• Title, Summary, Keyword: N,N'-diphenylurea

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Transition Metal Catalyzed Carbonylation of Nitrobenzene for the Synthesis of N,N'-diphenylurea (균일계 전이금속 촉매를 이용한 니트로벤젠의 카르보닐화 반응 연구: N,N'-디페닐우레아 합성)

  • Lee, Chul Woo
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.10 no.7
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    • pp.1079-1085
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    • 1999
  • An investigation was made of the effect of various transition metal catalysts, ligands, and a promoter on the synthesis of N,N'-diphenylurea(DPU) from nitrobenzene, aniline, and carbon monoxide. Homogeneous Pd and Ni catalysts were found to be highly efficient, giving almost quantitative isolated DPU yields at 100% nitrobenzene conversion. Bidentate ligand, 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)proane(dppp) showed much improved activity and significantly different reactivity relative to the usual monodentate $PPh_3$ ligand in the presence of Ni and Pd catalysts. These results were inferred to the effect of the cis coordination of bidentate dppp ligand on the metal. The use of a promoter $Et_4NCl$ was indispensable in the case of $PPh_3$, yet inhibited the reaction if used with dppp. It was possible to reuse the Pd-dppp catalyst system, although the catalytic activity was reduced slowly.

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Conservation of Thymus pallidus Cosson ex Batt. by shoot tip and axillary bud in vitro culture

  • Ansari, Zineb Nejjar El;Boussaoudi, Ibtissam;Benkaddour, Rajae;Hamdoun, Ouafaa;Lemrini, Mounya;Martin, Patrick;Badoc, Alain;Lamarti, Ahmed
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.53-65
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    • 2020
  • Here, we describe an efficient and rapid protocol for the micropropagation of Thymus pallidus Cosson ex Batt., a very rare medicinal and aromatic plant in Morocco. After seed germination, we tested the effect of different macronutrients, cytokinins alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) or auxins, on T. pallidus plantlet growth. We found that Margara macronutrients (N30K) had the best effect on the in vitro development of the plantlets. The addition of 0.93 μM/L 1,3-diphenylurea (DPU), 0.46 μM/L adenine (Ad), and 0.46 and 0.93 μM/L kinetin (Kin) resulted in the best shoot multiplication and elongation. In addition, the combination of 0.46 μM/L Kin, DPU, or Ad with gibberellic acid, in particular, 0.46 μM/L Ad + 0.58 μM/L GA3 and 0.46 μM/L Kin + 1.15 μM/L GA3, led to better bud and shoot multiplication. Moreover, the integration of the combinations of 0.46 μM/L Kin and auxins, namely 0.46 μM/L Kin + 2.85 μM/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 0.46 μM/L Kin + 2.85 or 5.71 μM/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 0.46 μM/L Kin + 0.3 or 0.57 μM/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), in the culture medium led to better root development and optimized aerial growth. Finally, the in vitro plants from the medium containing N30K + 0.46 μM/L Kin + 2.85 μM/L IAA were successfully acclimatized; these plants served as a source for repeating in vitro culture.