induction of NF-kB activation was closely correlated with the myoblast fusion. In addition, a variety of agents that disrupt microtubules stimulated the myoblast fusion as well as the induction of NF-kB activation. In contrast, taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing agent, suppressed the induction of NF-kB activation and inhibited spontaneous differentiation of L6 cells as well. In addition, we found that the NF-KB in the cells consists of p50/p65 heterodimers. These results support the idea that reorganization of microtubule at early stages of differentiation plays a role as a signal for NF-KB activation during myogenesis.

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Cyclooxygenase-2 as a Molecular Target for Cancer Chemopreventive Agents

  • Surh, Young-Joon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2001
  • Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the carcinogenesis as well as in inflammation. Improperly overexpressed COX-2 has been observed in many types of human cancers and transformed cells in culture. Thus, it is conceivable that targeted inhibition of abnormally or improperly up-regulated COX-2 provides one of the most effective and promising strategies for cancer prevention. A ubiquitous eukaryotic transcription factor, NF-kB is considered to be involved in regulation of COX-2 expression. Furthermore, extracellular-regulated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase appear to be key elements of the intracellular signaling cascades involved in NF-kB activation in response to a wide array of external stimuli. Certain chemopreventive phytochemicals suppress activation of NF-kB by blocking one or more of the MAP kinases, which may contribute to their inhibitory effects on COX-2 induction. One of the plausible mechanisms by which chemopreventive phytochemicals inhibit NF-kB activation involves suppression of degradation of the inhibitory unit I kB, which hampers subsequent translocation of p65, the functionally active subunit of NF-kB.

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Effect of trichostatin A on NF-κB DNA binding activity and myogenesis in C2Cl2 skeletal muscle Precursor cell (C2C12 근육아세포에서 trichostatin A에 의한 NF-κB DNA 결합 활성과 근육발생에 미치는 영향)

  • 임운기;김경창;신혜자
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2002
  • The differentiation of skeletal muscle precursor cells in culture is marked by the transcriptional activation of muscle-specific genes and the morphological differentiation of myoblast into multinucleate myotube. In this study, we examined the effect of TSA (Trichostatin A) on WF-kB DNA binding activity and muscle cell fusion in the process of myogenesis. Under TSA treatment, C2C12 myoblast could not fuse to myotube and its NF-kB DNA binding activity was also blocked. To investigate whether these phenomenons were affected by TSA in direct or not, differentiation media (DM) used to differentiate cells without TSA was concentrated and added to C2C12 myoblast with TSA simultaneously. C2C12 myoblast was fused to myotube and NF-kB DNA binding activity was recovered. These results suggest that TSA affects on the differentiation of myoblast, perhaps through several factors, by inhibiting myoblst fusion and blocking NF-kB DNA binding activity.

Inhibition of NF-kB/Rel by Paclitaxel in Mouse Macrophages

  • Lim, Jin-Soo;Lee, Seog-Ki;Jeon, Young-Jin
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2007
  • We demonstrate that paclitaxel, an antitumor agent derived from yew tree, inhibits LPS- and $IFN-{\gamma}$-induced NF-kB/Rel activation in RAW 264.7 cells. Previously, paclitaxel ($>10{\mu}M$) has been known to induce iNOS gene expression in macrophages. However, in the previous report we described that the pretreatment of macrophages with low concentration of paclitaxel ($0.1{\mu}M$) for 8 h inhibited LPS-induced iNOS gene expression. Pretreatment of RAW 264.7 cells with paclitaxel significantly inhibited NF-kB/Rel transcriptional activation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay further confirmed that pretreatment of macrophages with paclitaxel inhibited NF-kB/Rel DNA binding. Taxotere, a semisynthetic analog of paclitaxel, also inhibited LPS- and $IFN-{\gamma}$-induced iNOS gene expression. Collectively, these series of experiments indicate that paclitaxel inhibits iNOS gene expression by blocking NF-kB/Rel activation.

Quercitrin Gallate Down-regulates Interleukin-6 Expression by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-kB Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Macrophages

  • Min, Kyung-Rak;Kim, Byung-Hak;Chang, Yoon-Sook;Kim, Young-Soo
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.113-117
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    • 2006
  • Quercitrin gallate was previously isolated from Persicaria lapathifolia (Polygonaceae) as an inhibitor of superoxide production. In the present study, quercitrin gallate was found to inhibit interleukin (IL)-6 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages RAW 264.7 with an $IC_{50}$ value of $63\;{\mu}M$. Furthermore, quercitrin gallate attenuated LPS-induced synthesis of IL-6 transcript but also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 promoter activity, indicating that the compound could down-regulate IL-6 expression at the transcription level. Since nuclear factor (NF)-kB has been shown to play a key role in LPS-inducible IL-6 expression, an effect of quercitrin gallate on LPS-induced NF-kB activation was further analyzed. Quercitrin gallate exhibited a dosedependent inhibitory effect on LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kB without affecting inhibitory kB (IkB) degradation, and subsequently inhibited LPS-induced NF-kB transcriptional activity in macrophages RAW 264.7. Taken together, quercitrin gallate down-regulated LPS-induced IL-6 expression by inhibiting NF-kB activation, which could provide a pharmacological potential of the compound in IL-6-related immune and inflammatory diseases.

Cobrotoxin Inhibits Prostate Carcinoma PC-3 Cell Growth Through Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death Via Inactivation of NF-kB

  • Song, Kyung-Chul;Song, Ho-Sueb
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 2006
  • We previously found that cobrotoxin inhibited $NF-{\kappa}B$ activity by reacting with signal molecules of $NF-{\kappa}B$ which is critical contributor in cancer cell growth by induction of apoptotic cell death. We here investigated whether cobrotoxin inhibits cell growth of human prostate cancer cells through induction of apoptotic cell death, which is related with the suppression of the $NF-{\kappa}B$ activity. Cobrotoxin $(0{\sim}8\;nM)$ inhibited prostate cancer cell growth through increased apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Cobrotoxin inhibited DNA binding activity of $NF-{\kappa}B$, an anti-apoptotic transcriptional factor. Consistent with the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of $NF-{\kappa}B$, cobrotoxin increased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins caspase 3. Cobrotoxin, a venom of Vipera lebetina turanica, is a group of basicpeptides composed of 233 amino acids with six disulfide bonds formed by twelve cysteins. NF-kB is activated by subsequent release of inhibitory IkB and translocation of p50. Since sulfhydryl group is present in kinase domain of p50 subunit of NF-kB, cobrotoxin could modify NF-kB activity by protein-protein interaction. And Cobrotoxin down regulated Akt signals. Salicylic acid as a reducing agent of Sulf-hydryl group and LY294002 as a Akt inhibitor abrogated cobrotoxin-induced cell growth and DNA binding activity of $NF-{\kappa}B$. These findings suggest that nano to pico molar range of cobrotoxin could inhibit prostate cancer cell growth, and the effect may be related with the induction of apoptotic cell death through Akt dependent inhibition of $NF-{\kappa}B$ signal.

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Ginsenoside compound K inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B by targeting Annexin A2

  • Wang, Yu-Shi;Zhu, Hongyan;Li, He;Li, Yang;Zhao, Bing;Jin, Ying-Hua
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.452-459
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    • 2019
  • Background: Ginsenoside compound K(C-K), a major metabolite of ginsenoside, exhibits anticancer activity in various cancer cells and animal models. A cell signaling study has shown that C-K inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$) pathway in human astroglial cells and liver cancer cells. However, the molecular targets of C-K and the initiating events were not elucidated. Methods: Interaction between C-K and Annexin A2 was determined by molecular docking and thermal shift assay. HepG2 cells were treated with C-K, followed by a luciferase reporter assay for $NF-{\kappa}B$, immunofluorescence imaging for the subcellular localization of Annexin A2 and $NF-{\kappa}B$ p50 subunit, coimmunoprecipitation of Annexin A2 and $NF-{\kappa}B$ p50 subunit, and both cell viability assay and plate clone formation assay to determine the cell viability. Results: Both molecular docking and thermal shift assay positively confirmed the interaction between Annexin A2 and C-K. This interaction prevented the interaction between Annexin A2 and $NF-{\kappa}B$ p50 subunit and their nuclear colocalization, which attenuated the activation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ and the expression of its downstream genes, followed by the activation of caspase 9 and 3. In addition, the overexpression of Annexin A2-K320A, a C-K binding-deficient mutant of Annexin A2, rendered cells to resist C-K treatment, indicating that C-K exerts its cytotoxic activity mainly by targeting Annexin A2. Conclusion: This study for the first time revealed a cellular target of C-K and the molecular mechanism for its anticancer activity.