• Title, Summary, Keyword: Multi-unit accident

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Study on multi-unit level 3 PSA to understand a characteristics of risk in a multi-unit context

  • Oh, Kyemin;Kim, Sung-yeop;Jeon, Hojun;Park, Jeong Seon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.975-983
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    • 2020
  • Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011, concerns for the safety of multi-unit Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) sites have risen. This is because more than 70% of NPP sites are multi-unit sites that have two or more NPP units and a multi-unit accident occurred for the first time. After this accident, Probability Safety Assessment (PSA) has been considered in many countries as one of the tools to quantitatively assess the safety for multi-unit NPP sites. One of the biggest concerns for a multi-unit accident such as Fukushima is that the consequences (health and economic) will be significantly higher than in the case of a single-unit accident. However, many studies on multi-unit PSA have focused on Level 1 & 2 PSA, and there are many challenges in terms of public acceptance due to various speculations without an engineering background. In this study, two kinds of multi-unit Level 3 PSA for multi-unit site have been carried out. The first case was the estimation of multi-unit risk with conservative assumptions to investigate the margin between multi-unit risk and QHO, and the other was to identify the effect of time delays in releases between NPP units on the same site. Through these two kinds of assessments, we aimed at investigating the level of multi-unit risk and understanding the characteristics of risk in a multiunit context.

Multi-unit risk assessment of nuclear power plants: Current status and issues

  • Yang, Joon-Eon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1199-1209
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    • 2018
  • After the Fukushima-Daiichi accident in 2011, the multi-unit risk, i.e., the risk due to several nuclear power plants (NPPs) in a site has become an important issue in several countries such as Korea, Canada, and China. However, the multi-unit risk has been discussed for a long time in the nuclear community before the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident occurred. The regulatory authorities around the world and the international organizations had proposed requirements or guidelines to reduce the multi-unit risk. The concerns regarding the multi-unit risk can be summarized in the following three questions: How much the accident of an NPP in a site affects the safety of other NPPs in the same site? What is the total risk of a site with many NPPs? Will the risk of the simultaneous accidents at several NPPs in a site such as the Fukushima Daiichi accident be low enough? The multi-unit risk assessment (MURA) in an integrated framework is a practical approach to obtain the answers for the above questions. Even though there were few studies to assess the multi-unit risk before the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident, there are still several issues to be resolved to perform the complete MURA. This article aims to provide an overview of the multi-unit risk issues and its assessment. We discuss the several critical issues in the current MURA to get useful insights regarding the multi-unit risk with the current state art of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technologies. Also, the qualitative answers for the above questions are addressed.

Multi-unit Level 3 probabilistic safety assessment: Approaches and their application to a six-unit nuclear power plant site

  • Kim, Sung-yeop;Jung, Yong Hun;Han, Sang Hoon;Han, Seok-Jung;Lim, Ho-Gon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1246-1254
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    • 2018
  • The importance of performing Level 3 probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) along with a general interest in assessing multi-unit risk has been sharply increasing after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident. However, relatively few studies on multi-unit Level 3 PSA have been performed to date, reflecting limited scenarios of multi-unit accidents with higher priority. The major difficulty to carry out a multi-unit Level 3 PSA lies in the exponentially increasing number of multi-unit accident combinations, as different source terms can be released from each NPP unit; indeed, building consequence models for the astronomical number of accident scenarios is simply impractical. In this study, a new approach has been developed that employs the look-up table method to cover every multi-unit accident scenario. Consequence results for each scenario can be found on the table, established with a practical amount of effort, and can be matched to the frequency of the scenario. Preliminary application to a six-unit NPP site was carried out, where it was found that the difference between full-coverage and cut-off cases could be considerably high and therefore influence the total risk. Additional studies should be performed to fine tune the details and overcome the limitations of the approach.

Development of logical structure for multi-unit probabilistic safety assessment

  • Lim, Ho-Gon;Kim, Dong-San;Han, Sang Hoon;Yang, Joon Eon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1210-1216
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    • 2018
  • Site or multi-unit (MU) risk assessment has been a major issue in the field of nuclear safety study since the Fukushima accident in 2011. There have been few methods or experiences for MU risk assessment because the Fukushima accident was the first real MU accident and before the accident, there was little expectation of the possibility that an MU accident will occur. In addition to the lack of experience of MU risk assessment, since an MU nuclear power plant site is usually very complex to analyze as a whole, it was considered that a systematic method such as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is difficult to apply to MU risk assessment. This paper proposes a new MU risk assessment methodology by using the conventional PSA methodology which is widely used in nuclear power plant risk assessment. The logical failure structure of a site with multiple units is suggested from the definition of site risk, and a decomposition method is applied to identify specific MU failure scenarios.

AIMS-MUPSA software package for multi-unit PSA

  • Han, Sang Hoon;Oh, Kyemin;Lim, Ho-Gon;Yang, Joon-Eon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.8
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    • pp.1255-1265
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    • 2018
  • The need for a PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) for a multi-unit at a site is growing after the Fukushima accident. Many countries have been studying issues regarding a multi-unit PSA. One of these issues is the problem of many combinations of accident sequences in a multi-unit PSA. This paper deals with the methodology and software to quantify a PSA scenarios for a multi-unit site. Two approaches are developed to quantify a multi-unit PSA. One is to use a minimal cut set approach, and the other is to use a Monte Carlo approach.

A Method to Calculate Off-site Radionuclide Concentration for Multi-unit Nuclear Power Plant Accident (다수기 원자력발전소 사고 시 소외 방사성물질 농도 계산 방법)

  • Lee, Hye Rin;Lee, Gee Man;Jung, Woo Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.144-156
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    • 2018
  • Level 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is performed for the risk assessment that calculates radioactive material dispersion to the environment. This risk assessment is performed with a tool of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS2 or WinMACCS). For the off-site consequence analysis of multi-unit nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, the single location (Center Of Mass, COM) method has been usually adopted with the assumption that all the NPPs in the nuclear site are located at the same COM point. It was well known that this COM calculation can lead to underestimated or overestimated radionuclide concentration. In order to overcome this underestimation or overestimation of radionuclide concentrations in the COM method, Multiple Location (ML) method was developed in this study. The radionuclide concentrations for the individual NPPs are separately calculated, and they are summed at every location in the nuclear site by the post-processing of radionuclide concentrations that is based on two-dimensional Gaussian Plume equations. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the ML method, radionuclide concentrations were calculated for the six-unit NPP site, radionuclide concentrations of the ML method were compared with those by COM method. This comparison was performed for conditions of constant weather, yearly weather in Korea, and four seasons, and the results were discussed. This new ML method (1) improves accuracy of radionuclide concentrations when multi-unit NPP accident occurs, (2) calculates realistic atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides under various weather conditions, and finally (3) supports off-site emergency plan optimization. It is recommended that this new method be applied to the risk assessment of multi-unit NPP accident. This new method drastically improves the accuracy of radionuclide concentrations at the locations adjacent to or very close to NPPs. This ML method has a great strength over the COM method when people live near nuclear site, since it provides accurate radionuclide concentrations or radiation doses.

Human and organizational factors for multi-unit probabilistic safety assessment: Identification and characterization for the Korean case

  • Arigi, Awwal Mohammed;Kim, Gangmin;Park, Jooyoung;Kim, Jonghyun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.104-115
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    • 2019
  • Since the Fukushima Daiichi accident, there has been an emphasis on the risk resulting from multi-unit accidents. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is one of the important issues in multi-unit probabilistic safety assessment (MUPSA). Hence, there is a need to properly identify all the human and organizational factors relevant to a multi-unit incident scenario in a nuclear power plant (NPP). This study identifies and categorizes the human and organizational factors relevant to a multi-unit incident scenario of NPPs based on a review of relevant literature. These factors are then analyzed to ascertain all possible unit-to-unit interactions that need to be considered in the multi-unit HRA and the pattern of interactions. The human and organizational factors are classified into five categories: organization, work device, task, performance shaping factors, and environmental factors. The identification and classification of these factors will significantly contribute to the development of adequate strategies and guidelines for managing multi-unit accidents. This study is a necessary initial step in developing an effective HRA method for multiple NPP units in a site.

Holistic Approach to Multi-Unit Site Risk Assessment: Status and Issues

  • Kim, Inn Seock;Jang, Misuk;Kim, Seoung Rae
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.286-294
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    • 2017
  • The events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011 point out, among other matters, that concurrent accidents at multiple units of a site can occur in reality. Although site risk has been deterministically considered to some extent in nuclear power plant siting and design, potential occurrence of multi-unit accident sequences at a site was not investigated in sufficient detail thus far in the nuclear power community. Therefore, there is considerable worldwide interest and research effort directed toward multi-unit site risk assessment, especially in the countries with high-density nuclear-power-plant sites such as Korea. As the technique of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been successfully applied to evaluate the risk associated with operation of nuclear power plants in the past several decades, the PSA having primarily focused on single-unit risks is now being extended to the multi-unit PSA. In this paper we first characterize the site risk with explicit consideration of the risk associated with spent fuel pools as well as the reactor risks. The status of multi-unit risk assessment is discussed next, followed by a description of the emerging issues relevant to the multi-unit risk evaluation from a practical standpoint.

Effective event recorder operation method for multi-coupled trainset (중련편성 열차를 위한 효율적인 사건기록기 운영방안)

  • Choi, Kwon-Hee;Jeong, Byung-Ho;Min, Pyung-Oh;Oh, Yong-Suk;Lee, Jong-Woo
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1428-1432
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    • 2007
  • One of the most important targets of transportation is to transport human and commodities to the destination safely. Railway has low risk, compared with land, ocean and flight route and it assures high security as well as high speed driving, since it runs on regular track. However, train accident may result in tragic accident due to small carelessness, so special event recorder is preferably used in order for clarity of responsibility in case of accident, maintenance of signal device and defect analysis. JRU(Juridical Recorder Unit) for ATC/ATS/ATP can be more advanced event recorder. Event recorder of KTX-I which is running now is installed one by one on each leading car and last car, and operation plan of event recorder in case of single trainset is suggested. But regarding train operation of multi-coupled trainset operation such as KTX-II, more detailed study is required for event recorder revitalization and record data process method. Therefore, this research aims at operation plan used in existing event recorder, and suggests effective operation and management plan of event recorder in multi-coupled trainset such as new High Speed Train.

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A Study on the Experience of Physical Therapy Accident in The Physiotherapist (물리치료사에 있어서 물리치료 사고의 경험에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Dae
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2002
  • The objective of research provides the physical therapy of good quality to the patients to search for the problem pant against a physical therapy accident and it simultaneously respects physical therapy company law, the possibility of preparing a system defensive ability in order to be. The data were collected from 2000 October 1 to December 30th, and analyzed by a frequency and a percentage, oneway ANOVA, Scheffe method, $x^2$ official approvals. Conclusion (1) the accident where the patient falls from inside the treatment 'room is many and occasionally' 29.3% (63 people) with was many most. (2) Because of a mistake by a part-time therapist in holiday or a colleague therapist to do, the fracture or bum accident happens 12.5% (27 people), by a assist nurse due to more showed 12.1% (26 people) experience degree in the patient. (3) From physical therapy process breakdown of the medical treatment machinery and tools or it is in malfunction to do and the experience which has a failure to physical therapy is one enemy 68.1% (147 people) was in item. Also it treats and the patient or in the protector it sends an explanation in advance not to be, the experience which it enforces 50% (108 people), of service hour treatment equipment the medical treatment directives broad way of the doctor is accurate in insufficiency and does not enforce the experience is 45.4% (98 people), the patient whom I am treating Hot Pack (electricity has pack inclusion) with to do, the art dealer (over at 1 buffoonery) the experience which it puts on 27.1% (58 people), The patient whom I am treating is the electrotherapy flag (electricity has pack exclusion) with to do, the art dealer (1 degree art dealer over) the experience which it puts on 16.3% (35 people), the experience boat song the patient against a fracture from physical therapy process 9 person (4.2%) was visible an experience degree. (4) With hospital infection to do, from the patient the experience and the therapist which receive a problem proposal were caused by with hospital infection and the answer back regarding the experience which tries to receive a treatment appeared 6% (13 people), 42% (9 people) with each. (5) It listened to the treatment hour patient or the appeal of the protector and especially it does not appear to be being important it was not and and the management which is special it did not take, also the experience where the condition of the patient is deteriorated after that was 10.3% (22 people). (6) The condition or state of the patient does not agree with the medical treatment instruction of the doctor not to be, amendment one experience was 67.5% (145 people). (7) The experience degree of the physical therapy accident which relates with physical therapy recording and a secret maintenance 59.7% (129 people) 'is many and occasionally it is,' it showed an answer back and e it showed a most high accident experience degree. (8) The business overweight of physical therapy company 43.3% (93 people) with was high most from recognition degree of the physical therapy company against a physical therapy accident. (9) Against the question which asks the responsibility subject matter of physical therapy accident the whole answer back volition 42.8% did it is a joint responsibility where the multi person relates. (10) The accident occurs most the hour unit which plentifully in the afternoon 64.3% (133 people) with appeared from the recognition degree against the frequency hour unit of physical therapy accident. (11) Physical therapy it bought and after the various medical treatment accident which relates against the attitude of the, patient side against the physical therapy company it understood and trillion it was many most with 33.3% to be finished. (12) After physical therapy accident the management against the physical therapy company of the hospital authorities concerned above all do not experience 70.6% (149 people), from event right and wrong submission 22.7% (48 people), warning management 2.8% (6 people), the event report requirement and money compensation were each 0.5% (1 person). (13) As the prevention book of physical therapy accident most it is important, the fact which it thinks that, the persons supplement of physical therapy company 58.8% (127 people) with was high most. (14) It related with a physical therapy accident and the medical law 43.5%, civil law 23.9%, was visible the answer back ratio of the criminal law 13.7% from the degree which probably is a relation law.

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