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Internal Changes and Countermeasure for Performance Improvement by Separation of Prescribing and Dispensing Practice in Health Center (의약분업(醫藥分業) 실시(實施)에 따른 보건소(保健所)의 내부변화(內部變化)와 업무개선방안(業務改善方案))

  • Jeong, Myeong-Sun;Kam, Sin;Kim, Tae-Woong
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.19-35
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the internal changes and the countermeasure for performance improvement by Separation of Prescribing and Dispensing Practice (SPDP) in Health Center. Data were collected from two sources: Performance report before and after SPDP of 25 Health Centers in Kyongsangbuk-do and 6 Health Centers in Daegu-City and self-administerd questionnaire survey of 221 officials at health center. The results of this study were summarized as follows: Twenty-four health centers(77.4%) of 31 health centers took convenience measures for medical treatment of citizens and convenience measures were getting map of pharmacy, improvement of health center interior, introduction of order communication system in order. After the SPDP in health centers, 19.4% of health centers increased doctors and 25.8% decreased pharmacists. 58.1% of health centers showed that number of medical treatments were decreased. 96.4%, 80.6% 80.6% 96.7% of health centers showed that number of prescriptions, total medical treatment expenses, amounts paid by the insureds and the expenses to purchase drugs, respectively, were decreased. More than fifty percent(54.2%) of health centers responded that the relative importance of health works increased compared to medical treatments after the SPDP, and number of patients decreased compared to those in before the SPDP. And there was a drastic reduction in number of prescriptions, total medical treatment expenses, amounts paid by insureds, the expenses to purchase drugs after the SPDP. Above fifty percent(57.6%) of officers at health center responded that the function of medical treatment should be reduced after the SPDP. Fields requested improvement in health centers were 'development of heath works contents'(62.4%), 'rearrangement of health center personnel'(51.6%), 'priority setting for health works'(48.4%), 'restructuring the organization'(36.2%), 'quality impro­vement for medical services'(32.1%), 'replaning the budgets'(23.1%) in order. And to better the image of health centers, health center officers replied that 'health information management'(60.7%), 'public relations for health center'(15.8%), 'kindness of health center officers'(15.3%) were necessary in order. Health center officers suggested that 'vaccination program', 'health promotion', 'maternal and children health', 'communicable disease management', 'community health planning' were relatively important works, in order, performed by health center after SPDP. In the future, medical services in health centers should be cut down with a momentum of the SPDP so that health centers might reestablish their functions and roles as public health organizations, but quality of medical services must be improved. Also health centers should pay attention to residents for improving health through 'vaccination program', 'health promotion', 'mother-children health', 'acute and chronic communicable disease management', 'community health planning', 'oral health', 'chronic degenerative disease management', etc. And there should be a differentiation of relative importance between health promotion services and medical treatment services by character of areas(metropolitan, city, county).

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A Study of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Relative to Maternal and Child Health Among Women Residing in Apartments at Yonsei Community Health Area (연세지역 아파트 주민의 모자보건에 관한 실태조사)

  • Yu, Seung-Hum;Chung, Young-Sook;Lee, Kyung-Ja;Kim, Kwang-Jong
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 1971
  • A study of the knowledge, attitude and practices about the maternal and child health of 305 married women residing in apartments at the Yonsei Community Health area was conducted during the period from November to December 1970 using designed questionnaire with well trained interviewers. The results and findings obtained from the study are summarized as follows: A. Pregnancy and Birth Questions were asked about their last child. 1. 16.4% of the women were pregnant. 2. Among 281 women who had experienced delivery, 48.0% were assisted by doctor or midwisves for their last delivery, while the rest of women delivered their last baby at home without any professional's assistance. The higher the level of education or the greater exposure to mass communication, the more the deliveries were assisted by doctors or midwives. Those women who were born and raised in cities had more deliveries assisted by doctors and midwives than those who were not. 3. Kinds of delivery sheets used. Among 141 cases of home delivery 68% used cement bag paper or vinyl sheets. Three% used nothing and remained used unsterile materials. 4. Among 141 cases of home delivery, 70.2% used scissors. The rest of them used other methods. 5. 47.3% of the women had a rest for one month or more after birth. The higher the level of education, the longer the period of rest was observed. 6. 52.4% of the women fed the colostrum to their babies. This was not related to the mother's education. 7 About half(42.9%) of the women had poor knowledge about a proper diet for the pre and post natal period. B. Child Health 1. Knowledge and practice regarding to the immunization for their children: Most of the women (93.2%) could name at least one kind of immunization. 20.3% could name 6 kinds of immunization. Mothers education level did not influence their ability to name immunizations. 85.2% of children had been immunized at least once. 2. Morbidity of last born children: 48.1% of their last born children were found to have been sick during the last year. Less than half(41.5%) of the sick children were seen by doctor. 3. Counselling at well baby clinic: Most of the women(76.5%) had no counselling for their children. Registration rate at the well baby clinic at the Severance Hospital was 13.2%. 45.9% wanted to visit to the well baby clinic at the Severance Hospital. 4. Weaning Period: 44.6% said that the beginning of the weaning for their last born children was from 6 months to twelve months of age. The most important reason of weaning was the health of both mothers and children. 5. Knowledge and Practice regarding birth and death Registration: 64.6% of the women could name correctly the Ku-office as the place for the registration. Only 29.2% registered the birth of their last born children within 14 days. C. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding to family planning Most: of the women accepted the idea of family planning. 97.7% could name at least one contraceptive method. 35.4% were found to be current users of contraceptive methods. The ideal number of children was 3.1 in average.

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A Preliminary Study on Setting Philosophy and Curriculum Development in Nursing Education (간호교육 철학정립 및 교육과정 개발을 위한 기초조사)

  • 정연강;김윤회;양광희;한경자;한상임
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.162-188
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    • 1988
  • The purpose of this study is to guide the direction of the Korean nursing education to analysize ⑴ the philosophy and objectives ⑵ curriculum, and ⑶ educational environment. This analysis is based on the data from 50 nursing schools (14 4-year colleges and 35 3-year colleges) The survey was conducted from Dec. 1986 through Jan. 1987 by mail. 1) Educational philosophy and objectives 10 4-year colleges and 8 3-year college program have curricular philosoph. Most popular curricular philosophies are human beings, health, nursing, nursology, nursing education, nurses role in the present and in the future. 10 nursing schools mentioned that human being is the subject to interact with : environment physically, mentally and socially. 2 schools mentioned that health is the state of functioning well physically, mentally and socially. 13 schools mentioned that the nursing is the dynamic act to maintain and to promote the highest possible level of health. 4 schools mentioned that the nursology is an applied science. 4 schools mentioned that nursing education is the process to induce the behavioural changes based on the individual ability. There is different opinion about the nurses' role between 4-year college and 3-year college. In the responses from 4-year colleges they focus on the leadership in effective changes, self-regulating and self-determining responsibilities, applying the new technology, continuing education, and participation in research to further nursing knowledge. In the responses from 3-year colleges, they focus on the education in college, primary health care nursing, direct care provider and public health education. Among 50 respondents 40 schools have educational goals which can be divided into two categories. One is to establish the moral and the other is to develop the professionalism. 2) Curriculm The analsis of curriculum is only based on the data from the 4-year colleges because the most of 3-year colleges follow the curriculum guideline set by the Ministry of Education. a) Comparison of the credits in cultural subject and in nursing major. The average required credit for graduation is 154.6 and the median credit is the range of 140-149. The average credit of cultural subjects is 43.4. In detail, the average number of credit of required course and elective courses are 24.1 and 19.3 respectively. The average credit for major subject is 111.2. In detail, the average credit for required courses and electives course are 100.9 and 10.4 respectively. In 5 colleges, students are offered even on elective course b) Comparison of the credit by class. The average earned credits are as follows : 41.1 in freshman, 400 in sophormore 38.3 in junior and 32.4 in senior. Cultural subjects are studied in early phases. c) Comparison of the compulsory and elective cultural subject by institute. The range of credit is 7-43 in compulsory cultural subjects and there are lot of differences among institutions. While all respondents require liberal arts as compulsary subjects, few respondents lists social science, natural science and behavioral science as required subjects. Social science-related subjects are frequently chosen as cultural subjects d) Distribution of creditsin cultural subjects by institute. The liberal art subjects are taught in 20 institute. English and physical education courses are taught in all instituions. The social science subjects are taught in 15 colleges and the basic Psycology and the Basic sociology are the most popular subjects. The natural science subjects are taught in 7 colleges and Biology and Chemistry are the most popular subjects among them. e) Distribution of credits in major basic courses by institute. Most of the institutes select Anatomy, Microbiology, Physiology, biochemistry and Pathology as basic major courses. f) Comparison of the required and elective courses for nursing major by institutions. Subjects and credit ranges in major are varing by institute. More than half of the respondents select the following subjects as required major subjects. (1) Adults Health Nursing and Practice (19.5 credits) (2) Mother and Child Care and Practice (8.9 credits) (3) Community Health Care and Practice (8.5 credits) (4) Psychiatric Nursing Care and Practice (8.1 credits) (5) Nursing Management and Practice (3.9 credits) (6) Fundamental of Nursing, Nursing Research and Health Assessment and Practice. Three institutions select Introduction to nursing, Rehabilitation Nursing, School Nursing, Public Health Nursing, Nursing English, Communication, Human Development as electives in nursing major. 3) Educational environment a) Nursing institution There are forty-three 3-year colleges and seventeen 4-year colleges and 81.4% of which are private b) Number of students and faculty 19.2% of the students are in 4-year colleges and 80.8% of the students are in 3-year colleges. In 4-year colleges, the number of nursing faculty members is in the other of assistant professor, instructor and professor. In 3-year colleges, the orderiis lecturer, associate professor, full time instructor and assistant professor. In 4-year colleges, 18.8 students are allocated per nursing faculty and in 3-year colleges, 33.1 students are allocated per nursing faculty. c) Clinical practices 66.7% of the 4-year colleges practice over 1201 hours in clinic and 28.5% of 3-year colleges practice over 1201 hours in clinic. In 4-year colleges, 11.5 students are allocated per nursing faculty and in 3-year colleges,17 students are allocated per nursing faculty The survey shows no difference in the procedure between 4-year colleges and 3-year colleges but 3-year colleges choose the more variety practicing site such as special hospital and community health clinic. d) Audiovisual facilities The survey shows a lot of difference in audiovisual facilities among institution and 3-year colleges are less equipped than 4-year colleges.

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A Survey on the Dietary Behavior of High School Students -About Regularity of Meal and Number of Meal Per Day- (남녀 고등학생의 식생활태도에 관한 조사 -식사의 규칙성과 1일 식사횟수에 대하여-)

  • Kim, Geum-Ran;Kim, Mi-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.183-195
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate dietary behavior patterns of high school students. As for regularity of meal, female students were significantly more regular than those of the male students in a day. They answered 'between 4th and 6th grades in elementary school' as 'the time for formation about number of meal intake'. As for a highly influential meal, males were higher answered 'lunch (41.0%)' while females were higher answered 'breakfast (39.8%)'. About 'number of meals per day by the grade', they ate 3 times per day mostly. As for the time for formation about number of meal intake: 'before 4th to 6th in elementary school'> 'before elementary school'. In the result of regularity of meal and general characteristics, a family of 5 was higher in regularity and those with pocket money showed lower regularity in meal. As for the person who prepares a meal, mothers prepared meals regularly. Also, higher parents age and education level resulted in more regularity in meals. In number of meals per day and general characteristics, they were eating 3 times; moreover, this trend was evident as parents' age and education level and the household income was higher. Students answered generally regularity in meal in family where parents' jobs were administrative assistant (father job (56.9%)) and housewife (mother (56.9%). In the formation time of meal intake number and general characteristics, they answered order 'middle school'> 'before elementary school'. A highly influential meal, they answered as the highest 'lunch' (37.6%). This study may provide information on dietary behavior of high school students, suggesting that nutrition education or counseling can improve food habits and develop positive behavior.

Growth and Survival by the Breeding Method of Early Young Spats of the Hard Clam, Meretrix petechiails (LAMARCK) (말백합, Meretrix petechiails (LAMARCK) 초기치패의 사육방법별 성장 및 생존)

  • Kim, Byeong-Hak;Cho, Kee-Chae;Jee, Young-Ju;Byun, Soon-Gyu;Kim, Min-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2011
  • To establish technical development for artificial seed production, growth and survival for early young spats of the hard clam, Meretrix petechialis, were investigated by breeding methods. Adult clams were collected at Hasa-ri, Baeksu-eup, Yeonggwang-gun, Jeollanam-do on July 13, 2010, and then transported to the indoor aquarium at the laboratory. Eggs which were taken from mother clams, were inseminated, and after they were fertilized in the aquarium, 60 million bottom-clinging spats ($198{\pm}12{\mu}m$ in shell length) were produced and bred. The breeding experiments were carried out from July 16 to October 4, 2010 for 80 days. The methods of sand box, sand bottom circulation filter, inclosing net, floor were used for the breeding experiments, and the experimental condition of sea water temperature for larvae were at 25, 28, 31, $34^{\circ}C$. Four marine cultured food organisms were used for this study as follows: Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Tetraselmis tetrathele. According to the experimental conditions, experimental groups of the spats in the early stage were investigated the growth rate and the survival. As the result, the method of the inclosing net section was the fastest (grew up to $2.64{\pm}0.59{\mu}m$ in shell length), followed by sandbox ($2.59{\pm}0.64{\mu}m$, bottom circulating filter ($2.56{\pm}0.52{\mu}m$), and floor ($2.52{\pm}0.56{\mu}m$). The survival was the highest in the experimental condition of sandbox (35.9%), followed by floor (34.6%), bottom circulating filter (29.5%), and inclosing net (9.3%). Eexperimental condition of water temperature of $34^{\circ}C$ showed the fastest growth rate (grew up to $2.70{\pm}0.76{\mu}m$ in shell length), and showed the latest growth rate (grew up to $2.45{\pm}0.41{\mu}m$ in shell length) at $25^{\circ}C$. The survival (%) was the highest under the water temperature conditions at $31^{\circ}C$, and showed the lowest (14.2%) at $34.^{\circ}C$. The growth rate of the experimental group fed the mixture live food was the fastest with shell length $2.52{\pm}0.66{\mu}m$, and that of experimental group fed P. tricornutum showed the latest (grew up to $2.29{\pm}0.43{\mu}m$ in shell length). The survival was the highest (36.9%) under the experiment condition fed mixture live food and experimental group fed T. tetrathele showed the lowest rate (16.2%).

Study on Medical Records In ${\ulcorner}$the Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms${\lrcorner}$ ("삼국사기(三國史記)"에 기록된 의약내용(醫藥內容) 분석)

  • Shin, Soon-Shik;Choi, Hwan-Soo
    • Journal of The Association for Neo Medicine
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.35-54
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    • 1997
  • We tried to observe the features of ancient medical practice by analysing the records related to medicine in the book, ${\ulcorner}$the Historical Records of the Three Kingdom${\lrcorner}$ of which content includes the features of medicine in mythology, plague, delivery of twins, drugs, medical system, shamanism, constitutional medicine, psychiatry, forensic medicine, deformity, a spa, medical phrase, health and welfare work, religion, death. physiological anatomy, Taoist medicine, acupuncture, the occult af of transformation and etc. Our initial concern was about where to draw line as of medical field and we defined medicine in more broad meaning. The book ${\ulcorner}$the Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms${\lrcorner}$ describes the world of mythology by way of medicine which is not clearly a conventional one. There appears records of birth of multiple offsprings 7 times in which cases are of triplets or more. Delivering multiple offsprings were rare phenomenon though such fertility was highly admired. This shows one aspect of ancient country having more population meant more power of the nation. Of those medical records conveyed in that book includes stories of childbirth such as giving birth to a son after praying, giving birth to Kim Yoo-shin after 20 months after mother's dream of conception, and a song longing for getting a laudable child. Plagues were prevalent throughout winter to spring season and one can observe various symptoms of plagues in the record. Of these epidemic diseases, cold type might have been more common than the heat one. Appearance of epidemic diseases frequently coincided with that of natural disasters that this suggests a linkage between plague and underlying doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors. There exists only a few names of diseases such as epidemic disease, wind disease, and syndrome characterized by dyspnea. Otherwise there appeared only afflictions that were not specified therefore it remains cluless to keep track of certain diseases of prevalence. Since this ${\ulcorner}$Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms'${\lrcorner}$ wasn't any sort of medical book, words and terms used were not technical kind and most were the ones used generally among lay people. Therefore any mechanisms of the diseases were hardly mentioned. Some of medicinal substances such as Calculus Bovis, Radix Ginseng, Gaboderma Luciderm, magnetitum were also in use in those days. 53 kinds of dietary supplies appears in the records and some of these might have been used as medicinal purpose. Records concerning dicipline of one's body includes activities such as hunting, archery, horseback riding etc. In Shilla dynasty there were positions such as professor of medicine, Naekongbong(內供奉), Kongbong's doctor(供奉醫師), Kongbong's diviner(供奉卜師). As an educational facility, medical school was built at the first year of King Hyoso's reign and it's curricula included various subjects as ${\ulcorner}$Shin Nong's Herbal classic${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Kabeul classic of acupuncture and moxbustion${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$The Plain Questions of the Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Classic of Acupuncturer${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$The Pulse Classic${\lrcorner}$, ${\ulcorner}$Classic of Channels and Acupuncture Points${\lrcorner}$ and ${\ulcorner}$Difficult Classic${\lrcorner}$. There were 2 medical professors who were in charge of education. To establish pharmacopoeia, 2 Shaji(舍知), 6 Sha(史), 2 Jongshaji(從舍知) were appointed. In Baekje dynasty, Department of Herb was maintained. Doing praying for the sake of health, doing phrenology also can be extended to medical arena. Those who survived over 100 years of age appear 3 times in the record, while 98 appears once. The earliest psychiatrist Nokjin differentiated symptoms to apply either therapies using acupuncture and drug or psychotherapy. There appears a case of rape, a case of burying alive with the dead, 8 cases of suicide that can characterize a prototype of forensic medicine. Deformity-related records include phrases as follow: 'there seems protrudent bone behind the head', 'a body which has two heads, two trunks, four arms.', 'a body equipped with two heads' In those times spa can be said to be used as a place for he리ing, convalescence, and relaxation seeing the records describing a person pretended illness and went to spa to enjoy with his friends. Priest doctors and millitary surgeons were in charge of the medical sevice in the period of the Three Kingdoms by the record written by Mookhoja(墨胡子) and Hoonkyeom(訓謙). Poor diet and regimen makes people more vulnerable to diseases. So there existed charity services for those poor people who couldn't live with one's own capacity such as single parents, orphans, the aged people no one to take care and those who are ill. The cause of affliction was frequently coined with human relation. There appeared the phenomenon of releasing prisoners and allowing people to become priests at the time of king's suffering. Besides, as a healing procedure, sutra-chanting was peformed. There appears 10 cases of death related records which varies from death by drowning, or by freezing, death from animals, death from war, death from wightloss and killing oneself at the moment of spouse's death and etc. There also exist certain records which suggest the knowledge of physiology and anatomy in those times. Since the taoist books such as ${\ulcorner}$Book of the Way and Its Power(老子道德經)${\lrcorner}$ were introduced in the period of Three Kingdoms, it can be considered that medicine was also influenced by taoism. Records of higher level of acupuncture, records which links the medicine and occult art of transformation existed. Although limited, we could figure out the medical state of ancient society.

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A student on the Nursing Needs and Satisfaction of Primipara During the Early Postpartum Period (산욕기 초산모의 간호요구와 만족도에 관한 연구)

  • Chun, Young-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.5-27
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to identify the difference between nursing needs and levels of satisfaction of primiparae during the early postpartum period. The goal of the study was to obtain data needed to develope maternal education programs and to improve the nursing quality for primipara. The subjects were 111 primiparae who had normal delivery at 2 general hospitals in the Seoul area. The data was gathered using an 81 items questionnaire which was developed by the researcher from Nov. 30, 1995 to Feb. 5, 1996. Results found are as follows : 1. The characteristics of subjects : The majority of subjects were aged 26-30yrs(60.4%), high school graduated(49.5%), jobless(52.3%), had no religion(49.5%), no antenatal(74.5%), and postnatal education on self and infant care(55.9%). A large proportion of primiparae intended to feed breast milk(49.5%) but in fact only 7.2% fed breast milk while in the hospital. Many subjects perceived that they had reasonable self confidence about self care(46.8%), and infant care(36%). 2. The level of nursing needs of overall nursing care was relatively high(Mn 3.98) but the level of satisfaction was of average level(Mn 3.09). Therefore, difference between the level of nursing needs and satisfaction was significant(p=0.0001). 3. The nursing needs by category of nursing care the highest need was on the education of infant care(4.29), the lowest was on physical care(3.80). The level of satisfaction was higher on environmental care(3.40) and physical care(3.32). But the category that showed the lowest satisfaction was education of infant care(2.67). Hence, difference of categories between the level of nursing needs and satisfaction was significant(p=0.0001). 4. Among items of physical care, observation of primiparas' conditions(4.21), accurate medication and treatment(4.18), care of breast engorgement(4.07) and control of postpartal hemorrage(4.01) showed high nursing needs. On the other hand, only the level of satisfaction was higher on accurate medication and treatment(3.82). The rest of items revealed only average level of satisfactions. Difference of items between the level of nursing needs and satisfaction was significant(p=0.0001) except items of dietary care. 5. Among items of psychological care, 8 items of nursing needs were high(3.72-4.29), expecially detailed explanation on which mothers want to know(4.29), treatment and nursing care they receive(4.23), kind and faithful care(4.22), early contacts with their baby(4.20), and adequate draping during the care and treatment(4.18). Among items of psychological care higher satisfactions were shown on items of kind and faithful care(3.80), personal treatment(3.70), and detailed explanation to mothers, but the least satisfied items was early contact with baby(2.13). Difference between the level of nursing needs and satisfaction was significant(p=0.0001). 6. Among items of environmental care, the highest level of need and satisfaction was on the items of neat bedding and pajamas(3.54). The difference was significant (p=0.0001). 7. Among the items of educational needs on self care, all of 22 items revealed higher educational needs(3.50-4.33) but the levels of satisfaction varied with a range of 2.63-3.42. Among the items the satisfactions were high on items of breast care including massages(3.42), perineal care(3.36) and expression of breast milk(3.32). Less satisfied items were drugs not be taken by breast milk feeder(2.63), maintenance of breast figure(2.76) and postpartum exercise(2.80) and so on. The difference was significant(p=0.0001). maintain 8. Among the items of educational needs on infant care, 19 items revealed higher educational needs(3.28-4.54). And the highest need were on the 3 items of normal growth and development of infant, safety and emergency care, symptoms of sick(4.45) and the meaning of crying of the baby(4.52). The level of satisfaction among items of education of infant care ranged from 2.47 to 3.16. Most satisfied items were buriping(3.16), bathing(3.11) and diapering(3.09). The items of which the mother's needs were high revealed the lowest satisfaction level. The difference was significant (p=0.0001). 9. Relationship between nursing needs and levels of satisfaction among primiparae of different characteristics were as follows : 1) Nursing needs of physical and psychological areas were significantly different among different age levels but no relationship was found on other categories regardless of the level of satisfaction. 2) With regard to different levels of education, some relationship was found in nursing needs of psychological area(p=0.007), educational needs on infant care(p=0.04) and environmental care(p=0.01). Also, the difference of satisfaction level was significant. 3) Working mothers had higher nursing needs and were more satisfied on items of physical care(p=0.05), education on self care and infant care. Difference were significant between nursing needs and level of satisfaction. 4) With regards to different religion a moderate relation was found between nursing needs of environmental care infant care education but no relationship was found on levels of satisfaction. 5) With regards to antenatal education, the mothers who have had no antenatal education revealed higher nursing needs on physical care but those who had antenatal education were more satisfied with education on self care and infant care. The difference was significant. (p=0.0001). 6) With regards to postpartum education, the mothers who have had some sort of postpartum education revealed higher nursing needs on physical and self care. And they were more satisfied with nursing of every category except infant care than mothers who had not any postpartum education. Differences was significant between the nursing needs and levels of satisfaction.(p=0.0001). 7) With regards to breast feeding experience during the hospitalization, those who had no experience of breast feeding revealed higher nursing needs on physical care in contrast to breast feeders, who had higher educational needs on infant care. And breast feeder were more satisfied with all categories. Differences was significant(p=0.0001). 8) With regards to perception of self confidence on self care and infant care, no relationship was found on nursing needs and level of satisfaction in every category of nursing.

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The Determinants of Health Promoting Behavior in Students on Dept of Dental Hygiene (치위생과 학생의 건강증진행위 결정요인에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Mi;Lee, Hyang-Nim
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2004
  • This study was examed in order to determine influential factors of health promoting behavior on Dental Hygiene students the health promoting behavior. So examed students' health promoting behavior, self-efficacy, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, a health locus of control, self-esteem. A the result of this study were as follows: (1) Performance mean score in health promoting behavior was 2.60, self achievement score was 2.89, health responsibility score was 2.12, exercise score was 1.89, nutrition score was 2.45, interpersonal support score was 2.97, stress management score was 2.63. Performance mean score in self-efficacy was 2.56, perceived benefit was 3.45, perceived barrier was 2.32, a health locus of control score was 3.04, self-esteem score was 2.81. (2) Performance in health promoting behavior was significant differences in year, religion, economical level, experience of disease on family, perceived health status(p<0.05), perceived oral health status(p<0.001). Performance in self achievement was significant differences in year, economical level, perceived health status(p<0.05), religion, perceived oral health status(p<0.01). Performance in health responsibility was significant differences in year, religion, economical level, BMI(p<0.05) and experience of disease on myself, perceived oral health status(p<0.001). Performance in excercise was significant differences in mother's educational level, experience of disease on family, perceived oral health status(p<0.05) and nutrient was economical level, perceived oral health status(p<0.01), perceived health status(p<0.05). Performance in interpersonal relations was only significant differences perceived oral health status(p<0.05) and in stress management was year, perceived oral health status(p<0.05). (3) Performance in self-efficacy was significant differences in economical level, health status(P<0.05) and perceived health status, perceived oral health status(p<0.01). Performance in perceived benefit was significant differences in religion(p<0.05). Performance in perceived barrier was significant differences economical level, perceived oral health status(p<0.05), experience of disease on myself(p<0.01). Performance in a health locus of control was significant differences year(p<0.05), performance in a perceived oral health status(p<0.01). (4) Performance in health promoting behavior was significantly correlated with self-efficacy(r=0.376), perceived benefit(r=0.188), perceived barrier(r=-0.155), a health locus of control (r=0.064), self-esteem(r=0.318). (5) Self-efficacy was the highest factor predicting health promoting behavior.

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Clinical Features and the Natural History of Dietary Protein Induced Proctocolitis: a Study on the Elimination of Offending Foods from the Maternal Diet (식품 단백질 유발성 직결장염의 임상 소견과 식이 조절에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Seon Yun;Park, Moon Ho;Choi, Won Joung;Kang, Una;Oh, Hoon Kyu;Kam, Sin;Hwang, Jin-Bok
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and natural history of dietary protein induced proctocolitis (DPIPC) and to detect the causative foods of DPIPC, and to evaluate the effect of elimination of the foods on the course of the disease. Methods: Between March 2003 and July 2004, data from 30 consecutive patients with DPIPC who were followed for over 6 months, was reviewed. The diagnostic criterion used for DPIPC was an increase in the number of eosinophils in the lamina propria (${\geq}60per$ 10 high-power fields). In breast feeding mothers, 5 highly allergenic foods were eliminated from the maternal diet for 7 days, namely, allergenic food groups such as dairy products, eggs, nuts and soybean, fish and shellfish, and wheat and buckwheat. We observed the disappearance or appearance of hematochezia after elimination or challenge with the offending foods. Results: Before diagnosis infants were breast-fed (93.3%) or formula-fed (6.7%). Mean age at symptom onset was $11.5{\pm}5.1$ (5~24) weeks, and mean age at diagnosis was $17.8{\pm}9.5$ (8~56) weeks. Duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was $6.3{\pm}6.7$ (0~36) weeks. Mean peripheral blood eosinophil count was $478{\pm}320$ (40~1,790)/$mm^3$ and eosinophilia (> $250/mm^3$) was observedin 90.0% of patients. None of patients were found to have an increased serum IgE level. Of 15 patients that received sigmoidoscopy, nodular hyperplasia with erosion was observed in 93.3%. Of 27 patients whose mother ate the diet eliminated the 5 food groups, hematochezia diappeared in 74.1% of patients. Offending foods were identified as dairy products (37.5%), wheat and buckwheat (27.5%), fish and shellfish (20.0%), nuts and soybean (7.5%) and eggs (7.5%). A free maternal diet without patient's clinical symptoms was achieved at $29.4{\pm}8.7$ (9~44) weeks of patient's age, and a free baby diet without blood in stools was achieved at $37.5{\pm}9.7$ (12~56) weeks of age. Conclusion: DPIPC commonly occurs in exclusively breast-fed babies. Elimination of the above-mentioned 5 hyper-allergenic food groups from the maternal diet for 7days enables the detection of the offending foods. DPIPC is a transient disorder and 96.0% of patients can tolerate the offending foods at 12 months of age.

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The Dietary Habits and Perception of Vegetable Intake of Elementary Students in Gwangju and Jeonnam (광주·전남 일부지역 초등학생의 채소류 섭취에 대한 인식)

  • Go, Young-Sook;Jeon, Eun-Raye;Jung, Lan-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.223-233
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the dietary habits and perception of vegetable intake of elementary students in Gwangju and Jeonnam Gokseong county. Data collection was conducted from 5th and 6th grade students of elementary schools in Gwangju and Jeonnam Gokseong county using a structured questionnaire survey. The SPSS program was used for statistics processing and data analysis. The chi-square test was also conducted. In terms of dietary intake habits, female students consumed their meals slower than male students. Information on dietary habits and nutrition was commonly obtained from family, including the mother or father who commonly prepared meals at home. Snacks were commonly consumed less than twice daily, with the Gwangju area having a higher frequency of snacks than the Jeonnam area. Elementary students indicated that vegetables were their least favorite food, with female students having a higher interest in vegetables than male students. The pattern and perception of vegetable intake came when the students (that did not eat vegetables) were lectured by their parents on the nutritive value of vegetables. Most students understood the important nutritional ingredients of vegetables. In the case of an interest in vegetables, the Gwangju area showed significantly more comprehension than the Jeonnam area on the definition and role of dietary fiber, the dental benefits of dietary fiber, and the identification of the environment-friendly certification mark.