• Title, Summary, Keyword: Motor sequential learning

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The Effect of Implicit Motor Sequence Learning Through Perceptual-Motor Task in Patients with Subacute Stroke (아급성기 뇌졸중 환자에서 지각-운동 과제를 통한 내잠 학습의 효과)

  • Lee, Mi-Young;Park, Rae-Joon;Nam, Ki-Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Implicit motor learning is the capacity to acquire skill through physical practice without conscious awareness of what elements of performance improved. This study investigated whether subacute stroke patients can implicitly learn a perceptual-motor task. Methods: We recruited 12 patients with subacute stroke and 12 age-matched controls. All participants performed a perceptual-motor task that involved pressing a button corresponding with colored circles (blue, green, yellow, red) on a computer screen. The task consists of 7 blocks composed of 10 repetitions for a repeating 12-element sequence (total 120 responses). Results: Both groups demonstrated significant improvement in acquisition performance. Reaction times deceased in both groups at similar rate within the sequential block trials (2-5 blocks), and reaction times increased at a similar rate when the task paradigm was transferred from the sequential block trial to the random block trial (5-6-7 blocks). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that patients with sub-actue stroke can implicitly learn a perceptual motor skill. Although explicit instructions should be used to focus the learner's attention rather than provide information about the task, the application of implicit motor learning strategies in the rehabilitation setting may be beneficial.

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Change of Fractional Anisotropy in the Left Inferior Frontal Area after Motor Learning (운동학습에 의한 왼쪽 하전두영역의 분할비등방성의 변화)

  • Park, Ji-Won;Nam, Ki-Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study was to delineate the structural change of neural pathway after sequential motor learning using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: The participants were 16 healthy subjects, which were divided by training (n=8) and control (n=8) group. The task for the training was the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) which was designed by Superlab program. When the 'asterisk' shows up in the 4 partition spaces on the monitor, the subject presses the correct response button as soon as possible. The training group participated in the training program of motor learning with SRTT composed of 24 digits pattern in one hour per daily through 10 days during 2 weeks. Results: In the behavioral results the training group showed significant changes in the increase of response number and the reduction of response time than those of the control group. There was significant difference in the left inferior frontal area in the fractional anisotropy (FA) map of the training group in DTI analysis. Conclusion: Motor sequential learning as like SRTT may be needed to the learning of language and visuospatial processing and may be induced for the experience-dependent structural plasticity during short period.

Effect of rTMS on Motor Sequence Learning and Brain Activation : A Preliminary Study (반복적 경두부 자기자극이 운동학습과 뇌 운동영역 활성화에 미치는 영향 : 예비연구)

  • Park, Ji-Won;Kim, Jong-Man;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2003
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates cortical excitability beyond the duration of the rTMS trains themselves. Depending on rTMS parameters, a lasting inhibition or facilitation of cortical excitability can be induced. Therefore, rTMS of high or low frequency over motor cortex may change certain aspects of motor learning performance and cortical activation. This study investigated the effect of high and low frequency subthreshold rTMS applied to the motor cortex on motor learning of sequential finger movements and brain activation using functional MRI (fMRI). Three healthy right-handed subjects (mean age 23.3) were enrolled. All subjects were trained with sequences of seven-digit rapid sequential finger movements, 30 minutes per day for 5 consecutive days using their left hand. 10 Hz (high frequency) and 1 Hz (low frequency) trains of rTMS with 80% of resting motor threshold and sham stimulation were applied for each subject during the period of motor learning. rTMS was delivered on the scalp over the right primary motor cortex using a figure-eight shaped coil and a Rapid(R) stimulator with two Booster Modules (Magstim Co. Ltd, UK). Functional MRI (fMRI) was performed on a 3T ISOL Forte scanner before and after training in all subjects (35 slices per one brain volume TR/TE = 3000/30 ms, Flip angle $60^{\circ}$, FOV 220 mm, $64{\times}64$ matrix, slice thickness 4 mm). Response time (RT) and target scores (TS) of sequential finger movements were monitored during the training period and fMRl scanning. All subjects showed decreased RT and increased TS which reflecting learning effects over the training session. The subject who received high frequency rTMS showed better performance in TS and RT than those of the subjects with low frequency or sham stimulation of rTMS. In fMRI, the subject who received high frequency rTMS showed increased activation of primary motor cortex, premotor, and medial cerebellar areas after the motor sequence learning after the training, but the subject with low frequency rTMS showed decreased activation in above areas. High frequency subthreshold rTMS on the motor cortex may facilitate the excitability of motor cortex and improve the performance of motor sequence learning in normal subject.

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Effects of Massed and Distributed Practice on P300 Latency in a Sequential Timing Task (시열과제 운동학습 시 집중연습과 분산연습이 P300 출현시기에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Yong-Hyun;Lee, Myoung-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.234-239
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use P300 latency to determine whether methods of motor learning in terms of massed and distributed practice can affect motor sequential learning in healthy adults. Methods: Twenty-four healthy subjects participated in this study. They were randomly allocated into three groups: a 10 minute, a 12 hour, and a 24 hour group. In the SRT task, eight numbers were adopted as auditory stimuli. During an experiment, participants were instructed to press the matching key as quickly and accurately as possible when one of the eight numbers was presented randomly. The subjects practiced for three sessions, each of which comprised five blocks of 40 serial reaction time tasks. While they practiced during these three sessions, P300 latency was measured. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: The P300 latency of Fz, Cz, and Pz decreased in all groups except for the Fz area of the 10 min group. Overall, the P300 latency of the 10 min group showed a smaller decrease compared with the 12 hr and 24 hr groups. Statistically, no significant differences in the Fz and Cz areas were observed among the three groups. The P300 latency in the Pz area of the 10 min group showed a significantly smaller decrease compared with the other groups. Conclusion: These findings suggest that short-term sequential motor training can alter brain functions such as the P300 latency. We also found that better acquisition of a motor skill was obtained with distributed practice of a task than with massed practice.

Comparison of Motor Skill Acquisition according to Types of Sensory-Stimuli Cue in Serial Reaction Time Task

  • Kwon, Yong Hyun;Lee, Myoung Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.191-195
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether types of sensory-stimuli cues in terms of visual, auditory, and visuoauditory cues can be affected to motor sequential learning in healthy adults, using serial reaction time task. Methods: Twenty four healthy subjects participated in this study, who were randomly allocated into three groups, in terms of visual-stimuli (VS) group, auditory-stimuli (AS) group, and visuoauditory-stimuli (VAS) group. In SRT task, eight Arabic numbers were adopted as presentational stimulus, which were composed of three different types of presentational modules, in terms of visual, auditory, and visuoauditory stimuli. On an experiment, all subjects performed total 3 sessions relevant to each stimulus module with a pause of 10 minutes for training and pre-/post-tests. At the pre- and post-tests, reaction time and accuracy were calculated. Results: In reaction time, significant differences were founded in terms of between-subjects, within-subjects, and interaction effect for group ${\times}$ repeated factor. In accuracy, no significant differences were observed in between-group and interaction effect for groups ${\times}$ repeated factor. However, a significant main effect of within-subjects was observed. In addition, a significant difference was showed in comparison of differences of changes between the pre- and post-test only in the reaction time among three groups. Conclusion: This study suggest that short-term sequential motor training on one day induced behavioral modification, such as speed and accuracy of motor response. In addition, we found that motor training using visual-stimuli cue showed better effect of motor skill acquisition, compared to auditory and visuoauditory-stimuli cues.

Comparison of Random and Blocked Practice during Performance of the Stop Signal Task

  • Kwon, Jung-Won;Nam, Seok-Hyun;Kim, Chung-Sun
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: We investigated the changes in the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) and the no-signal reaction time (NSRT) following motor sequential learning in the stop-signal task (SST). This study also determined which of the reduction0s of spatial processing time was better between blocked- and random-SST. Methods: Thirty right-handed healthy subjects without a history of neurological dysfunction were recruited. In all subjects, both the SSRT and the NSRT were measured for the SST. Tasks were classified into two categories based on the stop-signal patterns, the blocked-SST practice group and random-SST practice group. All subjects gave written informed consent. Results: In the blocked-SST group, both the SSRT and the NSRT was significantly decreased (p<0.05) but not significantly changed in the random-SST group. In the SSRT and the NSRT, the blocked-SST group was faster than the random-SST group (p<0.05). In the post-test SST after practice of each group, the SSRT was significantly decreased in the random-SST group (p<0.05), but the NSRT showed no significant changes in either group. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that random-SST practice resulted in a decrease in internal processing times needed for a rapid stop to visual signals, indicating motor skill learning is acquired through improved response selection and inhibition.

A Study on Human-Robot Interface based on Imitative Learning using Computational Model of Mirror Neuron System (Mirror Neuron System 계산 모델을 이용한 모방학습 기반 인간-로봇 인터페이스에 관한 연구)

  • Ko, Kwang-Enu;Sim, Kwee-Bo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.565-570
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    • 2013
  • The mirror neuron regions which are distributed in cortical area handled a functionality of intention recognition on the basis of imitative learning of an observed action which is acquired from visual-information of a goal-directed action. In this paper an automated intention recognition system is proposed by applying computational model of mirror neuron system to the human-robot interaction system. The computational model of mirror neuron system is designed by using dynamic neural networks which have model input which includes sequential feature vector set from the behaviors from the target object and actor and produce results as a form of motor data which can be used to perform the corresponding intentional action through the imitative learning and estimation procedures of the proposed computational model. The intention recognition framework is designed by a system which has a model input from KINECT sensor and has a model output by calculating the corresponding motor data within a virtual robot simulation environment on the basis of intention-related scenario with the limited experimental space and specified target object.