• Title, Summary, Keyword: N-acetyl cysteine

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Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine and Silymarin on 1-Bromopropane-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice (1-Bromopropane의 간독성에 미치는 N-Acetyl Cysteine과 Silymarin의 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Kyu;Kang, Mi-Jeong;Jeon, Tae-Won;Jeong, Tae-Cheon
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 2010
  • Recently, it was found that the formation of reactive metabolites by cytochrome P450s as well as the depletion of glutathione would play important roles in hepatotoxicity induced by 1-bromopropane. In the present study, possible roles of anti-oxidants in 1-bromopropane-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated in male ICR mice. The hepatotoxicity induced by 1-bromopropane was significantly protected by the co-treatment with either N-acetyl cysteine or silymarin. 1-Bromopropane-induced decrease in hepatic glutathione level was significantly protected by the pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine. Taken together, the present results indicated that the reduction of hepatic glutathione level caused by 1-bromopropane treatment might be associated in 1-bromopropane-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

Effects of Small Molecular Antioxidants on Cerulein-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rat

  • Choi, Joo-Young;Kim, Kyung-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.5
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    • pp.629-635
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    • 1998
  • It has been suggested that oxygen free radicals are involved in the initiation process of acute pancreatitis, although its pathogenesis is not clear. This study evaluates the roles of oxygen radicals and the effects of small molecular antioxidants (rebamipide, N-acetyl-cysteine, allopurinol, ${\beta}-carotene)$ on the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Acute edematous pancreatitis was induced by the intravenous infusion of cerulein at supramaximal dose of 10 ${\mu}g/kg/hour$ for 3.5 hours. The effects of antioxidants, rebamipide (100 mg/kg, i.p.), N-acetyl-cysteine (200 mg/kg, i.v.), allopurinol (20 mg/kg/hour), ${\beta}-carotene$ (50 mg/kg, i.p.), were examined. Cerulein administration resulted in a significant increase in serum amylase activity and pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA), but not glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx). The glutathione (GSH) content in pancreatic tissue decreased dramatically. Pretreatment of N-acetyl-cysteine significantly decreased the cerulein-induced hyperamylasemia and maintained GSH content in pancreas, but MDA was slightly decreased. In addition, N-acetyl-cysteine ameliorated histological damage. Allopurinol and ${\beta}-carotene$ attenuated cerulein-induced hyperamylasemia, but histologically there was no difference from control. These results indicate that oxygen free radicals play an important role in the initiation of experimental acute pancreatitis. N-acetyl-cysteine is an effective antioxidant that ameliorates the cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, and the possible therapeutic application of antioxidants against acute pancreatitis needs a further evaluation.

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N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils

  • Hasan, Md. Ashraful;Ahn, Won-Gyun;Song, Dong-Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.449-457
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    • 2016
  • N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though $Ca^{2+}$ signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ($[Ca^{2+}]_i$) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC ($1{\mu}M{\sim}1mM$) and cysteine ($10{\mu}M{\sim}1mM$) increased $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ in human neutrophils was observed. In $Ca^{2+}$-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ in human neutrophils occur through $Ca^{2+}$ influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 ($10{\mu}m$) and ruthenium red ($20{\mu}m$). In $Na^+$-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that $Na^+$-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase through $Ca^{2+}$ influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way.

The Crystal and Molecular Structure of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (N-Acetyl-L-cysteine의 결정 및 분자구조)

  • Young Ja Lee;Il-Hwan Suh
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 1980
  • The crystal structure of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, $C_5H_9NO_3S,$ has been determined from three dimensional photographic intensity data $(CuK{\alpha}$ radiation) by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. There is one formula unit in the triclinic unit cell with a = 7.04(3), b = 5.14(2), c = 8.25(3) ${\AA}$, ${\alpha}$ = 106(2), ${\beta}$ = 51(1), ${\gamma}$ = 124(2)$^{\circ}$ and space group P$_1$, The structure was solved by the direct method and refined by the full matrix least-squares method. The final R value is 12.3% for 629 observed reflections. The C-carboxyl group and the N-acetyl group are very neary planar. The molecule appears to form with neighboring molecules a hydrogen bond, $O-H{\cdot}{\cdot}{\cdot}O(3)$ of length 2.59${\AA}$.

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Electrostatic Properties of N-Acetyl-Cysteine-Coated Gold Surfaces Interacting with TiO2 Surfaces

  • Park, Jin-Won
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.902-906
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    • 2009
  • It is found that that the coating N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on gold surfaces may be used to design the distribution of either gold particle adsorbed to the $TiO_2$ surface or vice versa by adjusting the electrostatic interactions. In this study, we investigated electrostatic properties of the NAC-coated-gold surface and the $TiO_2$ surface. The surface forces between the surfaces were measured as a function of the salt concentration and pH value using the AFM. By applying the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory to the surface forces, the surface potential and charge density of the surfaces were quantitatively acquired for each salt concentration and each pH value. The surface potential and charge density dependence on the salt concentration was explained with the law of mass action, and the pH dependence was with the ionizable groups on the surface.

Effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on human chronic myeloid leukemia cells KCL22 treated with mitomycin C

  • Simonyan, Anna;Hovhannisyan, Galina;Aroutiounian, Rouben;Kim, Jin Kyu
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.31-34
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    • 2014
  • The effectiveness of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to protect blood cells against Mitomycin C (MMC) induced genotoxicity was investigated in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells (KCL22) using the alkaline comet assay. The comet assay was selected as sensitive and rapid method for analysis of DNA damage and repair in individual cells. NAC treatment alone did not produce any damage in KCL22 cell. But NAC was found to be effective in reducing genotoxic damage in KCL22 cells exposed to MMC. These results confirm the literature data that, given the safety and ability to reduce DNA damage. NAC may be useful to prevent drug-mediated genotoxicity.

Electrostatic Properties of N-Acetyl-Cysteine-Coated Gold Surfaces Interacting with ZrO2 Surfaces

  • Park, Jin-Won
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.2855-2860
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    • 2012
  • The coating N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on gold surfaces may be used to design the distribution of either gold particle adsorbed to the $ZrO_2$ surface or vice versa by adjusting the electrostatic interactions. In this study, it was performed to find out electrostatic properties of the NAC-coated-gold surface and the $ZrO_2$ surface. The surface forces between the surfaces were measured as a function of the salt concentration and pH value using the AFM. By applying the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory to the surface forces, the surface potential and charge density of the surfaces were quantitatively acquired for each salt concentration and each pH value. The dependence of the potential and charge density on the concentration was explained with the law of mass action, and the pH dependence was with the ionizable groups on the surface.

Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of S-(N,N-Diethyldithiocar-bamoyul)-N-acetyl-L-cysteine in Rats

  • Lee, Byung-Hoon;Song, Yun-Seon;Park, Jongsei;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.428-433
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    • 1994
  • The methabolism and phamacokinetics of a mixed disulfide S-(N, N-diethyldithiocarbamoyl)-N-acetyl-L-cysteine (AC-DDTC) were studied in rats. Two metabolites of AC-DDTC following iv and po administration were indentified in plasma and liver by HPLC and GC, namely N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and the methyl ester of DDTC (Me-DDTC). AC-DDTC was very unstable in vivo and could not be detected neither in plasma nor in urine. Pharmacokinetic parameters of DDTC following intravenous administration of AC-DDTC (20 mg/kg) were calculated. DDTC has a low affinity to rat tissue and the body clearance was $9.0{\pm}3.4mkl/mim/kg$. The mean residence time (MRT) was $11.5{\pm}16.3 min$. After oral administration of 20 mg/kg AC-DDTC, maximal plasma concenttion ($C_{max}$) was $3.8{\pm}0.2 nmol/ml$ and the bioavailability was 7.04%. $C_{max}$ for DDTC at a dose of 120 mg/kg. AC-DDTC was $40.1{\pm}2.2 nmol/ml$. ART was $47.1{\pm}2.8min$.at a dose of 20 mg/kg and $110.5{\pm}6.0 min$ at 120 mg/kg.

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Lipid Modulatory Functions of Cysteine Compounds Found in Genus Allium Plants in Diabetic Mice (Allium 속 식물 Cysteine화합물이 당뇨 쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Seong-Hee;Park, Jeong-Ro
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.361-367
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    • 2010
  • In this study, cysteine compounds found in genus Allium plants, including N-acetyl cysteine(NAC), S-allyl cysteine(SAC), S-ethyl cysteine(SEC), and S-methyl cysteine(SMC), were examined for effects on blood glucose, glucose tolerance, and plasma lipid concentrations in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic mice. In the mice, the ingestion of these cysteine compounds did not affect blood glucose levels significantly. However, their ingestion did improve the diabetic symptoms of polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss. Glucose tolerance was also found to be improved in the STZ diabetic animals by feeding the cysteine compounds. Treatment of the compounds also caused a slight decrease in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol along with increases in HDL-cholesterol and slight decreases in LDL-cholesterol, resulting in a significant decrease in the atherogenic index of plasma in the diabetic animals. They also showed reductions of liver triglyceride content to relieve diabetic fatty liver syndrome. In summary, the cysteine compounds such as NAC, SAC, SEC, and SMC, found in genus Allium plants, had certain beneficial effects on blood glucose metabolism along with preventing abnormalities in lipid metabolism, a complication of diabetes, by improving the atherogenic index of plasma and fatty liver in STZ-induced diabetic mice.