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An investigation of members of the tribe Ceramieae (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) occurring on both the Mediterranean and Atlantic shores of Morocco

  • Hassoun, Mustapha;Wynne, Michael J.;Moussa, Hanaa;Salhi, Ghizlane;Zbakh, Hanaa;Riadi, Hassane;Kazzaz, Mohamed
    • ALGAE
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.243-267
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    • 2018
  • A taxonomic study was recently carried out on species of the tribe Ceramieae (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta), following an evaluation of previously published records and on the basis of field and laboratory investigations. In Morocco, the tribe is represented by 5 genera: Ceramium (21 taxa at specific and infraspecific levels), Gayliella (3 species), and by one species each of Centroceras, Corallophila and Microcladia. Among these, there are five new records for Morocco: Centroceras gasparrinii, Ceramium botryocarpum, Ceramium cingulatum, Ceramium echionotum var. mediterraneum, and Gayliella taylorii. The report of C. echionotum var. mediterraneum from the Atlantic coast of Morocco is one of the rare records from outside the Mediterranean. Ceramium ciliatum var. robustum and Ceramium codii are recorded for the first time from the Atlantic coast of Morocco. Centroceras clavulatum is excluded from Moroccan flora having been misidentified for C. gasparrinii. This paper summarizes the taxonomic characters of these species with images and presents a key for their identification. This report is the first detailed record of the species of the tribe Ceramieae for Morocco. As a result, the total number of taxa at both specific and infraspecific levels accepted in the tribe Ceramieae for Morocco, under current taxonomy and nomenclature, is 27.

Direct Costs of Cervical Cancer Management in Morocco

  • Berraho, Mohamed;Najdi, Adil;Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone;Salamon, Roger;Nejjari, Chakib
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3159-3163
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    • 2012
  • Background: For cervical cancer the epidemiological profile is poorly known in Morocco and no data is available concerning the direct medical costs. The purpose of this work is to estimate the direct cost of medical management of invasive cervical cancer during the first year after diagnosis in Morocco. Methods: The estimation of direct costs of medical management of invasive cervical cancer during the first year after diagnosis in Morocco is based on the estimation of individual cost in each stage which covers diagnosis, treatment and follow-up during first year. The cost was estimated per patient and whole cycle-set using the costs for each drug and procedure as indicated by the Moroccan National Agency for Health Insurance. Extrapolation of the results to the whole country was used to calculate the total annual cost of cervical cancer treatments in Morocco. Results: Overall approximately 1,978 new cases of cervical cancer occur each year in Morocco. The majority (82.96%) of these cases were diagnosed at a late stage (stageII or more). The cost of one case of cervical cancer depends on stage of diagnosis, the lowest cost is $382 for stageCis followed by the cost of stageIA1 for young women (< 40 years) which is $2,952. The highest cost is for stageIV, which is $7,827. The total cost of cervical cancer care for one year after diagnosis is estimated at $13,589,360. The share allocated to treatment is the most important part of the global care budget with an annual sum of $13,027,609 whereas other cost components are represented as follows: $435,694 for annual follow-up activity and $126,057 for diagnosis and preclinical staging. Conclusion: This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of health facilities in Morocco.

Cervical Cancer in Morocco: Epidemiological Profile from Two Main Oncological Centers

  • Berraho, Mohamed;Bendahhou, Karima;Obtel, Majdouline;Zidouh, Ahmed;Benider, Abdellatif;Errihani, Hassan;Nejjari, Chakib
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3153-3157
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    • 2012
  • Background: In Morocco, the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer is not well established. The focus of the present study was both epidemiological and pathological characteristics. Methods: For all cases of cervical cancer treated between 2003 and 2007 in the National Institute of Oncology and the Oncology Department of the IbnRochd hospital (Casablanca), 900 cases were randomly selected. Results: The mean age was $52.1{\pm}11.8$ years. The most (90.5%) represented histological type was squamous cell carcinoma. For more than 57.0% cases the mean distance between patient's origin and center of treatment was greater than 100km. According to the FIGO classification, only 17.2% of patients were identified as being in early stages (0 and I). For 72.2% patients the follow-up did not exceed 2 years. At 1 year of following-up 55.8% of patients were alive and 43.4% were lost to following-up. Conclusion: Our study addressed the issue of the burden of cervical cancer in Morocco. The result provides a basis for decision-makers for the development of strategic measures to implement the fight against cervical cancer in Morocco.

Breast Cancer in Morocco: A Literature Review

  • Slaoui, Meriem;Razine, Rachid;Ibrahimi, Azeddine;Attaleb, Mohammed;El Mzibri, Mohammed;Amrani, Mariam
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1067-1074
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    • 2014
  • In Morocco, breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women and a major public health problem. Several Moroccan studies have focused on studying this disease, but more are needed, especially at the genetic and molecular levels. It is therefore interesting to establish the genetic and molecular profile of Moroccan patients with breast cancer. In this paper, we will highlight some pertinent hypotheses that may enhance breast cancer care in Moroccan patients. This review will give a precise description of breast cancer in Morocco and propose some new markers for detection and prediction of breast cancer prognosis.

First Data On Direct Costs of Lung Cancer Management in Morocco

  • Tachfouti, N.;Belkacemi, Y.;Raherison, C.;Bekkali, R.;Benider, A.;Nejjari, C.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1547-1551
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    • 2012
  • Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Its management has a significant economic impact on society. Despite a high incidence of cancer, so far, there is no national register for this disease in Morocco. The main goal of this report was to estimate the medical costs of lung cancer in our country. Methods: We first estimated the number of annual new cases according to stage of the disease on the basis of the Grand-Casablanca-Region Cancer Registry data. For each sub-group, the protocol of treatment was described taking into account the international guidelines, and an evaluation of individual costs during the first year following diagnosis was made. Extrapolation of the results to the whole country was used to calculate the total annual cost of treatments for lung cancer in Morocco. Results: Overall approximately 3,500 new cases of lung cancer occur each year in the country. Stages I and II account for only 4% of cases, while 96% are diagnosed at locally advanced or metastatic stages III and IV. The total medical cost of lung cancer in Morocco is estimated to be around USD 12 million. This cost represents approximately 1% of the global budget of the Health Department. According to AROME Guidelines, about 86% of the newly diagnosed lung cancer cases needed palliative treatment while 14% required curative intent therapy. The total cost of early and advanced stages lung cancer management during the first year were estimated to be 4,600 and 3,420 USD, respectively. Conclusion: This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of health facilities in Morocco. A substantial proportion of the burden of lung cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing tobacco control programs.

Recent advances in pharmacologic study of anticancer natural products from medicinal plants in Morocco

  • Bnouham, Mohamed
    • CELLMED
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.22.1-22.9
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study is to collate all available data on experiments reporting the antiproliferative, cytotoxic effects of plants and natural products in Morocco in the last two decades. A bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing recognized books and peer-reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases (Scirus, Embase, HighWire, MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, Ovid, ScienceDirect, SciELO, Google Scholar). We used medical subject heading terms and the words 'anticancer', 'antiproliferative', 'antineoplastic', 'antitumoral', 'cytotoxic', 'Morocco', to identify relevant articles. Moroccan plants with attributed anti-cancer properties studied as plant extracts that have been evaluated for cytotoxic effects, antitumoral effects, plants with active compounds tested on cancer cell lines, and plants with active compounds that have been assayed on animal models were chosen for this research. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental research conducted on medicinal plants, particularly those which show antiproliferative or cytotoxic activities alongside bioactive components. A total of 20 plant species belonging to 12 families have been identified as active or promising sources of phytochemicals with antiproliferative properties. The plant families, which cover all the species studied in this field, are Lamiaceae (7 species) and Asteraceae (4 species); the most studied species being Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) and Arisarum vulgare (Araceae), Thymus Genus (Labiateae) and Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae). Based on the search results, it is recommended to increase the number of experimental studies and to begin conducting clinical trials with Moroccan plants and their active compounds selected by in vitro and in vivo activities.

Mortality Attributable to Second Hand Smoking in Morocco: 2012 Results of a National Prevalence Based Study

  • Tachfouti, Nabil;Najdi, Adil;Lyoussi, Badiaa;Nejjari, Chakib
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2827-2832
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To estimate the number of deaths attributable to second hand smoking (SHS) in Morocco in 2012. Materials and Methods: prevalence based study focusing on mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and lung cancer among non-smokers aged 35 and over. Prevalence of SHS among never smokers was gathered from a national cross sectional survey on tobacco and population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated by applying PARs to mortality. The analyses were stratified by sex, age and area of exposure. Results: Rates for exposure to SHS among men aged 35-64 years ranged from 20.0% at home to 57.4% at work. Among non-smoking Moroccans aged 35 and over, 233 (IC: 147 - 246) deaths were attributable to exposure to SHS; 156 (IC: 100 - 221) in women and 77 (IC: 44 -125) in men. A total of 173 (122 - 222) deaths were estimated to have been caused by exposure only at home, 34 (9 - 76) by exposure only at the work place and 26 (15 - 58) by exposure both at home and work places. Exposure to SHS could be responsible for 182 (128 - 237) deaths from IHD and 51 (19 - 109) from lung cancer. Conclusions: These data confirm that SHS needs urgent attention in Morocco.

Realization of the Pulse Doppler Radar Signal Processor with an Expandable Feature using the Multi-DSP Based Morocco-2 Board (다중 DSP 구조의 Morocco-2 보드를 이용한 확장성을 갖는 펄스 도플러 레이다 신호처리기 구현)

  • 조명제;임중수
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.1147-1156
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, a new design architecture of radar signal processor in real time is proposed. It has been designed and implemented under the consideration to minimize the inter-processor communication overhead and to maintain the coherence in Doppler pulse domain and in range domain. Its structure can be easily reconfigured and reprogrammed in accordance with an addition of function algorithm or a modification of operational scenario. As we designed a task configuration for parallel processing from measures of computation time for function algorithms and transmission time for results by signal processing, data exchange between processors for performing of function algorithms could be fully removed. Morocco-2 board equipped ADSP-21060 processor of Analog Devices inc. and APEX-3.2 developed for SHARC DSP were used to construct the radar signal processor.

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Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Morocco: Comparison with Other Countries

  • Khalis, Mohamed;El Rhazi, Karima;Charaka, Hafida;Chajes, Veronique;Rinaldi, Sabina;Nejjari, Chakib;Romieu, Isabelle;Charbotel, Barbara
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.5211-5216
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. In Morocco, there have been few recent descriptive studies on female breast cancer. The aim of this study was to describe the latest available incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer among Moroccan women and to compare them with rates in other regional and Western countries. Methods: For this descriptive study, Moroccan incidence data were obtained from the most recent reports of the cancer registries of Casablanca and Rabat. Information on breast cancer incidence for different countries were obtained primarily from publicly available cancer registries and Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X. Mortality data were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results: The age-standardized incidence (World) rate of breast cancer in Moroccan women increased from 35.0 to 39.0 per 100,000 women between 2004 and 2008, showing an annual increase of 2.85 %. The highest incidence rates were registered in the age groups of 45-49, 50-54 and 55-59 years (106.1, 108.2 and 108.5 respectively). Sixty-nine percent of female breast cancer cases were diagnosed at stages II and III. In 2012, the estimated number of women who died of breast cancer in Morocco was 2,878. The crude, age-standardized (World) mortality rates were 17.3 and 18.0 per 100,000, respectively. Conclusion: Although the incidence of female breast cancer in Morocco is lower than in Western countries, evidence shows that the rate is rising. This increase of breast cancer incidence has been observed in parallel with changes in reproductive behavior and adoption of a Western lifestyle. Prevention policies need to be implemented.