• Title, Summary, Keyword: Multi-unit risk

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A Study on the Operational Events of Domestic Nuclear Power Plants for Multi-unit Risk (원전 다수기 리스크 평가를 위한 국내 원전 사건이력 조사 연구)

  • Lim, Hak Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2019
  • Compared to a single nuclear power plant (NPP) risk, the commonalities existing in the multiple NPPs attribute the characteristics of the multi-unit risk. If there is no commonality among the multiple NPPs, there will be no dependency among the risks of multiple NPPs. Therefore, understanding the commonality causing multi-unit events is essential to assessing the multi-unit risk, and identifying the characteristics of the multi-unit risk is necessary not only to select the scope and method for the multi-unit risk assessment, but also to analyze the data of the multi-unit events. In order to develop Korea-specific multi-unit risk assessment technology, we analyze the multi-unit commonalities included in the operational experiences of domestic NPPs. We identified 58 cases of multi-unit events through detailed review of domestic nuclear power plant event reports over the past 10 years, and the multi-unit events were classified into six commonalities to identify Korea-specific characteristics of multi-unit events. The identified characteristics can be used to understand and manage domestic multi-unit risks. It can also be used as a basis for modeling multi-unit events for multi-unit risk assessment.

Multi-unit risk assessment of nuclear power plants: Current status and issues

  • Yang, Joon-Eon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1199-1209
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    • 2018
  • After the Fukushima-Daiichi accident in 2011, the multi-unit risk, i.e., the risk due to several nuclear power plants (NPPs) in a site has become an important issue in several countries such as Korea, Canada, and China. However, the multi-unit risk has been discussed for a long time in the nuclear community before the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident occurred. The regulatory authorities around the world and the international organizations had proposed requirements or guidelines to reduce the multi-unit risk. The concerns regarding the multi-unit risk can be summarized in the following three questions: How much the accident of an NPP in a site affects the safety of other NPPs in the same site? What is the total risk of a site with many NPPs? Will the risk of the simultaneous accidents at several NPPs in a site such as the Fukushima Daiichi accident be low enough? The multi-unit risk assessment (MURA) in an integrated framework is a practical approach to obtain the answers for the above questions. Even though there were few studies to assess the multi-unit risk before the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident, there are still several issues to be resolved to perform the complete MURA. This article aims to provide an overview of the multi-unit risk issues and its assessment. We discuss the several critical issues in the current MURA to get useful insights regarding the multi-unit risk with the current state art of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technologies. Also, the qualitative answers for the above questions are addressed.

Study on multi-unit level 3 PSA to understand a characteristics of risk in a multi-unit context

  • Oh, Kyemin;Kim, Sung-yeop;Jeon, Hojun;Park, Jeong Seon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.975-983
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    • 2020
  • Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011, concerns for the safety of multi-unit Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) sites have risen. This is because more than 70% of NPP sites are multi-unit sites that have two or more NPP units and a multi-unit accident occurred for the first time. After this accident, Probability Safety Assessment (PSA) has been considered in many countries as one of the tools to quantitatively assess the safety for multi-unit NPP sites. One of the biggest concerns for a multi-unit accident such as Fukushima is that the consequences (health and economic) will be significantly higher than in the case of a single-unit accident. However, many studies on multi-unit PSA have focused on Level 1 & 2 PSA, and there are many challenges in terms of public acceptance due to various speculations without an engineering background. In this study, two kinds of multi-unit Level 3 PSA for multi-unit site have been carried out. The first case was the estimation of multi-unit risk with conservative assumptions to investigate the margin between multi-unit risk and QHO, and the other was to identify the effect of time delays in releases between NPP units on the same site. Through these two kinds of assessments, we aimed at investigating the level of multi-unit risk and understanding the characteristics of risk in a multiunit context.

Holistic Approach to Multi-Unit Site Risk Assessment: Status and Issues

  • Kim, Inn Seock;Jang, Misuk;Kim, Seoung Rae
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.286-294
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    • 2017
  • The events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011 point out, among other matters, that concurrent accidents at multiple units of a site can occur in reality. Although site risk has been deterministically considered to some extent in nuclear power plant siting and design, potential occurrence of multi-unit accident sequences at a site was not investigated in sufficient detail thus far in the nuclear power community. Therefore, there is considerable worldwide interest and research effort directed toward multi-unit site risk assessment, especially in the countries with high-density nuclear-power-plant sites such as Korea. As the technique of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been successfully applied to evaluate the risk associated with operation of nuclear power plants in the past several decades, the PSA having primarily focused on single-unit risks is now being extended to the multi-unit PSA. In this paper we first characterize the site risk with explicit consideration of the risk associated with spent fuel pools as well as the reactor risks. The status of multi-unit risk assessment is discussed next, followed by a description of the emerging issues relevant to the multi-unit risk evaluation from a practical standpoint.

Development of logical structure for multi-unit probabilistic safety assessment

  • Lim, Ho-Gon;Kim, Dong-San;Han, Sang Hoon;Yang, Joon Eon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1210-1216
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    • 2018
  • Site or multi-unit (MU) risk assessment has been a major issue in the field of nuclear safety study since the Fukushima accident in 2011. There have been few methods or experiences for MU risk assessment because the Fukushima accident was the first real MU accident and before the accident, there was little expectation of the possibility that an MU accident will occur. In addition to the lack of experience of MU risk assessment, since an MU nuclear power plant site is usually very complex to analyze as a whole, it was considered that a systematic method such as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is difficult to apply to MU risk assessment. This paper proposes a new MU risk assessment methodology by using the conventional PSA methodology which is widely used in nuclear power plant risk assessment. The logical failure structure of a site with multiple units is suggested from the definition of site risk, and a decomposition method is applied to identify specific MU failure scenarios.

Multi-unit Level 3 probabilistic safety assessment: Approaches and their application to a six-unit nuclear power plant site

  • Kim, Sung-yeop;Jung, Yong Hun;Han, Sang Hoon;Han, Seok-Jung;Lim, Ho-Gon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1246-1254
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    • 2018
  • The importance of performing Level 3 probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) along with a general interest in assessing multi-unit risk has been sharply increasing after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident. However, relatively few studies on multi-unit Level 3 PSA have been performed to date, reflecting limited scenarios of multi-unit accidents with higher priority. The major difficulty to carry out a multi-unit Level 3 PSA lies in the exponentially increasing number of multi-unit accident combinations, as different source terms can be released from each NPP unit; indeed, building consequence models for the astronomical number of accident scenarios is simply impractical. In this study, a new approach has been developed that employs the look-up table method to cover every multi-unit accident scenario. Consequence results for each scenario can be found on the table, established with a practical amount of effort, and can be matched to the frequency of the scenario. Preliminary application to a six-unit NPP site was carried out, where it was found that the difference between full-coverage and cut-off cases could be considerably high and therefore influence the total risk. Additional studies should be performed to fine tune the details and overcome the limitations of the approach.

Multi-unit Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment: Approaches and their application to a six-unit nuclear power plant site

  • Kim, Dong-San;Han, Sang Hoon;Park, Jin Hee;Lim, Ho-Gon;Kim, Jung Han
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1217-1233
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    • 2018
  • Following a surge of interest in multi-unit risk in the last few years, many recent studies have suggested methods for multi-unit probabilistic safety assessment (MUPSA) and addressed several related aspects. Most of the existing studies though focused on two-unit nuclear power plant (NPP) sites or used rather simplified probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models to demonstrate the proposed approaches. When considering an NPP site with three or more units, some approaches are inapplicable or yield very conservative results. Since the number of such sites is increasing, there is a strong need to develop and validate practical approaches to the related MUPSA. This article provides several detailed approaches that are applicable to multi-unit Level 1 PSA for sites with up to six or more reactor units. To validate the approaches, a multi-unit Level 1 PSA model is developed and the site core damage frequency is estimated for each of four representative multi-unit initiators, as well as for the case of a simultaneous occurrence of independent single-unit initiators in multiple units. For this purpose, an NPP site with six identical OPR-1000 units is considered, with full-scale Level 1 PSA models for a specific OPR-1000 plant used as the base single-unit models.

AIMS-MUPSA software package for multi-unit PSA

  • Han, Sang Hoon;Oh, Kyemin;Lim, Ho-Gon;Yang, Joon-Eon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1255-1265
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    • 2018
  • The need for a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) for a multi-unit at a site is growing after the Fukushima accident. Many countries have been studying issues regarding a multi-unit PSA. One of these issues is the problem of many combinations of accident sequences in a multi-unit PSA. This paper deals with the methodology and software to quantify a PSA scenarios for a multi-unit site. Two approaches are developed to quantify a multi-unit PSA. One is to use a minimal cut set approach, and the other is to use a Monte Carlo approach.

Multi-unit Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment: Approaches and their application to a six-unit nuclear power plant site

  • Cho, Jaehyun;Han, Sang Hoon;Kim, Dong-San;Lim, Ho-Gon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1234-1245
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    • 2018
  • The risk of multi-unit nuclear power plants (NPPs) at a site has received considerable critical attention recently. However, current probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) procedures and computer code do not support multi-unit PSA because the traditional PSA structure is mostly used for the quantification of single-unit NPP risk. In this study, the main purpose is to develop a multi-unit Level 2 PSA method and apply it to full-power operating six-unit OPR1000. Multi-unit Level 2 PSA method consists of three steps: (1) development of single-unit Level 2 PSA; (2) extracting the mapping data from plant damage state to source term category; and (3) combining multi-unit Level 1 PSA results and mapping fractions. By applying developed multi-unit Level 2 PSA method into six-unit OPR1000, site containment failure probabilities in case of loss of ultimate heat sink, loss of off-site power, tsunami, and seismic event were quantified.

Human and organizational factors for multi-unit probabilistic safety assessment: Identification and characterization for the Korean case

  • Arigi, Awwal Mohammed;Kim, Gangmin;Park, Jooyoung;Kim, Jonghyun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.104-115
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    • 2019
  • Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident, there has been an emphasis on the risk resulting from multi-unit accidents. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is one of the important issues in multi-unit probabilistic safety assessment (MUPSA). Hence, there is a need to properly identify all the human and organizational factors relevant to a multi-unit incident scenario in a nuclear power plant (NPP). This study identifies and categorizes the human and organizational factors relevant to a multi-unit incident scenario of NPPs based on a review of relevant literature. These factors are then analyzed to ascertain all possible unit-to-unit interactions that need to be considered in the multi-unit HRA and the pattern of interactions. The human and organizational factors are classified into five categories: organization, work device, task, performance shaping factors, and environmental factors. The identification and classification of these factors will significantly contribute to the development of adequate strategies and guidelines for managing multi-unit accidents. This study is a necessary initial step in developing an effective HRA method for multiple NPP units in a site.