• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mural

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Chicano Muralism(1975-1989): From Grassroots Community Murals to a Form of Public Art (치카노 벽화운동 제2기(1975-1989): 자생적 공동체 벽화에서 공공미술로)

  • Kim, Jin-A
    • The Journal of Art Theory & Practice
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    • no.9
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    • pp.7-31
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, I examine the development of the second stage of Chicano muralism and compare it with the first stage of the Chicano Mural Movement that was born out of the Civil Rights Movement. I then discuss the different aspects of the first stage in relation to the birth of institutionalized public art and question how Chicano murals influenced public art and, conversely, how mainstream public art transformed some of the attitudes and practices of Chicano muralism. Chicano murals initially functioned as a political mouthpiece for Chicano's human rights and as a tool to recover the Chicano people's cultural pride and legacy. However, the murals gradually developed into public art projects supported by the city or federal governments, who regarded them as an economic way to effectively communicate with the community. In this process of institutionalization, muralists became increasingly concerned with aesthetic quality and began to work more systematically. For example, amateur artists or community participants who produced the earlier murals were transformed into mural experts. Chicano essentialism and the politically volatile themes used previously were phased out and the new murals began to incorporate diverse subjects and people, for example, native culture, Blacks, and women. This phenomenon reflected the changing emphasis on multicultural understanding. This kind of institutionalization did not always draw positive results. Inadequate funds were the primary concern over the actual subject and creation of the mural work. Artists reduced the strong political metaphors and aestheticized the mural forms. However, their work was productive as well: thorough research on wall conditions and painting techniques was conducted and new processes and designs were developed. This paper examines the murals created for the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games, Judy Baca's works, and the Balmy Alley Mural Environment project in San Francisco's Mission District. Works by Las Mujeres Muralistas in Mission District, in particular, show case colorful patterns and the Latin American indigenous culture, exploring new interpretations of old icons and design. They challenged the stereotypical depictions of females and presented alternative visual languages that revised the male-centered mural aesthetics and elaborated on the aesthetics of Rasquachismo.

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The Study on Removing Paraloid B-72 from Painting Layer on Mural of Mireukjeon Hall at Geunsansa Temple (금산사 미륵전 벽화 채색층의 Paraloid b-72 제거방법과 안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Jin, Byung-Hyuk;Cho, Jae-Yeon;Park, Jin-Yeon;Han, Sung-Hee;Kim, Yong-Sun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.88-109
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    • 2017
  • As the technique to remove Paraloid B-72, which is known as an irreversible material, the method using organic solvent and heating, though the ways vary depending on the kind of material to be removed, has been usually used, but it has yet to apply to mud mural because of the technical limit in processing and the potential risk of damage and, moreover, the removal efficiency which also remains unproven. Thus, in a bid to seek the way to safely remove Paraloid B-72 contained in mural, the test was conducted in a way of applying a compress method, which is deemed most efficient. The solvents which are proven to be Paraloid B-72 were applied to the absorbents such as active carbon fiber and methyl cellulose and then were eluted to the surface of mud mural sample which was prepared in the same size and condition for a certain time before evaluating the stability and removal efficiency. Such test was intended to identify the applicability to the mural of Mireukjeon Hall at Geunsansa Temple, which had been treated with Paraloid B-72 for preservation in the past. As a result, the way of mixing the absorbent such as active carbon fiber and Xylene alone or with other quick vaporable solvents proved to be most efficient in removing Paraloid B-72 from mud mural and particularly Acetone:Xylene(1:1wt%) was found to be the most stable among others. Such a test outcome is expected to be a useful data for removing Paraloid B-72 from the mural of Mireukjeon Hall at Geunsansa Temple as well as for restoring other mural cultural assets in the coming days.

The digital patterning of optical phenomena in natural gemstones and, the design deployment of interior modeling for wall molding (천연 보석의 광학 현상적 digital patterning과 벽면 조형을 위한 interior modeling으로의 design 전개)

  • Kim, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.42-50
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    • 2012
  • Light color reaction, immersion and diffusion operation through the mural art can be expressed in a variety of image types. In this paper, the digital pattern for mural art was formed by observation of the optical phenomena in natural gems and the relation between the optical sparkle in gems and minerals and pattern design was characterized. New possibility with relevance for design work based on ultramarine with a beautiful sheen and spectrum of the coloring was used for Sustainable 3D simulation modeling and represented by high-resolution Image graphic design.

Tea Utensils Represented on the Tomb Mural Paintings of Foreign Exchange Countries with Koryo Dynasty (고려 대외교류국의 고분벽화에 나타난 차구(茶具))

  • Koh, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.736-749
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    • 2015
  • The present study addresses the tea utensils and tea drinking methods seen in tomb mural paintings of Song, Liao, Jin, and Yuan, which were Koryo's foreign exchange countries. The paintings illustrate the pointing tea method, which was popular during dynasty times. Tea utensils observed in the paintings include a tea mill, mill stone, and tea pestle necessary for making cake tea into powder. The tea stove and boiling bottle are depicted as being required to boil water. Some mural works vividly depict how a tea drinker pours hot water from a boiling bottle into a cup with a stand, mixes it with a tea spoon, and whisks tea powder for foaming with a tea whisk. The tea drinking method of the Southern race Han is also similarly described in the tomb mural paintings of Liao, Jin, and Yuan from Northern nomads. The distribution of tea culture had an enormous influence on the development of tea utensil manufacturing methods. The significance of this study is that these findings can be used as basic data to provide food culture insights into Koryo celadon tea utensils.

Scientific Analysis of Ancient Mural Pigments (Focus on Mural Pigments at Daeungjeon Hall of Bongjeongsa Temple and Ancient Tomb in Goadong) (고대 벽화안료 재질분석 연구 - 봉정사 대웅전 후불벽화 및 고아동 고분벽화를 중심으로)

  • Moon, Whan-Suk;Hong, Jong-Ouk;Hwang, Jin-Ju;Kim, Soon-Kwan;Cho, Nam-Chul
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.35
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    • pp.160-184
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    • 2002
  • The composition analysis of mural pigments at Daeungjeon Hall of Bongjeongsa Temple(Treasure No. 55) and ancient tomb with mural pigments in Goadong(Historic site No. 165) were carried out by XRF and MXRD. The analytical result showed that red pigments were Red Lead($Pb_3O_4$), Cinnabar(HgS) at Daeungjeon Hall of Bongjeongsa Temple and Cinnabar(HgS) in Goadong. The main composition identified in white pigments were Lead Carbonate Hydroxide[$PbCO_3{\cdot}Pb(OH)_2$]. Green pigments were basic copper chloride[Paratacamite $CuCl{\cdot}Cu(OH)_3$], celadonite[$K(Mg,Fe,Al)_2(Si, Al)_4O_{10}(OH)_2$] at Daeungjeon Hall of Bongjeongsa Temple and were basic copper chloride or basic copper carbonate in Goadong. Therefore it proved that mural pigments painted in use the mineral materials.

PREVENTION OF MURAL THROMBUS IN POROUS INNER TUBE OF DOUBLE-LAYERED TUBE BY SALINE PERFUSION (생리식염수의 재료표면에의 분출에 의한 이중튜브의 응혈 방지)

  • Kim, Sung-S.;Park, Joon-B.
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
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    • v.1993 no.11
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    • pp.110-113
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    • 1993
  • An in vitro experiment under laminar non-pulsatile blood flow and an acute canine ex vivo femoral A-V series shunt experiment were undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of saline perfusion through pores of porous tubes to prevent formation of mural thrombus. PS/SBR porous tubes were used for the in vitro experiment. Commercially obtained ePTFE porous tubes were etched by sodium naphthalenide, and the etched tubes were used for the ex vivo experiment. According to the results of the in vitro experiment, mural thrombus on the surface of the porous tribe could be prevented by the saline perfusion. Adhered blood cells decreased semi-logarithmically with increased perfusion rate (up to $0.022\;ml/min-cm^2$) of isotonic saline solution. According to results of the ex vivo experiment, mural thrombus decreased with increased perfusion rate (upto $0.060\;ml/min-cm^2$).

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Development Simulation of Textile Using Geometric Patterns Found in the Design Mural Paintings of Goguryeo Dynasty Tombs (고구려 고분벽화에 나타난 기하학문양을 이용한 텍스타일 디자인 개발 시뮬레이션)

  • Jung, Hyung-Ho;Kim, Eun-Jung;Bae, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.59 no.6
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    • pp.72-81
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to develop geometric patterns which can be reinterpreted in a modern sense and textile designs which can be commercialized in the mural painting of Goguryeo Dynasty's tomb. Of 42 tombs where genres and portraits could be observed, the costume style of Goguryeo dynasty could be mainly observed in the tombs built in the 4th and 5th centuries. Since geometric patterns found in the portrait could be represented in a modern sense, this study was intended to develop the patterns of a necktie which is one of cultural products by applying geometric patterns in the mural painting of Goguryeo Dynasty's tomb in the 5th century with many patterns distributed. The scope of patterns was limited to a square, a triangle, a circle, and a diagonal line which were the basic of geometric patterns found in the mural painting. The methods of study were literature review and empirical study. Adobe Photoshop CS3 was used to edit geometric patterns found in the mural painting of Goguryeo Dynasty's tomb in the 5th century. By extracting a square(${\square}$), a triangle(${\vartriangle}$), a circle(${\bigcirc}$), and a diagonal line(${\diagdown}$) from edited images, predicted images were proposed before products were made. Finally textile designs were made through the simulation of edited design patterns in the necktie and handkerchief. This study will contribute to the positive effects on the development of cultural product designs applying the characteristic of geometric patterns and the construction of Korean image.

Historical Reconstruction of Noble Womans Yu(jacket) and Gun(skirt) on Wall Painting of Jang-Cheon No.1 Tomb in Goguryeo (고구려 장천1호분 귀부인의 유(襦)와 군(裙)의 재현에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ho Jung;Cho, Woo Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.64 no.3
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    • pp.32-46
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to propose a solution for Goguryeo costume and its materials, colors, patterns, and accessories, which have not been dealt with in precedent studies and were treated as irrelevant subjects. The specific object of reconstruction with identification from the historical viewpoint is noble woman's costume(Yu and Gun) on the mural paintings of Jang-Cheon No.1 tomb in Jip-An province. As above, the reconstruction process of Yu(Jacket) and Gun(Skirt) worn by noble woman as depicted on the mural painting of the Baek-Hee-Gi-Ak-Do(百戱伎樂圖) in Jang-Cheon No.1 ancient tomb is suggested in this study. The most important issue for consideration was how to represent and exhibit it so that it resembles the mural painting as closely as possible. And the problems that arose at the time were the ratio and silhouette, which revealed disparities between the one on the mural painting and the costumes reproduced with identification from a historical viewpoint. The most difficult aspect of this work was due to the fact that the actual mural paintings were not available for verification. Therefore accuracy on details such as structure, materials, colors, patterns and accessory were difficult to obtain. So a further analysis of patterns, silhouettes, materials and colors are required for the precise representation of costume and dress on the mural painting.

A study about pattern and symbol shown in the mural painting of Koguryo dynasty's tomb (고구려(高句麗) 고분벽화(古墳壁畵)에 나타난 문양(紋樣)과 상징성(象徵性)에 관(關)한 고찰(考察))

  • Choe, Hye-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.13
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    • pp.51-72
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    • 1989
  • In this thesis, I examined the mental, philosophical aspects and the aesthetic sense of our ancestors through the study of the patterns pictured in the mural paintings of Koguryo dynasty's old tomb. To view the mode of construction in Koguryo dynasty from present angle, the detailed analysis of the patterns was done. As a result, I could fully understand the formative consciousness of our nation. 1. I defined the process of transition of the mural paintings by putting some 70 mural aintings into the form of a diagram. 2. The cultural aspects of the mural paintings in Koguryo dynasty were characterized by the fusion of our primitive religion and Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism which were introduced from China. From this fact, I could inferred that Koguryo people were giving off the strong desire for the faith by means of the mural paintings. Further more I found that configuration of the patterns such as religious elements. 3. The types of the patterns were classified into four types, this is, geometric type, natural type, cultural type and abstract type, Among these types, geometric type and natural type were nonsymbolic in nature but became cultured and abstracted in course of time. cultural pattern and abstract pattern got the symbolic meaning in the long run. Of all the constitution of the patterns represented in the mural paintings such as repeat constitution, left and right symmetric constitution, top and bottom symmetric constitution and rotary symmetric constitution, the left and right symmetric constitution was mainly used and some monotony of left and right symmetric constitution. The analysis of motif which was got from the mode of the patterns showed that the mixing of symbolic and nonsymbolic patterns made it possible to regard the separate symbol as compound in nonsymbolic patterns and the combination between nonsymbolic patterns ensured the understanding of other patterns in certain cases. Our ancestors made great efforts to transmit certain meaning symbolically. Also to heighten the symbolism, they drew the meangless patterns firstly and then appended meaning to those patterns secondly. Furthermore, they offered the background to the patterns comblined with symbolism, so that meaning transmission was clarified at last. As mentioned above, the patterns shown in the mural paintings of Koguryo dynasty's old tomb were characterized by natural beauty. And natural beauty was found out clearly in the form and constitution of the patterns. Therefore I concluded that our nation's religious, philosophical tradition was acted on the patterns strongly.

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