• Title, Summary, Keyword: NAD(P)H oxidase

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Involvement of Vascular NAD(P)H Oxidase-derived Superoxide in Cerebral Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

  • Kim, Dong-Eun;Kim, Chi-Dae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2002
  • The role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced vasospasm in the basilar artery was examined in a rat model. Arterial vasospasm characterized by increased wall thickness and decreased lumen size was observed at 5 to 7 days after $2^{nd}$ injection of blood into cisterna magna, and these changes were significantly ameliorated by pretreatment of diphenyleneiodonium $(DPI,\;25\;{\mu}l\;of\;100\;{\mu}M),$ an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase. To determine the time course of changes in the vascular NAD(P)H oxidase activity, cerebral vasculature was isolated at different time intervals from 12 hrs to 14 days after injection of autologous blood. At 24 hrs after the second injection of blood, the NAD(P)H oxidase activity was markedly increased with an enhanced membrane translocation of p47phox, but by 48 hours both the enzyme activity and p47phox translocation regained normal values, and were remained unchanged up to 14 days after SAH. However, no significant changes in the expression of p22phox mRNA was observed throughout the experiments. These findings suggest that the activation of NAD(P)H oxidase by which assembly of the oxidase components enhanced and subsequent production of superoxide in the early stages of SAH might contribute to the delayed cerebral vasospasm in SAH rats.

Involvement of NAD(P)H Oxidase in a Potential Link between Diabetes and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

  • Jeong, Hye-Young;Yun, Mi-Ran;Kim, Chi-Dae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2003
  • The cellular mechanisms that contribute to the acceleration of atherosclerosis in diabetes are poorly understood. Therefore, the potential mechanisms involved in the diabetes-dependent increase in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation was investigated. Using primary culture of VSMC from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat aorta, cell proliferation assay showed two-fold increase in cell number accompanied with enhanced superoxide generation compared to normal VSMC, 2 days after plating. Both the increased superoxide production and cell proliferation in diabetic VSMC were significantly attenuated by not only tiron (1 mM), a superoxide scavenger, but also by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; $10{\mu}M$), an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor. NAD(P)H oxidase activity in diabetic VSMC was significantly higher than that in control cell, accompanied with increased mRNA expression of p22phox, a membrane subunit of oxidase. Furthermore, inhibition of p22phox expression by transfection of antisense p22phox oligonucleotides into diabetic VSMC resulted in a decrease in superoxide production, which was accompanied by a significant inhibition of cell proliferation. Based on these results, it is suggested that diabetes-associated increase in NAD(P)H oxidase activity via enhanced expression of p22phox contributes to augmented VSMC proliferation in diabetic rats.

The Role of Janus Kinase in Superoxide-mediated Proliferation of Diabetic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Park, Ji-Young;Kim, Chi-Dae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2007
  • To elucidate a potential molecular link between diabetes and atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of Janus tyrosine kinase(JAK) for NAD(P)H oxidase-derived superoxide generation in the enhanced proliferative capacity of vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMC) of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty(OLETF) rat, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. An enhanced proliferative response to 10% fetal bovine serum(FBS) and superoxide generation with an increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity were observed in diabetic(OLETF) VSMC. Both the enhanced proliferation and superoxide generation in diabetic VSMC were significantly attenuated by AG490, JAK2 inhibitor, and PP2, Src kinase inhibitor. Tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in diabetic VSMC, especially JAK2, was increased compared to control VSMC. Furthermore, the enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase activity in diabetic VSMC was significantly attenuated by AG490 in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these results indicate that the signal pathway which leads to diabetes-associated activation of Src kinase/JAK is critically involved in the diabetic VSMC proliferation through NAD(P)H oxidase activation and superoxide generation.

Resveratrol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced dysfunction of blood-brain barrier in endothelial cells via AMPK activation

  • Hu, Min;Liu, Bo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.325-332
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    • 2016
  • Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, is reported to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vascular cells. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by specialized brain endothelial cells that are interconnected by tight junctions, strictly regulates paracellular permeability to maintain an optimal extracellular environment for brain homeostasis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of resveratrol and the role of AMPK in BBB dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) to LPS ($1{\mu}g/ml$) for 4 to 24 hours week dramatically increased the permeability of the BBB in parallel with lowered expression levels of occluding and claudin-5, which are essential to maintain tight junctions in HBMECs. In addition, LPS significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions. All effects induced by LPS in HBVMCs were reversed by adenoviral overexpression of superoxide dismutase, inhibition of NAD(P) H oxidase by apocynin or gain-function of AMPK by adenoviral overexpression of constitutively active mutant (AMPK-CA) or by resveratrol. Finally, upregulation of AMPK by either AMPK-CA or resveratrol abolished the levels of LPS-enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase subunits protein expressions. We conclude that AMPK activation by resveratrol improves the integrity of the BBB disrupted by LPS through suppressing the induction of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in HBMECs.

Relationship of the Redox State of Pyridine Nucleotides and Quinone Pool with Spectral Complex Formation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 (Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 내의 pyridine nucleotide와 quinone pool의 redox 상태와 광합성기구의 합성과의 상관관계)

  • Ko, In-Jeong;Oh, Jeong-Il
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.852-858
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    • 2009
  • The homeostasis of the pyridine nucleotide pool [NAD(P)H and NAD(P)$^+$] is maintained in Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutant strains defective in the cytochrome bci complex or the cytochrome c oxidases in terms of its concentration and redox state. Aerobic derepression of the puf operon, which is under the control of the PrrBA two-component system, in the CBB3 mutant strain of R. sphaeroides was shown to be not the result of changes in the redox state of the pyridine nucleotides and the ubiquinone/ubiquinol pool. Using the bc$_1$ complex knock-out mutant strain of R. sphaeroides, we clearly demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of cbb$_3$, oxidase on spectral complex formation is not caused indirectly by the redox change of the ubiquinone/ubiquinol pool.

Enhanced Expression of Cell Adhesion Molecules in the Aorta of Diabetic Mice is Mediated by gp91phox-derived Superoxide

  • Yun, Mi-Ran;Kim, Jong-Jae;Lee, Sun-Mi;Heo, Hye-Jin;Bae, Sun-Sik;Kim, Chi-Dae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2005
  • Endothelial activation and subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells are important steps in atherogenesis. The increased levels of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) have been identified in diabetic vasculatures, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To determine the relationship among vascular production of superoxide, expression of CAM and diabetes, superoxide generation and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E- and P-selectin in the aorta from control (C57BL/6J) and diabetic mice (ob/ob) were measured. In situ staining for superoxide using dihydroethidium showed an increased superoxide production in diabetic aorta, accompanied with an enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase activity. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the endothelial expression of ICAM-1 ($3.5{\pm}0.4$) and VCAM-1 ($3.8{\pm}0.3$) in diabetic aorta was significantly higher than those in control aorta ($0.9{\pm}0.5$ and $1.6{\pm}0.3$, respectively), accompanied with the enhanced expression of gp91phox, a membrane subunit of NAD(P)H oixdase. Furthermore, there was a strong positive correlation (r=0.89, P<0.01 in ICAM-1 and r=0.88, P<0.01 in VCAM-1) between ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and vascular production of superoxide. The present data indicate that the increased production of superoxide via NAD(P)H oxidase may explain the enhanced expression of CAM in diabetic vasculatures.

15-Deoxy-${\Delta}^{12,14}$-Prostaglandin $J_2$ Upregulates the Expression of LPS-Induced IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

  • Kim, Jung-Hae;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.64-73
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    • 2009
  • Background: 15d-$PGJ_2$ has been known to act as an anti-inflammatory agent and has anti-hypertensive effects. As a result of these properties, we examined the effect of 15d-$PGJ_2$ on the LPS-induced IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA expression in VSMCs from SHR. Methods: Effect and action mechanism of 15d-$PGJ_2$ on the expression of LPS-induced IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA in VSMCs from SHR and WKY were examined by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, electrophoretic mobility shift assay for NF-${\kappa}B$ avtivity, Western blotting analysis for ERK and p38 phosphorylation and flow cytometry for NAD(P)H oxidase activity. Results: 15d-$PGJ_2$ decreased the expression of LPS-induced IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA in WKY VSMCs, but increased the expression of LPS-induced IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA in SHR VSMCs. The upregulatory effect of 15d-$PGJ_2$ in SHR VSMCs was mediated through PPAR${\gamma}$, and dependent on NF-${\kappa}B$ activation and ERK phosphorylation. However, inhibition of the p38 signaling pathway augmented the upregulatory effect of 15d-$PGJ_2$ on LPS-induced IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA. A NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor inhibited the upregulatory effect of 15d-$PGJ_2$ on LPS-induced IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA expression in SHR VSMCs, and an increase in NAD(P)H oxidase activity was detected in SHR VSMCs treated with 15d-$PGJ_2$/LPS. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the upregulatory effect of 15d-$PGJ_2$ on LPS-induced IL-8/CXCL8 expression in SHR VSMCs is mediated through the PPAR${\gamma}$ and ERK pathway, and may be related to NAD(P)H oxidase activity. However, p38 inactivation may also play an important role in 15d-$PGJ_2$/LPS-induced IL-8/CXCL8 expression in SHR VSMCs.

Gene Transfer of Cu/ZnSOD to Cerebral Vessels Prevents Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-induced Cerebral Vasospasm

  • Yun, Mi-Ran;Kim, Dong-Eun;Heo, Hye-Jin;Park, Ji-Young;Lee, Ji-Young;Bae, Sun-Sik;Kim, Chi-Dae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.327-332
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    • 2005
  • The preventive effects of gene transfer of human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) on the development of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were examined usin a rat model of SAH. An experimental SAH was produced by injecting autologous arterial blood twice into the cisterna magna, and the changes in the diameter of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were measured. Rats subjected to SAH exhibited a decreased diameter with an increased wall thickness of MCA that were significantly ameliorated by pretreatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, $10{\mu}M$), an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase. Furthermore, application of recombinant adenovirus ($100{\mu}l$ of $1{\times}10^{10}$ pfu/ml, intracisternally), which encodes human Cu/ZnSOD, 3 days before SAH prevented the development of SAH-induced vasospasm. Our findings demonstrate that SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm is closely related with NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species, and these alterations can be prevented by the recombinant adenovirus-mediated transfer of human Cu/ZnSOD gene to the cerebral vasculature.

Anti-obese Effects and Signaling Mechanisms of Chaenomeles sinensis extracts in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and Obese Mice Fed a High-fat Diet (3T3L-1 지방전구세포와 고지방식이로 유도된 비만 마우스 모델에서 모과 추출물의 항비만 효과와 억제 기전)

  • Kim, Da-Hye;Kwon, Bora;Kim, Sang Jun;Kim, HongJun;Jeong, Seung-Il;Yu, Kang-Yeol;Kim, Seon-Young
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.457-469
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    • 2017
  • Obesity is one of the most serious health problem because it induced numerous metabolic syndrome and increases the incidence of various disease, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cancer. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, increases in reactive oxygens species (ROS) occur with lipid accumulation. NADPH oxidase, producing superoxide anion, may contribute to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we elucidated the effect of Chaenomeles sinensis koehne extract (CSE) against the development of obesity and the inhibition mechanisms in 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. CSE decreased triglyceride content and inhibited the expression of adipogenic transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $(PPAR){\gamma}$, CCAT/enhancer binding protein $(C/EBP){\alpha}$ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1). In addition, CSE highly increased antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. CSE remarkably reduced intracellular ROS increase and NAD(P)H oxidase activity, NOX1, NOX4, Rac1 protein expression, and phosphorylation of p47phox and p67phox We also studied the effect of CSE on weight gain induced by high-fat diet. The oral treatment of CSE (500 mg/kg, body weight) in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice showed decrease in triglyceride and adipocyte size. Therefore, these results indicate that the effect of CSE on anti-obese effects, adipocyte differentiation and reducing triglyceride contents as well as adipocyte size in obese mice, may be associated with inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase-induced ROS production and adipose transcription factors. These results showed the potential to inhibit the obesity by CSE treatment through controlling the activation of NAD(P)H oxidase in vitro and in vivo obese model.

Iron Toxicity to Peritoneal Macrophage Due to Alteration of Mitochondria by NO

  • Yoon, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Jin-Sun;Lee, Heum-Sook;Lee, Kyo-Young;Cheon, Choong-Ill;Lee, Myeong-Sok;Park, Jong-Hoon;Song, Eun-Sook
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.97-103
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    • 2004
  • The cytotoxic effect of iron was examined in peritoneal macrophage to determine contributing factors by iron injection to rat. Viability was reduced by 24% by the iron-overload and by 30% by short-term iron addition. Total iron was increased by 45% in the iron-overloaded with remarkable elevation (9 to 14 fold) in the presence of $FeSO_4$. Free calcium was also increased by 19% in control and 44% in iron-overloaded group due to additional $FeSO_4$ NO and MDA were increased by 40% and 136%, respectively, with significant reduction (37%) of NAD(P)H. RCR and cytochrome c oxidase activity were lowered approximately by 10% with reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Addition of iron was frequently associated with altered distribution of mitochondria of high membrane potential in the iron-overloaded macrophage. These results suggest altered mitochondria with high NO and low NAD(P)H due to iron.