• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mural

Search Result 182, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

Usefulness of Ultrasonographic Examination by a Pediatrician in Children with Abdominal Pain (소아 복통에서 소아과 의사에 의한 초음파 검사의 유용성)

  • Park, Hyun-Seok;We, Ju-Hee;Park, Jae-Hong
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.141-147
    • /
    • 2011
  • Purpose: Ultrasonography (US) is widely used as a screening test in patients with abdominal pain (AP). We investigated the usefulness of US by a pediatrician in children with AP. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the medical records of children with AP who undertook US from December, 2008 to July, 2010. Results: A total of 628 patients (325 male, 303 female) were enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients was $8.08{\pm}4.61$ years. Duration of AP was acute in 427 and chronic in 201 patients. Localization of AP was diffuse (36.9%), periumbilical (24.4%), epigastric (21.0%), and right lower quadrant (8.1%). On the examination, there were no abnormal findings in 327 patients (52.1%). Abnormal ultrasonographic findings were mesenteric lymphadenitis (27.1%), intestinal mural thickening (10.0%), intussusception (3.0%), appendicitis (2.6%), choledochal cyst (1.6%), and pancreatitis (0.3%). We performed additional imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 39 patients who showed obscure findings on the US. In 33 patients (84.6%), the same results were obtained from CT or MRI. Two cases of appendicitis, one case of pancreatitis and one case of Henoch-Sh$\ddot{o}$nlein purpura were diagnosed by the CT examination. However, there were two cases of appendicitis diagnosed by US thathad no evidence of appendicitis on the CT. Diagnostic accuracy of initial US in children with abdominal pain was 99.4%. Conclusion: US by a pediatrician as a screening test in children with AP provides a rapid and accurate diagnostic indication and has non-invasive and radiation-free advantages.

Bivalvation Valvuloplasty for Common Atrioventricular Valve Regurgitation in Functional Single Ventricle; Early and Mid-term Results (기능적 단심설에서 공통방실판 역류의 판막성형술; 판막 이분성형술(bivalvation)의 조기 및 중기 결과)

  • Chang, Yun-Hee;Sung, Si-Chan;Kim, Seon-Hee;Lee, Hyoung-Doo;Ban, Ji-Eun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • /
    • v.42 no.5
    • /
    • pp.597-603
    • /
    • 2009
  • Background: Atrioventricular valve regurgitation in pediatric patients with a functional single ventricles (FSV) - has been known as one of the important risk factors for death and unfavorable long-term results after a Fontan operation. We evaluated early and mid-term results of bivalvation valvuloplasty in FSV patients. Material and Method: We retrospectively evaluated 11 patients with a functional single ventricle who underwent bivalvationvalvuloplasty between 1999 and 2007. The degree of common atrioventricular valve regurgitation (CAVVR) was determined by color Doppler echocardiography (regurgitation grade scoring, trivial; 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, severe; 4). Mean age at valve surgery was $6.9{\pm}7.0$ months (median 4 months, 24 days$\sim$21 months)and mean body weight was $6.2{\pm}2.8\;kg$ ($3.1{\sim}11.3\;kg$). Nine patients had isomerism heart and two of them had TAPVC. The concomitant procedures were performed in all but one patient. Additional commissural closure was performed in 3 patients and commissural annuloplasty in another 3 patients. Result: There was one hospital death after. surgery. A 32-day old patient who had been preoperatively dependent on a ventilator died of air way and lung problems 4.3 months after pulmonary artery banding and bivalvation valvuloplasty. Mean follow-up duration was 40 months ($4.3{\sim}114$ months). Mean preoperative CAVVR score was $3.3{\pm}0.6$, which decreased to $1.9{\pm}0.7$ postoperatively (p<0.0001). This residual regurgitation slightly increased to $2.2{\pm}0.4$ (no statistical significance) after a mean follow-up of 1.4.3 months. Six patients (60%) required re-operations for residual regurgitation at a subsequent bidirectionalcavopulmonary shunt or Fontan operation. One patient with Ebsteinoid malformation of the right sided atrioventricular valve required valve replacement due to stenoinsufficiency. Another patient required edge-to-edge repair at the right sided AV valve (between the right mural leaflet and the bridging leaflets). The remaining 4 patients required additional suture placements between bridging leaflets with or without commissural annuloplasty. All survivor had trivial or mild CAVVR at the latest follow-up. Conclusion: Bivalvation valvuloplasty for CAVVR in FSV patients is. an effective and safe procedure. However, significant numbers of the patients have small residual regurgitation and require additional valve procedures at subsequent operations. Long-term observations to monitor progression of the CAVVR is mandatory.

Rotavirus-associated neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (로타바이러스 감염이 관련된 신생아 괴사성 장염)

  • Seo, Hyun Joo;Jung, Yu Jin;Park, Soo Kyung;Choi, Seo Hui;Lee, Ji Hyuk;Kim, Myo Jing;Chang, Yun Sil;Park, Won Soon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.52 no.1
    • /
    • pp.56-60
    • /
    • 2009
  • Purpose : This study aimed to test whether rotavirus-associated necrotizing enterocolitis (RV+NEC) produced different clinical findings or outcomes from those of non-rotavirus necrotizing enterocolitis (RV-NEC). Methods : Eight patients from the RV+NEC group and 22 patients from the RV-NEC group diagnosed with modified Bell stage II or higher NEC were selected for this study. Fecal specimens from all infants were tested for rotavirus infection using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Clinical, radiographic, and clinical outcome data were analyzed retrospectively. Results : RV+NEC infants had a significantly higher birth weight and were born at a significantly higher gestational age ($33.5{\pm}3.3$ weeks vs. $29.3{\pm}4.4$ weeks; P=0.01). There were no differences in the occurrence of thrombocytopenia, mural gas, and pneumoperitoneum between the 2 groups. However, portal vein gas was more common in the RV+NEC group (88% vs. 9%; P<0.01). Neither the incidence of Bell stage III (or higher) NEC nor surgical intervention differed between the two groups. The number of complications and mortality rates were also similar. Conclusion : Rotavirus-associated NEC occurs in infants with a higher birth weight and those born at a greater gestational age. However, the severity of the condition and the resulting outcomes did not differ from those for infants affected by non-rotavirus NEC.

Clinical Features of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Gastroenteropathy without Purpura before Diagnosis (진단 전에 자반이 동반되지 않았던 Henoch-Schönlein 자반 위장병증의 임상적 고찰)

  • Oh, Jae Min;Park, Jae Hong
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.54-60
    • /
    • 2004
  • Purpose: Henoch-$Sch{\ddot{o}}nlein$ purpura (HSP) is a small-vessel vasculitic disease that most often affects the skin. Abdominal symptoms precede the typical purpuric rash of HSP in 14~36%. It is a challenge to diagnose HSP in the absence of a rash, because there are no biologic tests that can identify HSP with certainty, so we tried to find out the characteristic features of HSP gastroenteropathy without purpura before diagnosis. Methods: This study included 82 children with HSP who had been admitted or visited outward of the Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Hospital from 1995 to 2000. The cases that the onset of purpura preceded or coincided that of abdominal pain were defined as purpura-positive group. The cases that the onset of abdominal pain preceded purpura more than 1 week and purpura was not presented till diagnosed as HSP gastroenteropathy were defined as purpura-negative group. We compared and analyzed the clinical features of the two groups by reviewing the medical records retrospectively. To ensure the diagnosis of HSP gastroenteropathy, we conducted upper GI series, abdominal ultrasonogram, abdominal CT, endoscopy and/or skin biopsy. Results: The number of cases of purpura-positive group and purpura-negative group were 72 and 10, respectively. There is no difference between two groups in the incidence of clinical symptoms and laboratory findings. Children with HSP gastroenteropathy had characteristic erosive or ulcerative lesions in the stomach or duodenum on esophagogastroduodenoscopy, or mural thickening of the small bowel on abdominal ultrasonogram, CT or upper GI series. Skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis in 3 of them, although biopsy specimen was taken from any areas of normal- appearing skin. In purpura-negative group, 9 patients improved by steroid therapy. Conclusion: In purpura-negative group, there is no diagnostic feature on the laboratory findings and clinical features. Therefore, to diagnose HSP gastroenteropathy in patients with abdominal pain in the absence of the characteristic rash, careful observation of clinical features and laboratory data, and prompt application of available diagnostic tools such as gastrointestinal endoscopy, radiologic study and skin biopsy are recommended. Early use of corticosteroid may reduce the suffering in these patients.

  • PDF

Analysis of Satisfaction on Alley Garden's Components through Urban Regeneration - Focused on Bisan 2·3-dong in Daegu Metropolitan City - (도시재생사업에 따른 골목정원 구성요소의 만족도 분석 - 대구광역시 비산 2·3동을 대상으로 -)

  • Jang, Cheol-Kyu;Hwang, Myeong-Lan;Shin, Jae-Yun;Jung, Sung-Gwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.45 no.6
    • /
    • pp.137-148
    • /
    • 2017
  • This study analyzed the opinions of residents for desirable urban regeneration and suggested an improvement plan for alley environments. This study conducted a questionnaire survey of the residents living in Alley Garden of Bisan 2,3-dong, Daegu Metropolitan City. In the analysis of the importance and satisfaction of Alley Garden components, items related to a safe, cleanly environment such as 'Lighting facility installation', 'Sewage and waste disposal' and 'CCTV installation' had a high level of importance. It was also found that items improved by the Residential Environment Improvement Project and Alley Garden such as 'Lighting facility installation', 'Quantity of herbaceous flowers' and 'Kinds of herbaceous flowers' had a high level of satisfaction. The IPA results showed that items such as 'Empty house maintenance', 'Rest facilities such as benches and pergolas', 'Space for resident interaction' and 'Public parking lot' had a high level of importance, but had a low level of satisfaction, which suggests that they should be improved by priority. As a result of factor analysis, Alley Garden components were classified into four factors: 'Safety and cleanliness', 'Greenness', 'Exchange and convenience facility' and 'Aesthetics renewal'. Based on this classification, a regression analysis was conducted regarding the effects of the four factors on overall satisfaction. Results showed that all four factors had a significant influence on the overall satisfaction and that 'Aesthetics renewal' and 'Safety and cleanliness', respectively showing levels of significance at 0.274 and 0.235, were highly influential to overall satisfaction. Therefore, it was concluded that spaces for resident interaction and rest facilities should be preferentially installed to improve the environment of alleys. For the improvement of the overall satisfaction of alley environments, it was also concluded that residents should be encouraged to engage in activities such as sculpture installation and mural drawing, along with the introduction of safety bells and crime prevention environment design and the implementation of alley beautification projects.

A Convergence Study for the Academic Systematization of Cartoon-animation (만화영상학의 학문적 체계화를 위한 융합적 연구)

  • Lim, Jae-Hwan
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
    • /
    • /
    • pp.285-320
    • /
    • 2016
  • Cartoons and Animation are convergent arts created with a composite application of language arts described in the form of literary texts and sounds, plastic arts visualized in the form of artistic paintings, and film arts produced in the form of moving pictures. An academic university major in cartoons and animation studies established in late 20th century however, did not satisfactorily meet the needs in academic research and development and the free expression of artistic creation was limited. In order to systematize the major in cartoons and animation studies, an convergent approach to establish and clarify following are in demand : the terms and definitions, the historical developments, the research areas and methods, the major education and related jobs and start-ups. New culture and arts industries including cartoons, animation, moving images, and games contents are not yet listed in the industries listing service jointly provided online by the portal site Naver.com and Hyung-Seol publishing company. Above all, cartoons and animation are inseparably related to each other that even if one uses the term separately and independently, the meaning may not be complete. So a new combined term "Animatoon" can be established for the major in cartoons and animation studies and also used for its degree with concentrations of cartoons, animation, moving images, games, and etc. In the Introduction, a new combined term Animatoon is defined and explained the use of this term as the name of the major and degree in cartoons and animation studies. In the body, first, the Historical Developments classified Animatoon in the ancient times, the medieval times, and the modern times and they are analyzed with the help of esthetics and arts using examples of mural frescos, animal painting, religion cartoons, caricatures, cartoons, satire cartoons, comics, animation, 2 or 3 dimensional webtoons, and K-toons. Second, the Research Areas of Animatoon reviewed the theories, genres, artworks, and artists and the Research Methods of Animatoon presented the curriculum that integrated the courses in humanities, science technologies, culture and arts, and etc. Third, the Major Education considered Animatoon education in children, young adults, students of the major and the Related Jobs and Start-Ups explored various jobs relating to personal creation of artwork and collective production of business-oriented artwork. In the Conclusion, the current challenges of Animatoon considered personalization of the artists, specialization of the contents, diversification of the types, and liberalization of the art creation. And the direction of improvement advocated Animatoon to be an academic field of study, to be an art, to be a culture, and to be an industry. The importance of cartoons and animation along with videos and games rose in the 21st century. In order for cartoons and animation to take a leading role, make efforts in studying Animatoon academically and also in developing Animatoon as good contents in the cultural industries.

A Study on the Presence of Murals by Scientific Investigation on the Inner Walls of West Ancient Tomb No.1 and 2 Neungsan-ri, Buyeo (부여 능산리 서고분군 1·2호분 내벽의 과학적 조사를 통한 벽화 존재 유무 연구)

  • Lee, Hanhyoung;Kim, Dongwon;Lee, Hwasoo
    • Conservation Science in Museum
    • /
    • v.22
    • /
    • pp.41-52
    • /
    • 2019
  • Inner walls of the stone chamber of West Ancient Tomb No. 1 and 2 in Neungsan-ri, Buyeo-gun have been inspected for possible trace of murals. Tomb No.1 has a rough surface finish of the stone wall and no traces of murals was observed in any part of the stone walls except the ceiling part of the main chamber. On the ceiling surface, there is black colored area, which showed same visual characteristics for both the surface and interior upon slight scratch of the surface, suggesting that it may not be a painted layer. In addition, this black material is not artificial stuff like black ink but is confirmed as biotite from X-ray diffraction analysis that is one of the constituents of the stone wall. In case of tomb No. 2, white material, that is confirmed as lime(calcite, CaCO3) by X-ray diffraction analysis, was observed on the wall surface of the east, west and north, suggesting possible existence of murals. The lime layers, however, are located mostly on the entrance of east wall of main chamber and the place of passage whereas they are observed only in lower parts on the other walls. It may have been formed by the inflow of soil and lime from the outside as the form of the lime layer in the east wall corresponds to the traces of soil and lime deposited from the thief pit. Furthermore, the filling material found in the gap between the stone slabs of the four directions and the ceiling was confirmed as clay soil, which is different material from the lime present on the stone wall surface. If the lime layer had been artificially constructed for the purpose of creating murals, it would have been more reasonable to use lime as well in the gap between the stone slabs of the four directions and ceiling. In this regard, we conclude that there are no murals in the Tomb No. 2 in the Neungsan-ri.

Review of Copper Trihydroxychloride, a Green Pigment Composed of Copper and Chlorine (구리와 염소 주성분 녹색 안료 코퍼 트리하이드록시클로라이드(Copper Trihydroxychloride)에 대한 고찰)

  • Oh, Joonsuk;Lee, Saerom;Hwang, Minyoung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.53 no.2
    • /
    • pp.64-87
    • /
    • 2020
  • Copper trihydroxychloride (atacamite, botallackite, paratacamite, etc.), the first green pigment used in Mogao Grotto's mural paintings of China, has been known as "copper green", "green salt", and "salt green", etc. and has been used as an important green pigment with malachite. At first, the natural mineral atacamite was employed, but after the Five Dynasties (907~960 CE), synthetic copper trihydroxychloride was primarily used. In Chinese literature, copper green, green salt, and salt green are recorded as being made via reaction with copper powder, Gwangmyeongyeom (natural sodium chloride), and Yosa (natural ammonium chloride), and the prepared material was analyzed to be copper trihydroxychloride. Copper trihydroxychloride pigment was not found in paintings prior to the Joseon Dynasty (1392~1910 CE) in Korea. In analysis of the green pigments used in paintings and the architectural paintworks in the Joseon Dynasty, copper trihydroxychloride was also shown to have been used as an important green pigment with malachite (Seokrok). In particular, the proportion of copper trihydroxychloride use was high in Buddhist paintings, shamanic paintings, and dancheongs (decorative coloring on wooden buildings). Some of these turned out to be synthetic copper trihydroxychloride, but it is unclear whether the rest of them are synthetic or natural pigments due to a lack of analyzed data. From literature and painting analyses, the pigment name of copper trihydroxychloride in the Joseon Dynasty turns out to be Hayeob, a dark green pigment. It is believed to have first been prepared by learning from China in the early Joseon period (early 15th century) and its use continued until the late 19th century with imported Chinese pigment. Round or oval particles with a dark core of copper trihydroxychloride which were used in Chinese literature were similar to the synthetic copper trihydroxychloride pigments used in the Joseon Dynasty and Chinese paintings. Therefore, the synthetic copper trihydroxychloride pigments of Korea and China are believed to have been prepared in a similar way.

A Study on the Structure and the owners of the Royal Tombs of the Goryeo Dynasty (고려왕릉의 구조 및 능주(陵主) 검토)

  • Lee, Sang June
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.45 no.2
    • /
    • pp.4-19
    • /
    • 2012
  • There remain many royal tombs of the Goryeo Dynasty in Gaeseong and Ganghwa. During the Goryeo Dynasty, these royal tombs were taken over tradition of tomb construction style from previous generation, and they completed their own inventive style. Furthermore they handed down those style to the Joseon Dynasty. The area of tomb was divided into 3 or 4 steps, and stone figures and T-shaped houses for sacrifice were arranged on each steps. It was the stone chamber of lateral opening style which had an entrance to southward, and it was formed as a rectangular box-shaped with a pile of stone walls and a flat ceiling. There was a coffin stand in the middle of floor, and traditional bricks were around them. The wall side and ceiling had been whitewashed and painted pictures. These are general characteristics for the tomb construction style of the Goryeo Dynasty. By the way, we can notice a number of features except those general things with inspection in detail. In early days, we confirmed 1step-parallel fulcrum ceiling, coffin stand of all in one stone, bier of burial artifact, and mural of plant material as a set, but they were changed as flat ceiling, Red-stone wall with rectangular stone, coffin stand set as stone pillar through the period of transitional form as of in the late 12th century. In case of several royal tombs, the fragments of king's epitaph which were confirmed from tombs could be defined owners clearly, and there were considerable timing difference between the large numbers of celadons which were excavated with the fragments of king's epitaph and recording chronologically of stone chamber structure. The reason for timing difference is that posterity artifacts were buried through repairing courses by occasion of destruction caused by robbing of the royal tombs. Meanwhile I inferred the existing hypothesis about owners of royal tombs and autonym ones in comparison the burial spot direction of hypothesis ones and outcomes of excavation. Therethrough, some hypothesis about owners of royal tombs such as Myung-neung which was assumed as tomb of the King Choongmok were not correct.

Geophysical Exploration of Songsalli Ancient Tombs and Analysis of King Muryeong's Tomb Structure, Gongju (공주 송산리 고분군(公州 宋山里 古墳群)에서의 물리탐사와 무령왕릉(武寧王陵)의 구조분석)

  • Oh, Hyun-dok
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.46 no.4
    • /
    • pp.4-23
    • /
    • 2013
  • Songsalli Ancient Tombs of Gongju consists of seven tombs. King Muryeong's tomb, the seventh tomb, is a brick chamber tomb discovered during the drainage works for the fifth and the sixth tombs in 1971. The excavation at the time focused on topographic surveys of the tomb entrance and the inside of the burial chamber as well as collection of the remains. The burial mount survey confirmed the status of some stone slab remaining and lime-mixed soil layers, but the survey did not examine the exterior structure of the whole tomb as the mounds were removed even more deeply. The excavation revealed damages to the bricks and mural damages due to moisture and fungus in the sixth and the seventh tombs. Between 1996 and 1997, Gongju National University conducted a comprehensive detailed survey of Songsalli Ancient Tombs including a geophysical survey, with an aim to identify the root causes of such degradation. Based on the results, repair took place in 1999 and the fifth, sixth and seventh tombs were placed under permanent conservation to conserve the cultural assets. General public is currently denied access. The purpose of this study was to conduct a three-dimensional resistivity and GPR surveys on the ground surface of the fifth, sixth and seventh tombs of Songsalli Ancient Tombs in order to understand the underground status after repair. The study also aimed to understand the thickness of all the tomb walls and exterior structure based on GPR inside King Muryeong's tomb. The exploration on the ground surface found that the three tombs and soil adjacent to the tombs had resistivity as low as 5 to $90{\Omega}m$, which confirmed that the soil water content was still as high as that prior to the repair work. Additionally, GPR found that the wall construction of the burial chamber of King Muryeong's tomb was approximately 70cm in thickness, while the structure was of 2B with two bricks, about 35cm in length, put together longitudinally(2B brick masonry). The pathway to the burial chamber was of the 2B structure just like that of the burial chamber walls, while its thickness was 80cm with an eyebrow-type arch connected to it. Also, the ceiling exterior appears to have an arch structure, identical to the shape inside.