• Title, Summary, Keyword: Multidrug resistance

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Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Small Multidrug Resistance Plasmid pKH4 (Small Multidrug Resistance(smr) 플라스미드 pKH4의 염기서열 결정)

  • 고창학;문경호
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.789-792
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    • 1999
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of pKH4, a small multidrug resistance (smr) plasmid isolated from multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus SA5, was determined. Sequence analysis has revealed that pKH4 has two open reading frames for Rep and Smr proteins. The comparison of the amino acid sequence of Smr protein of pKH4 with those of other Smr proteins of various Staphylococcus showed that Smr protein of pKH4 is a new member of the SMR family.

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Bacillus subtilis from Soybean Food Shows Antimicrobial Activity for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by Affecting the adeS Gene

  • Wang, Tieshan;Su, Jianrong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.2043-2050
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    • 2016
  • Exploring novel antibiotics is necessary for multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Because the probiotics in soybean food have antimicrobial activities, we investigated their effects on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Nineteen multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains were clinically isolated as an experimental group and 11 multidrug-sensitive strains as controls. The growth rates of all bacteria were determined by using the analysis for xCELLigence Real-Time Cell. The combination of antibiotics showed synergistic effects on the strains in the control group but no effect on the strains in the experimental group. Efflux pump gene adeS was absent in all the strains from the control group, whereas it exists in all the strains from the experimental group. Furthermore, all the strains lost multidrug resistance when an adeS inhibitor was used. One strain of probiotics isolated from soybean food showed high antimicrobial activity for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. The isolated strain belongs to Bacillus subtilis according to 16S RNA analysis. Furthermore, E. coli showed multidrug resistance when it was transformed with the adeS gene from A. baumannii whereas the resistant bacteria could be inhibited completely by isolated Bacillus subtilis. Thus, probiotics from soybean food provide potential antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria.

Characterization of Cryptic Plasmid of Multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SA2

  • Im, Sung Hwan;Sung Joon Yoon;Woo Koo Kim;Chul Kyo Shin;Dae Woon Lee;Kyung Ho Moon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.145-146
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    • 1996
  • The 2.4-kb cryptic plasmid (pKH8) of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SA2 was characterized by complete nucleotide sequencing and homology comparison. pKH8 was found to contain three open reading frames. Protein analysis of pKH8 showed that pKH8 was a multidrug resistance plasmid and mediated resistance to ethidium bromide and quaternary ammonium compounds.

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Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 Predicts Relapse in Iranian Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  • Mahjoubi, Frouzandeh;Akbari, Soodeh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.2285-2289
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    • 2012
  • Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a main cause of failure in the chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant disorders. One of the well-known genes responsible for drug resistance encodes the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1). The association of MRP1 with clinical drug resistance has not systematically been investigated in Iranian pediatric leukemia patients. We therefore applied real-time RT-PCR technology to study the association between the MRP1 gene and MDR phenotype in Iranian pediatric leukemia patients. We found that overexpression of MRP1 occurred in most Iranian pediatric leukemia patients at relapse. However, no relation between MRP1 mRNA levels and other clinical characteristics, including cytogenetic subgroups and FAB subtypes, was found.

Enhancing Activity of Anticancer Drugs in Multidrug Resistant Tumors by Modulating P-Glycoprotein through Dietary Nutraceuticals

  • Khan, Muhammad;Maryam, Amara;Mehmood, Tahir;Zhang, Yaofang;Ma, Tonghui
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.6831-6839
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    • 2015
  • Multidrug resistance is a principal mechanism by which tumors become resistant to structurally and functionally unrelated anticancer drugs. Resistance to chemotherapy has been correlated with overexpression of p-glycoprotein (p-gp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters. P-gp mediates resistance to a broad-spectrum of anticancer drugs including doxorubicin, taxol, and vinca alkaloids by actively expelling the drugs from cells. Use of specific inhibitors/blocker of p-gp in combination with clinically important anticancer drugs has emerged as a new paradigm for overcoming multidrug resistance. The aim of this paper is to review p-gp regulation by dietary nutraceuticals and to correlate this dietary nutraceutical induced-modulation of p-gp with activity of anticancer drugs.

Drug Resistance Patterns of Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Korea: Amplification of Resistance to Oral Second-line Drugs

  • Kim, Chang-Ki;Shin, So Youn;Kim, Hee Jin;Lee, Kyungwon
    • Annals of Laboratory Medicine
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.323-326
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    • 2017
  • We aimed to analyze the drug resistance patterns of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and the difference of drug resistance among various settings for health care in Korea. The data of drug susceptibility testing in 2009 was analyzed in order to secure sufficient number of patients from various settings in Korea. Patients were categorized by types of institutions into four groups, which comprised new and previously treated patients from public health care centers (PHC), the private sector, and Double-barred Cross clinics (DBC). The resistance rates to first-line drugs were uniformly high in every group. While the resistance rates to second-line drugs were not as high as first-line drugs, there was a pattern that drug resistance rates were lowest for PHC and highest for DBC. The differences of the resistance rates were more prominent for oral second-line drugs. Our findings implied that drug resistance to oral second-line drugs was significantly amplified during multidrug-resistant-TB treatment in Korea. Therefore, an individualized approach is recommended for treating drug-resistant-TB based on susceptibility testing results to prevent acquisition or amplification of drug resistance.

Effect of Serum Concentration on Inhibition of Nucleoside Transport by Multidrug Resistance Inhibitor BIBW22 (혈청 농도가 다제내성 억제제 BIBW22의 nucleoside 수송에 미치는 영향)

  • ;Hong-Xing Chen;Uwe Bamberger;Yung-Chi Cheng;Thomae GmbH
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 1995
  • Some multidrug resistance inhibitors have been known to be influenced by the serum concentration. In this study, effect of serum concentration on inhibition of nucleoside transport by BIBW22, a new multidrug resistance inhibitor derived from dipyridamole (DPM), was studied. When 5% or 100% (v/v) of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was contained in the culture, DPM dose for which nucleoside transport was inhibited by 50% (lD$_{50}$) was 0.42 $\mu$M or 1.17 $\mu$M, respectively. BIBW22 also showed the same trend as DPM did in response to increase of FBS concentration. However, ID$_{50}$ value for DPM in the absence or presence of human plasma was 0.007 $\mu$M or 1.02 $\mu$M respectively showing 145 times increase of ID$_{50}$ value. ID$_{50}$ value for BIBW22 in the presence of human plasma was 0.028 $\mu$M showing only 5 times increase in ID$_{50}$ value. This result suggests that potency of BIBW22 was much less affected by the plasma concentration and BIBW22 could be a good candidate for a clinical use in multidrug resistance treatment.treatment.

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Isolation of Modulators for Multidrug Resistance from the Fruits of Evodia officinalis (약용식물 오수유로부터 다제약제 내성 조절물질의 분리)

  • Lee, Sung-Woo;Hwang, Bang-Yeon;Kim, Se-Eun;Kim, Hwan-Mook;Kim, Young-Ho;Lee, Kyong-Soon;Lee, Jung-Joon;Ro, Jai-Seup
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.344-348
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    • 1995
  • Preliminary screening test of modulators for multidrug resistance with 400 medicinal plants was carried out by using human multidrug resistance cell line, KB-V1. Among active medicinal plants, the unripe fruits of Evodia officinalis showed a potent modulating activity of MDR. From MeOH extract of this plant, we isolated two indole alkaloids, rutaecarpine (1) and evodiamine (2), by repeated silicagel column chromatography. Rutaecarpine increased the cytotoxicities of vinblastine and taxol against multidrug resistance cells, but evodiamine showed no modulating activity in spite of its potent cytotoxic activities.

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Effect of ${\alpha}$-Glycosidase Inhibitor in Multidrug Resistant Cell Lines

  • Paek, Nam-Soo;Namgung, Jun;Lee, Jung-Joon;Choi, Yong-Jin;Kim, Tae-Han;Kim, Kee-Won
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.269-273
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    • 1998
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the reversal of multi drug resistance of human cell lines by specific inhibitors of ${\alpha}-glycosidase$ and mannosidases that had been reported to be involved in N-linked oligosaccharide processing of glycoproteins. N-methyldeoxynojirimycin, I-deoxynojirimycin, and castanospermine, which were known to be potent inhibitors of both ${\alpha}-glycosidase$ I and II, showed no activity against the multidrug resistant phenotype of the cell lines of SNU1DOX, KB-V1, and MCF-7/ADR. In contrast, I-deoxymannojirimycin, an inhibitor of mannosidase I, resulted in a slight reversal for the vinblastine resistance of the KB-V1 cell line, but did not show any activity toward the other cell lines. Parallel experiments with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, also resulted in no significant changes in multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype of the cell lines tested in this work. These observations suggest that the unglycosylation of P-glycoprotein associated with the inhibitor treatments might not be correlated with the reversal of multidrug resistance of the cell lines tested in this study.

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Targeting Multidrug Resistance with Small Molecules for Cancer Therapy

  • Xia, Yan;Lee, Kyeong
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.375-385
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    • 2010
  • Conventional cancer chemotherapy is seriously limited by tumor cells exhibiting multidrug resistance (MDR), which is caused by changes in the levels or activity of membrane transporters that mediate energy-dependent drug efflux and of proteins that affect drug metabolism and/or drug action. Cancer scientists and oncologists have worked together for some time to understand anticancer drug resistance and develop pharmacological strategies to overcome such resistance. Much focus has been on the reversal of the MDR phenotype by inhibition of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters. ABC transporters are a family of transporter proteins that mediate drug resistance and low drug bioavailability by pumping various drugs out of cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Many inhibitors of MDR transporters have been identified, and though some are currently undergoing clinical trials, none are in clinical use. Herein, we briefly review the status of MDR in human cancer, explore the pathways of MDR in chemotherapy, and outline recent advances in the design and development of MDR modulators.