• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mycotoxicity

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Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Chitin-chitosan (FERMKIT) on Toxicity of Mycotoxin in Ducks

  • Khajarern, J.M.;Khajarern, S.;Moon, T.H.;Lee, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.706-713
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    • 2003
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary FERMKIT, a commercial toxin binder consisting of probiotic-fermented natural product containing chitin, chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharides ($FERMKITO^{(R)}$, EASY-BIO SYSTEM, Inc., Korea), in binding aflatoxin (AF) and zearalenone (ZEN) and ameliorating their mycotoxicity in meat type ducks. FERMKIT was supplemented to AF contaminated diets (at 120 ppb) at either 0.3 or 0.6% in experiment 1 and to ZEN contaminated diets (at 150 ppb) at 0.6% in experiment 2. In experiment 1 body weight gains were reduced by 37% and mortality was increased by 18% in ducks fed diet contaminated with AF at 120 ppb compared to ducks fed control diet (<10 ppb AF) for the 4-wk experimental period. However, dietary FERMKIT supplementation effectively alleviated overall toxicity induced by AF. The significant treatment-related changes in feather growth, web-toe hemorrhage, leg deformity, liver paleness, organ weights, hematological values and serum biochemical values, as compared to the control, were observed. The FERMKIT supplementation significantly diminished the adverse effects of AF and restored all the parameters measured back (<0.05) toward the control values. These findings indicated that FERMKIT, when added at the levels of 0.3 or 0.6% in the 120 ppb AF diets, could modulate the toxicity of AF with percentage sorption capacity of 52.70% at the level 0.3% and 79.85% at the level 0.6% of the diets (experiment 1). In experiment 2, FERMKIT, when added at 0.6% to the 150 ppb ZEN diets for the 4-wk experimental period, diminished the toxicity as shown by body weight gain, weights of testicles, oviducts, Bursa of Fabricius and cloaca eversion score as compared with the controls (<10 ppb ZEN) and 150 ppb ZEN diet with no added FERMKIT. The findings indicated that FERMKIT could be protective against the effects of ZEN in young growing ducks with percentage sorption capacity of 67.11% as evaluated from toxicity index parameter measured when added at 0.6% of the diets containing 150 ppb ZEN.

In Vitro Probiotic Properties of Indigenous Dadih Lactic Acid Bacteria

  • Surono, Ingrid S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.726-731
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this research was to identify candidate probiotic lactic bacteria among indigenous dadih lactic isolates. Dadih is an Indonesian traditional fermented milk of West Sumatra which is fermented naturally. Viability of the strain is critical in determining the capacity of lactic bacteria to induce immune stimulation as well as to colonize in the intestinal tract. Therefore, LAB are proposed to exert health promoting or probiotic effects in human, such as inhibition of pathogenic microflora, antimutagenic, and the reduction of cholesterol levels. This manuscript reports in vitro probiotic properties of indigenous dadih lactic bacteria, especially some important colonization factors in GI tract, such as lysozyme, acid and bile tolerance. Bile Salt Hydrolase (BSH) activity, spectrum of bacteriocin, and antimutagenic activity of bacterial cells were also assessed. Twenty dadih lactic isolates were screened further for their tolerance to low pH, at pH 2 and 3 as well as their bile tolerance. There were ten isolates classified as acid and bile acid tolerant, and further screened for lysozyme tolerance, BSH activity. The spectrum of bacteriocin activity of isolates was assayed using cell-free neutralized supernatants by agar spot test against variety of pathogens. Lc. lactis subsp. lactis IS-10285, IS-7386, IS-16183, IS-11857 and IS-29862, L. brevis IS-27560, IS-26958 and IS-23427, Leu.mesen.mesenteroides IS-27526, and L. casei IS-7257 each has good survival rate at low pH values and in the presence of lysozyme, and short lag time in the presence of 0.3 % oxgall. Lc. lactis subsp. lactis IS-11857 and IS-29862 each has high BHS activity, Lc. lactis subsp. lactis IS-10285 and IS-16183 each had a positive spectrum of bacteriocin activity against E. coli 3301 and Lysteria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, while L. brevis IS-26958 has high BHS activity as well as positive spectrum of bacteriocin against E. coli 3301, Lysteria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, and S. aureus IFO 3060. All of the ten dadih lactic strains performed in vitro acid and bile tolerance, indicating a possibility to reach the intestine alive, and display probiotic activities.

Protective effects of saffron against zearalenone-induced alterations in reproductive hormones in female mice (Mus musculus)

  • Ahmad, Bashir;Shrivastava, Vinoy K.;Saleh, Ramadan;Henkel, Ralf;Agarwal, Ashok
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin with potent estrogenic effects. Saffron is an herbal product that has antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective role of saffron against reproductive toxicity induced by ZEA in female mice. Methods: Ninety 8-week-old female mice were randomly allocated into three treatment groups. The first group received an intraperitoneal injection of ZEA (2.5 mg/kg) on alternate days. The second group received ZEA (2.5 mg/kg) on alternate days plus oral saffron daily (50 mg/kg). The third group was treated with a vehicle of 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on alternate days, as a control. Ten mice were euthanized from each group at 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol ($E_2$), and progesterone (P) were assessed. The uterus and ovaries were examined for changes in size or morphology. Results: Serum levels of LH, FSH, $E_2$, and P in the female mice treated with ZEA plus saffron were significantly higher than in those treated with ZEA alone, and were not significantly different from those treated with 1% DMSO. The female mice treated with ZEA alone showed a reduction in size of the uterus and abnormal architecture of the ovaries. Conclusion: The administration of saffron to female mice resulted in a significant reduction in ZEA-induced alterations in reproductive hormone levels, the size of the uterus, and the morphology of the ovaries.