• Title, Summary, Keyword: Muscle Types

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The Effect of General Coordinative Manipulation Intervention Models on the Balanced Restoration of Muscles of the Extremities (전신조정술 중재 모형이 사지 근육의 균형 회복에 미치는 효과)

  • Moon, Sang-Eun
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study was designed to determine whether General Coordinative Manipulation (GCM) Intervention Models have effects on the balanced restoration of asymmetrical muscles in the extremities. Methods: Fifty-nine healthy subjects (1st hypothesis: n=40, 2nd hypothesis: n=19) participated in studies using the two GCM intervention models. Subjects were studied 2 times a week for 3 weeks. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscle activity, and measurements were performed before and after the application of the each intervention model. Results: Hypothesis 1: GCM Intervention, which coordinates flexion types of muscle contractions of the upper extremity and extension types of muscle contractions of the lower extremity (excluding self-care) is effective for treating shows the treatment in efficiency on more than two 2 of 3 muscles (vastus medialis, gastrocnemius medial, and deltoid middle) and the effects affects on more than 3 types of 4 body types (Vastus medialis, Gastrocnemius medial of Body type III, p<0.05). GCM body type was classified by the relative tilting of right and left scapulars and iliums into four groups. Hypothesis 2: GCM Intervention, which coordinates flexion types of muscle contractions of the lower extremity and extension types of muscle contractions of the upper extremity (excluding self-care) is effective for treating more than two 2 of 3 muscles (vastus medialis, gastrocnemius medial, and deltoid middle) and the effects affects on more than 2 types of 3 body types (p>0.05).

Muscle Fiber Typing in Bovine and Porcine Skeletal Muscles Using Immunofluorescence with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms

  • Song, Sumin;Ahn, Chi-Hoon;Kim, Gap-Don
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.132-144
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this study was to optimize staining procedures for muscle fiber typing efficiently and rapidly in bovine and porcine skeletal muscles, such as longissimus thoracis, psoas major, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus muscles. The commercially available monoclonal anti-myosin heavy chain (MHC) antibodies and fluorescent dye-conjugated secondary antibodies were applied to immunofluorescence histology. Two different procedures, such as cocktail and serial staining, were adopted to immunofluorescence analysis. In bovine muscles, three pure types (I, IIA, and IIX) and one hybrid type, IIA+IIX, were identified by the cocktail procedure with a combination of BA-F8, SC-71, BF-35, and 6H1 anti-MHC antibodies. Porcine muscle fibers were typed into four pure types (I, IIA, IIX, and IIB) and two hybrid types (IIA+IIX and IIX+IIB) by a serial procedure with a combination of BA-F8, SC-71, BF-35, and BF-F3. Unlike for bovine muscle, the cocktail procedure was not recommended in porcine muscle fiber typing because of the abnormal reactivity of SC-71 antibody under cocktail procedure. Within the four antibodies, combinations of two or more anti-MHC antibodies allowed us to distinguish pure fiber types or all fiber types including hybrid types. Application of other secondary antibodies conjugated with different fluorescent dyes allowed us to get improved image resolution that clearly distinguished hybrid fibers. Muscle fiber characteristics differed depending on species and muscle types.

Overview of muscle metabolism, muscle fiber characteristics, and meat quality

  • Choe, Jeehwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2018
  • Meat comes from the skeletal muscles of farm animals, such as pigs, chickens, and cows. Skeletal muscles are composed of many muscle fibers. Muscle fibers are categorized into three types, fiber type I, IIA, and IIB, based on their contractile speed and metabolic properties. Different muscle fiber types have different biochemical, physiological, and biophysical characteristics. Especially, the characteristics of muscle fiber type I and IIB are opposite to each other. Muscle fiber type I has a relatively strong oxidative metabolic trait and a higher content of lipids. In contrast to fiber type I, muscle fiber type IIB has a strong glycolytic metabolic trait and a relatively lower content of lipids and a higher content of glycogen. Muscle fiber type IIA has intermediate properties between fiber type I and IIB. Thus, muscles with different fiber type compositions exhibit different ante- and post-mortem muscle characteristics. In particular, the different metabolic traits of muscles due to the different compositions of the fiber types strongly affect the biochemical and physiological processes during the conversion of muscle to meat and subsequently influence the quality of the meat. Therefore, understating muscle metabolism and muscle fiber characteristics is very important when discussing the traits of meat quality. This review is an overview on basic muscle metabolism, muscle fiber characteristics, and their influence on meat quality and finally provides a comprehensive understanding about the fundamental traits of muscles and meat quality.

Effects of Closed Chain Exercise on Activities of Shoulder Girdle Muscles in 60's

  • Park, Hye Jin;Oh, Tae Young
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.246-251
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare activities of shoulder girdle muscles according to types of closed chain exercise in the sixties. Methods: The subjects consisted of 15 persons in their sixties. Muscle activity of the pectoralis major, deltoid middle, deltoid posterior, upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior were measured using electromyography according to shape of the support base and angle of shoulder flexion. According to types of closed chain exercises, muscles activities were compared by paired t-test. Significance level to verify statistical significance was .05. SPSS win (ver. 22.0) program was used for statistical analysis. Results: Muscle activities of the pectoralis major, middle deltoid, trapezius lower, and serratus anterior showed significant difference according to types of closed chain exercise (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to types of closed chain exercises of the shoulder girdle, muscle activities of the pectoralis major, deltoid middle, posterior and lower trapezius showed change of muscle activities.

The Study of Isometric Endurance Time by Task Type and Maximum Voluntary Contraction (작업형태 및 최대 수의적 수축에 따른 등척성 근지구력에 관한 연구)

  • Sim, Jeong-Hun;Lee, Sang-Do
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.57-69
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to investigate the isometric endurance time as percentages of maximum voluntary contraction. Electromyogram(EMG) and Borg's CR-I0 value were measured by push-pull-up-down tasks for 10 healthy males. The normalized EMG value and the MPF(mean power frequency) were used to estimate the muscle recruitment pattern and the development of muscle fatigue. The subjects exerted and maintained 5 levels of %MVC(maximum voluntary contraction) in $90^{\circ}$ shoulder flexion/ 180oelbow extension at sitting posture. The up-task showed the lower endurance time and higher Borg's CR-I0 value than the other task types. Comparing Rohmert's curve with the endurance time of task types. Rohmert's curve overestimated the endurance time of up-task and underestimated the endurance time of push-pull-down tasks. The normalized EMG value showed that muscles recruitment patterns were different from task types. The 4 muscles(biceps brachii muscle, tricep brachii muscle. middle deltoid muscle. trapezius muscle) recruitment patterns of up-task were higher than those of other tasks. The MPF value decreased with the endurance time, and the shift of MPF at up-task was larger than that of the other task types.

The Effects of Different Types of High Heels and Walking Velocity on Muscle Activation of the Paraspinal Muscles

  • Lee, Joong-Sook;Han, Dong-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.271-278
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    • 2014
  • PURPOSE: This study researched the effects of different types of high heels on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine, and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles during walking while wearing high heels. The high heels were all of the same height: 8cm. METHODS: The 28 subjects in this experiment were females in their 20s with a foot size of 225-230mm. To measure the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, EMG electrodes were attached on the paraspinal muscles around C6, T7, and L5. The muscle activation during walking while wearing 8cm high wedge heels, setback heels, and french heels was measured. The measurements were performed 3 times each and the mean value of the result was used for analysis. Two kinds of velocity were used in this study. One of the velocity was 2.5 m/s. The other was 3.5 m/s. RESULTS: The muscle activation of paraspinal muscles increased significantly according to increase of walking velocity. But there was no significant difference according to the heel types. CONCLUSION: In view of the results, the height of heels and the velocity of walking are more convincing variables than the width of the heels on the muscle activation of paraspinal muscles. So wearing high heels is not recommended for those who have pain or functional problem of cervical and lumbar vertebrae.

Anatomy of the Alar Lobule in Korean Nose (한국인 콧방울의 해부)

  • Chang, Hyun;Han, Seung-Kyu;Kim, Sang-Bum;Kim, Woo-Kyung
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.269-275
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    • 2006
  • This study is to provide details of the unique anatomical features on the alar lobule region in Korean nose. We hypothesized that the anatomy of this area differs according to the shape of the alar lobule. Based on the prominence and roundness of alar lobules, they were classified into horizontal and vertical types. A total of 20 fresh cadaver noses(10 for each type) were dissected. The anatomical differences between the horizontal and vertical types were investigated by gross and histologic studies. The alar lobule is composed of three layers, i.e., external skin, muscle, and vestibular skin. Profound differences between the two alar lobule types were evident in terms of the volume of the dilator naris anterior muscle, the insertion of the dilator naris posterior muscle, and the thickness of the external skin at the lateral end of the alar circumference. The horizontal type has a greater volume of dilator naris anterior muscle, an additional insertion of the dilator naris posterior muscle, and thicker external skin at the lateral end of the alar circumference than the vertical type. The Korean nose differs anatomically and morphologically from the Caucasian nose. This study shows that there are anatomic differences between the horizontal and vertical types of alar lobules in Korean nose.

The Effects of the Jean Patterns on Muscle Activity of the Lower Limbs during Walking (청바지의 패턴이 보행 시 하지 근 활동에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Young-Eun;Chu, Mi-Seon
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.911-917
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity of the lower limbs when walking in jeans in order to obtain basic information for development of new jeans patterns with excellent movement adaptability. Using three types of jeans (basic, medium, and slim) with different ease on hip, knee circumference, and crotch length, and two different types of shoes, Electromyogram (EMG) of the lower limbs muscle was measured for four healthy subjects walking on treadmills and stairs. EMG of vastus lateralis, semitendinous, tibialis anterior and medial head of gastrocnemius muscles was measured. The muscle activity was assessed in RMS (Root Mean Square) value of the EMG. On the treadmill in sneakers, only the vastus lateralis muscle showed a significant difference in RMS value depending on patterns. Basic and medium jeans allowed higher muscle activity than trunks of slim jeans did. On the treadmill in high heels and slim jeans, the RMS values of all muscles were significantly smaller than in basic jeans, whereas no significant differences were shown while in trunks or medium jeans. On the stairs either in sneakers or in high heels, no significant differences were shown between all muscle activities for all types of jeans. On the treadmill, greater fatigue was induced in all muscles from walking in high heels than in sneakers for all jeans patterns. When walking on the stairs wearing either type of shoes, however, the effect of jeans pattern on muscle activities was different from muscle to muscle.

Activation of Vastus Medialis and Biceps Femoris Muscle in Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise (열린사슬 운동과 닫힌사슬운동시 내측광근과 대퇴이두근의 근활성도 차이)

  • Seok, Chang-Yeob;Lee, Chang-Ryeol;Lee, Moon-Hwan
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.115-128
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : This study was performed to distinguish the muscle activation of vastus medialis and biceps femoris through open and closed kinetic chain exercise. Methods : 31 healthy male and female students in Daegu Health College were participated in this study. All subjects were conducted three types open and closed kinetic chain exercises to examine muscle activity during the last four seconds using the sEMG system. Collected EMG data were normalized using the maximal voluntary isometric contraction(MVIC). Results : MVIC of each muscle was showed significantly increased(p<0.5). In the case of open chain exercise, the type 3 exercise most increased than type 2 and 3 exercise in vastus medialis than biceps femoris muscle. The closed chain exercise presented type 6 exercise most increased than type 4 and 5 exercise in biceps femoris than vastus medialis. Conclusion : This study finally proved that muscle activity which maintains stability of knee differ from depending on the types of exercises. Therefore, the combination of the two chain exercises is believed to greatly contribute to increments in muscle activity.

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The Effects of the Insole Types on Lower Leg Muscle Activity during Treadmill Walking (트레드밀 걷기 동안 인솔형태가 하퇴 근육의 근 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jang-Sung;Seo, Sam-Ki;Lee, Sang-Ho;Jung, Hwa-Su;Lim, Jae-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Clinical Electrophysiology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : We investigated the effects of the insole types on lower leg muscle activation during treadmill walking. The three insole types investigated for this study were normal insole, medial wedge insole, and viscoheel. Methods : Participants were assigned into three groups. People with foot transformation were excluded from this study. Each participant walked for ten minutes. The first day we applied a normal insole. On the second day, a medial wedge insole was applied. Finally, on the last day a viscoheel was applied. After walking on a treadmill for ten minutes, we measured muscle activation in lower leg muscles (gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscle activity. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures to determine the statistical significance. Results : The results of this study were summarized as follows. While walking on the treadmill, root mean square (RMS) values of the gastrocnemius when the viscoheel was applied were significantly lower than the other insole types. There was no significant difference for the RMS values for the tibialis anterior using viscoheel. The normal insole and viscoheel insole were significantly different in a post hoc analysis. However, there was no significant difference for normal insole and medial wedge insole. Conclusion : Using a viscoheel insole decreases muscle activity of the lower leg. Therefore, in conclusion, the viscoheel insole type reduces the load on the lower leg during walking.