• Title, Summary, Keyword: NF-${\kappa}B$

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NF-${\kappa}B$ Activation and cIAP Expression in Radiation-induced Cell Death of A549 Lung Cancer Cells (A549 폐암세포주의 방사선-유도성 세포사에서 NF-${\kappa}B$ 활성화 및 cIAP 발현)

  • Lee, Kye Young;Kwak, Shang-June
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.488-498
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    • 2003
  • Background : Activation of the transcription factor NF-${\kappa}B$ has been shown to protect cells from tumor necrosis factor-alpha, chemotherapy, and radiation-induced apoptosis. NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent cIAP expression is a major antiapoptotic mechanism for that. NF-${\kappa}B$ activation and cIAP expression in A549 lung cancer cells which is relatively resistant to radiation-induced cell death were investigated for the mechanism of radioresistance. Materials and methods : We used A549 lung cancer cells and Clinac 1800C linear accelerator for radiation. Cell viability test was done by MTT assay. NF-${\kappa}B$ activation was tested by luciferase reporter gene assay, Western blot for $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation, and electromobility shift assay. For blocking ${\kappa}B$, MG132 and transfection of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-superrepressor plasmid construct were used. cIAP expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and cIAP2 promoter activity was performed using luciferase assay system. Results : MTT assay showed that cytotoxicity even 48 hr after radiation in A549 cells were less than 20%. Luciferas assay demonstrated weak NF-${\kappa}B$ activation of $1.6{\pm}0.2$ fold compared to PMA-induced $3.4{\pm}0.9$ fold. Radiation-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation was observed in Western blot and NF-${\kappa}B$ DNA binding was confirmed by EMSA. However, blocking NF-${\kappa}B$ using MG132 and $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$-superrepressor transfection did not show any sensitizing effect for radiation-induced cell death. The result of RT-PCR for cIAP1 & 2 expression was negative induction while TNF-${\alpha}$ showed strong expression for cIAP1 & 2. The cIAP2 promoter activity also did not show any change compared to positive control with TNF-${\alpha}$. Conclusion : We conclude that activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ does not determine the intrinsic radiosensitivity of cancer cells, at least for the cell lines tested in this study.

Expression of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) as a Predictor of Poor Pathologic Response to Chemotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Prajoko, Yan Wisnu;Aryandono, Teguh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.595-598
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    • 2014
  • Background: NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibits apoptosis through induction of antiapoptotic proteins and suppression of proapoptotic genes. Various chemotherapy agents induce NF-${\kappa}B$ translocation and target gene activation. We conducted the present study to assess the predictive value of NF-${\kappa}B$ regarding pathologic responses after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 131 patients with locally advanced invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect NF-${\kappa}B$ expression. Evaluation of pathologic response was elaborated with the Ribero classification. Results: Expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ was significantly associated with poor pathological response (p=0.02). From the multivariate analysis, it was found that the positive expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ yielded RR=1.74 (95%CI 0.77 to 3.94). Conclusions: NF-${\kappa}B$ can be used as a predictor of poor pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

ZAS3 represses NFκB-dependent transcription by direct competition for DNA binding

  • Hong, Joung-Woo;Wu, Lai-Chu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.12
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    • pp.807-812
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    • 2010
  • $NF{\kappa}B$ and ZAS3 are transcription factors that control important cellular processes including immunity, cell survival and apoptosis. Although both proteins bind the ${\kappa}B$-motif, they produce opposite physiological consequences; $NF{\kappa}B$ activates transcription, promotes cell growth and is often found to be constitutively expressed in cancer cells, while ZAS3 generally represses transcription, inhibits cell proliferation and is downregulated in some cancers. Here, we show that ZAS3 inhibits $NF{\kappa}B$-dependent transcription by competing with $NF{\kappa}B$ for the ${\kappa}B$-motif. Transient transfection studies show that N-terminal 645 amino acids is sufficient to repress transcription activated by $NF{\kappa}B$, and that the identical region also possesses intrinsic repression activity to inhibit basal transcription from a promoter. Finally, in vitro DNA-protein interaction analysis shows that ZAS3 is able to displace $NF{\kappa}B$ by competing with $NF{\kappa}B$ for the ${\kappa}B$-motif. It is conceivable that ZAS3 has therapeutic potential for controlling aberrant activation of $NF{\kappa}B$ in various diseases.

Activation of the NF-$\kappa$B p50/p65 Complex in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines (인체 폐암세포주에서 NF-$\kappa$B p50/p65 Complex의 활성화)

  • Choi, Hyung-Seok;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.185-194
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    • 1999
  • Background: NF-$\kappa$B is a characteristic transcriptional factor whose functional activity is determined by post-translational modification of protein and subsequent change of subcellular localization. The involvement of the NF-$\kappa$B family of the transcription factors in the control of such vital cellular functions as immune response, acute phase reaction, replication of certain viruses and development and differentiation of cells has been clearly documented in many previous studies. Several recent observations have suggested that the NF-$\kappa$B might also be involved in the carcinogenesis of some hematological and solid tumors. Investigating the possibility that members of the NF-$\kappa$B family participate in the molecular control of malignant cell transformation could provide invaluable information on both molecular pathogenesis and cancer-related gene therapy. Method: To determine the expression patterns and functional roles of NF-$\kappa$B family transcription factors in human lung cancer cell lines NCI-H792, NCI-H709, NCI-H226 and NCI-H157 were analysed by western blot, using their respective antibodies. The nuclear and the cytoplasmic fraction of protein extract of these cell lines were subsequently obtained and NF-$\kappa$B expression in each fraction was again determined by western blot analysis. The type of NF-$\kappa$B complex present in the cells was determined by immunoprecipitation. To detect the binding ability of cell-line nuclear extracts to the KB consensus oligonucleotide, electrophoretic mobility shift assay(EMSA) was performed. Results: In the cultured human lung cancer cell lines tested, transcription factors of the NF-$\kappa$B family, namely the p50 and p65 subunit were expressed and localized in the nuclear fraction of the cellular extract by western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that in the cell, the p50 and p65 subunits made NF-$\kappa$B complex. Finally it was shown by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay(EMSA) that nuclear extracts of lung cancer cell lines are able to bind to NF-$\kappa$B consensus DNA sequences. Conclusion: These data suggest that in human lung cancer cell lines the NF-$\kappa$B p50/p65 complex might be activated. and strengthen the hypothesis that NF-$\kappa$B family transcription factors might be involved in the carcinogenesis of human lung cancer.

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Melittin Inhibits DU -145 Human Refractory Prostate Cancer Cell Growth Through Induction of Apoptosis Via Inactivation of NF-${\kappa}$B (Melittin이 NF-${\kappa}$B의 불활성화를 통한 DU-145 전립선 암세포의 성장 및 세포자멸사 유도에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Chul-Hoon;Song, Ho-Sueb
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2009
  • 목적 : 이 연구는 봉약침의 주요성분인 멜리틴이 NF-${\kappa}$B의 활성억제를 통하여 세포자멸사를 유도하고, 전립선 암세포주인 DU-145 세포의 성장을 억제하는지를 확인하고 멜리틴의 NF-${\kappa}$B 활성억제기전을 살펴보고자 하였다. 방법 : 멜리틴을 처리한 후 DU-145의 성장억제를 관찰하기 위해 WST-1 assay를 시행하였고, 세포자멸 사의 관찰에는 DAPI stairung assay를 통한 세포형태관찰을 시행하였으며, 염증관련유전자 발현 관찰에는 western blot analysis를 시행하였고, 세포자멸사와 연관된 NF-${\kappa}$B의 활성 변화를 관찰하기 위해 EMSA와 luciferase assay를 시행하였으며, DU-145에서 멜리틴과 NF-${\kappa}$B의 상호작용을 관찰하기 위해 transient transfection assay를 시행 시 세포생존율과 NF-${\kappa}$B의 활성 변동을 측정하였다. 결과 : DU-145 세포에 멜리틴을 처리한 후, 전립선암세포의 성장, 세포자멸사의 유발, 염중관련유전자 발현 및 NF-${\kappa}$B의 활성, NF-${\kappa}$B의 p50 치환 후 NF-${\kappa}$B의 활성과 DU-145 세포 증식에 미치는 영향을 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. DU-145 세포에서 멜리틴을 처리한 후 세포자멸사가 유도되어 세포성장이 억제되었다. 2. DU-145 세포에서 멜리틴을 처리한 후 염증관련유전자 발현 및 NF-${\kappa}$B의 활성에 유의한 감소를 나타내었다. 3. DU-145 세포에서 NF-${\kappa}$B의 p50와 IKK들을 치환하여 작용기를 없애고 멜리틴을 처리하였을 경우에도 세포활성 및 NF-${\kappa}$B의 활성의 유의한 감소를 나타내었다.

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NF-κB in Cellular Senescence and Cancer Treatment

  • Jing, Hua;Lee, Soyoung
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.189-195
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    • 2014
  • The NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway transcriptionally controls a large set of target genes that play important roles in cell survival, inflammation, and immune responses. While many studies showed anti-tumorigenic and pro-survival role of NF-${\kappa}B$ in cancer cells, recent findings postulate that NF-${\kappa}B$ participates in a senescence-associated cytokine response, thereby suggesting a tumor restraining role of NF-${\kappa}B$. In this review, we discuss implications of the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway in cancer. Particularly, we emphasize the connection of NF-${\kappa}B$ with cellular senescence as a response to chemotherapy, and furthermore, present examples how distinct oncogenic network contexts surrounding NF-${\kappa}B$ produce fundamentally different treatment outcomes in aggressive B-cell lymphomas as an example.

NF-κB and Therapeutic Approach

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Kim, Soo-Youl
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.219-240
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    • 2009
  • Since NF-${\kappa}B$ has been identified as a transcription factor associated with immune cell activation, groups of researchers have dedicated to reveal detailed mechanisms of nuclear factor of ${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$) in inflammatory signaling for decades. The various molecular components of NF-${\kappa}B$ transcription factor pathway have been being evaluated as important therapeutic targets due to their roles in diverse human diseases including inflammation, cystic fibrosis, sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemic injury, myocardial infarction, osteoporosis, transplantation rejection, and neurodegeneration. With regards to new drugs directly or indirectly modulating the NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway, FDA recently approved a proteasome inhibitor bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Many pharmaceutical companies have been trying to develop new drugs to inhibit various kinases in the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway for many therapeutic applications. However, a gene knock-out study for $IKK{\beta}$ in the NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway has given rise to controversies associated with efficacy as therapeutics. Mice lacking hepatocyte $IKK{\beta}$ accelerated cancer instead of preventing progress of cancer. However, it is clear that pharmacological inhibition of $IKK{\beta}$ appears to be beneficial to reduce HCC. This article will update issues of the NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway and inhibitors regulating this pathway.

No Relevance of NF-${\kappa}B$ in the Transcriptional Regulation of Human Nanog Gene in Embryonic Carcinoma Cells

  • Seok, Hyun-Jeong;Kim, Young-Eun;Park, Jeong-A;Lee, Young-Hee
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2011
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells can self-renew maintaining the undifferentiated state. Self renewal requires many factors such as Oct4, Sox2, FoxD3, and Nanog. NF-${\kappa}B$ is a transcription factor involved in many biological activities. Expression and activity of NF-${\kappa}B$ increase upon differentiation of ES cells. Reportedly, Nanog protein directly binds to NF-${\kappa}B$ protein and inhibits its activity in ES cells. Here, we found a potential binding site of NF-${\kappa}B$ in the human Nanog promoter and postulated that NF-${\kappa}B$ protein may regulate expression of the Nanog gene. We used human embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells as a model system of ES cells and confirmed decrease of Nanog and increase of NF-${\kappa}B$ upon differentiation induced by retinoic acid. Although deletion analysis on the DNA fragment including NF-${\kappa}B$ binding site suggested involvement of NF-${\kappa}B$ in the negative regulation of the promoter, site-directed mutation of NF-${\kappa}B$ binding site had no effect on the Nanog promoter activity. Furthermore, no direct association of NF-${\kappa}B$ with the Nanog promoter was detected during differentiation. Therefore, we conclude that NF-${\kappa}B$ protein may not be involved in transcriptional regulation of Nanog gene expression in EC cells and possibly in ES cells.

Inhibition of Allergic Response by Intranasal Selective NF-κB Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotides in a Murine Model of Allergic Rhinitis

  • Wee, Jee Hye;Zhang, Yu-Lian;Rhee, Chae-Seo;Kim, Dong-Young
    • Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: It remains unknown whether local inhibition of Nuclear factor-kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$) could have therapeutic value in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of selective $NF-{\kappa}B$ inhibition using $NF-{\kappa}B$ decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) for the local treatment of AR in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized wild-type mice. Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized with OVA and alum, and then challenged intranasally with OVA. $NF-{\kappa}B$ decoy ODNs were given intranasally to the treatment group, and $NF-{\kappa}B$ scrambled ODNs were given to the sham treatment group. Allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, cytokine levels in the nasal mucosa, nasal lavage fluid, and spleen cell culture, serum total and OVA-specific immunoglobulins, as well as intercellular adhesion molecure-1 (ICAM-1) in the nasal mucosa, were analyzed. Results: $NF-{\kappa}B$ decoy ODNs significantly reduced allergic symptoms and eosinophil infiltration in the nasal mucosa. They also suppressed serum levels of total IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and IgG1. IL-5 and $TNF-{\alpha}$ levels and the expression of ICAM-1 were decreased in the nasal mucosa of the treatment group compared to the positive control and sham treatment groups. In addition, IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in the nasal lavage fluid of the treatment group. Furthermore, $NF-{\kappa}B$ decoy ODNs significantly reduced expression of the systemic Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5 in spleen cell culture. Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time that local $NF-{\kappa}B$ inhibition using $NF-{\kappa}B$ decoy ODNs suppressed the allergic response in a murine AR model. This shows the therapeutic potential of local $NF-{\kappa}B$ inhibition in the control of AR.

Upregulation of NF-κB upon differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

  • Kim, Young-Eun;Kang, Ho-Bum;Park, Jeong-A;Nam, Ki-Hoan;Kwon, Hyung-Joo;Lee, Young-Hee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.10
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    • pp.705-709
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    • 2008
  • NF-${\kappa}B$ is a transcriptional regulator involved in many biological processes including proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recently, we reported that expression and activity of NF-${\kappa}B$ is comparatively low in undifferentiated human embryonic stem (ES) cells, but increases during differentiation. Here, we found a lower expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 protein in mouse ES cells when compared with mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Protein levels of NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 and relB were clearly enhanced during retinoic acid-induced differentiation. Furthermore, increased DNA binding activity of NF-${\kappa}B$ in response to TNF-$\alpha$, an agonist of NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling, was seen in differentiated but not undifferentiated mouse ES cells. Taken together with our previous data in human ES cells, it is likely that NF-${\kappa}B$ expression and activity of the NF-${\kappa}B$ signaling pathway is comparatively low in undifferentiated ES cells, but increases during differentiation of ES cells in general.