• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mooring forces(or tension)

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Prediction on Mooring Tension & Motion Response Characteristics of a Floating Dock in Regular Waves (규칙파 중 플로팅 도크의 운동응답특성 및 계류장력 추정)

  • Oh, Young-Cheol;Gim, Ok-Sok;Ko, Jae-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.200-206
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    • 2013
  • The paper was investigated on the mooring forces(or tension) and motion response characteristics for a 8-point mooring floating dock in regular waves using a commercial code(AQWA). To achieve the aim of the research, a numerical simulation was adapted on an inner port environment condition, which the water depth is 10 meters, significant wave amplitude(1.05 m). wave period(3.85 sec), wind speed(20.21 m/s), wind and current direction ($90^{\circ}$), incident waves(${\chi}=180^{\circ}$, $135^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}$). The dimension of the numerical model is length(140 m), breadth(32 m), depth(14.6 m). The maximum length of a mooring line is 120m. We can expected that roll and pitch motions appeared in beam seas better than head sea. the mooring forces also indicated higher in bean seas than in head seas including wind forces.

Analysis of Motions and Moorings of a Berthed Ship (정박된 선박의 운동 및 계류력 분석)

  • Jo, Chul-Hee;Chung, Kwang-Sic
    • Proceedings of the Korea Committee for Ocean Resources and Engineering Conference
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    • pp.204-208
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    • 2002
  • Mooring is the operation of securing a ship to a wharf or quay by means of rapes or chains. A. moored ship need not necessarily be truly stationary. It may be free to rise and fall with the tick or the loading and unloading of cargo or to oscillate in response to the action of the environmental forces. In this respect a moored ship is restricted to a limited amount of movement within well-defined bounds. This study is intended to analyze the tension of mooring lines by a FEM program, as the current velocities and working directions are varied. The motion of a berthed ship is studied concerning with the wave periods and the direction. Also the behavior of the modeled vessel are investigated for a berthed condition.

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Anchor and Mooring Line Analysis in Cohesive Seafloor (해성점토지반에 관입된 앵커 및 닻줄의 변형해석)

  • Han Heui-Soo;Jeon Sung-Kon;Chang Dong-Hun;Chang Seo-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2006
  • An analytical solution method capable of determining the geometric configuration and developed tensile forces of mooring lines associated with fixed plate/pile or drag anchors has been developed. The solution method, satisfying complete equilibrium conditions, is capable of analyzing multi-segmented mooring lines that can consist of either chains, cables, or synthetic wires embedded in layered seafloor soils. The solution method utilizes a systematic iterative search method based on specific boundary conditions. This paper describes the principles associated with the development of the solution for the mooring line analysis. Comparisons of predictions with results from a series of field tests of mooring lines on various types of drag anchors are also described. Comparisons include the tension in anchor, the length of mooring line on the bottom, and the angle of mooring line at the water surface buoy. The results indicate that the analytical solution method is capable of predicting the behavior of mooring lines with high degree of accuracy.

Dynamic and structural responses of a submerged floating tunnel under extreme wave conditions

  • Jin, Chungkuk;Kim, MooHyun
    • Ocean Systems Engineering
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.413-433
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    • 2017
  • The dynamic and structural responses of a 1000-m long circular submerged floating tunnel (SFT) with both ends fixed under survival irregular-wave excitations are investigated. The floater-mooring nonlinear and elastic coupled dynamics are modeled by a time-domain numerical simulation program, OrcaFlex. Two configurations of mooring lines i.e., vertical mooring (VM) and inclined mooring (IM), and four different buoyancy-weight ratios (BWRs) are selected to compare their global performances. The result of modal analysis is included to investigate the role of the respective natural frequencies and elastic modes. The effects of various submergence depths are also checked. The envelopes of the maximum/minimum horizontal and vertical responses, accelerations, mooring tensions, and shear forces/bending moments of the entire SFT along the longitudinal direction are obtained. In addition, at the mid-section, the time series and the corresponding spectra of those parameters are also presented and analyzed. The pros and cons of the two mooring shapes and high or low BWR values are systematically analyzed and discussed. It is demonstrated that the time-domain numerical simulation of the real system including nonlinear hydro-elastic dynamics coupled with nonlinear mooring dynamics is a good method to determine various design parameters.

Numerical simulation of dynamic Interactions of an arctic spar with drifting level ice

  • Jang, H.K.;Kang, H.Y.;Kim, M.H.
    • Ocean Systems Engineering
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.345-362
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to develop the numerical method to estimate level ice impact load and investigate the dynamic interaction between an arctic Spar with sloped surface and drifting level ice. When the level ice approaches the downward sloped structure, the interaction can be decomposed into three sequential phases: the breaking phase, when ice contacts the structure and is bent by bending moment; the rotating phase, when the broken ice is submerged and rotated underneath the structure; and the sliding phase, when the submerged broken ice becomes parallel to the sloping surface causing buoyancy-induced fictional forces. In each phase, the analytical formulas are constructed to account for the relevant physics and the results are compared to other existing methods or standards. The time-dependent ice load is coupled with hull-riser-mooring coupled dynamic analysis program. Then, the fully coupled program is applied to a moored arctic Spar with sloped surface with drifting level ice. The occurrence of dynamic resonance between ice load and spar motion causing large mooring tension is demonstrated.

A Quasi-nonlinear Numerical Analysis Considering the Variable Membrane Tension of Vertical Membrane Breakwaters (연직 막체방파제의 변동 막체장력을 고려한 준 비선형 수치해석)

  • Chun, In-Suk;Kim, Sun-Sin;Park, Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.290-300
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    • 2009
  • The existing numerical methods on the vertical membrane breakwater have employed a linear analysis where the variable membrane tension occurring during membrane motions is assumed to be very negligible compared to the initial tension. In the present study, a quasi-nonlinear analysis is attempted such that the temporary tension of the membrane is substituted by the average tension for a wave period that is sought by an iterative calculation. The results showed that with the increase of the wave period the reflection coefficients appeared larger and the transmission coefficients smaller compared to the results of the linear analysis. The application of the quasi-nonlinear analysis also showed that the performance of the structure is closely dependent on the horizontal deformation of the membrane. In order to suppress the horizontal deformation, it may be required to take the larger initial tension of the membrane or to put additional mooring lines in the middle of the vertical faces of the membrane. But for theses methods to be effective, a largely sized surface float should be installed to secure enough buoyancy to support such downward forces.

Global performances of a semi-submersible 5MW wind-turbine including second-order wave-diffraction effects

  • Kim, H.C.;Kim, M.H.
    • Ocean Systems Engineering
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.139-160
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    • 2015
  • The global performance of the 5MW OC4 semisubmersible floating wind turbine in random waves was numerically simulated by using the turbine-floater-mooring fully coupled and time-domain dynamic analysis program FAST-CHARM3D. There have been many papers regarding floating offshore wind turbines but the effects of second-order wave-body interactions on their global performance have rarely been studied. The second-order wave forces are actually small compared to the first-order wave forces, but its effect cannot be ignored when the natural frequencies of a floating system are outside the wave-frequency range. In the case of semi-submersible platform, second-order difference-frequency wave-diffraction forces and moments become important since surge/sway and pitch/roll natural frequencies are lower than those of typical incident waves. The computational effort related to the full second-order diffraction calculation is typically very heavy, so in many cases, the simplified approach called Newman's approximation or first-order-wave-force-only are used. However, it needs to be justified against more complete solutions with full QTF (quadratic transfer function), which is a main subject of the present study. The numerically simulated results for the 5MW OC4 semisubmersible floating wind turbine by FAST-CHARM3D are also extensively compared with the DeepCWind model test results by Technip/NREL/UMaine. The predicted motions and mooring tensions for two white-noise input-wave spectra agree well against the measure values. In this paper, the numerical static-offset and free-decay tests are also conducted to verify the system stiffness, damping, and natural frequencies against the experimental results. They also agree well to verify that the dynamic system modeling is correct to the details. The performance of the simplified approaches instead of using the full QTF are also tested.

Structural and Layout Design Optimization of Ecosystem Control Structures(1) -Characteristics of Mooring Force and Motion Control of the Longline Type Scallop Culturing Facility- (생태계 제어 시설물의 설계 및 배치 최적화(1) -연승식 양식시설의 계류력 특성 및 동요저감에 관한 연구-)

  • RYU Cheong-Ro;KIM Hyeon-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.35-48
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    • 1995
  • To develop the optimal design method for the longline type scallop culturing facilities in the open sea numerical calculations and hydraulic model experiments are carried out for the stability and function optimization. Using the results for the motion and tension of the facilities, stable design concepts and effects of motion control system by vertical anchor and resistance discs art discussed. The results of this study that can be applied to the design are as follows: 1) Total external forces by design wave $(H_{1/3}\;=\;6,7\;m,\;T_{1/3}\;=\;12sec)$ at the coastal waters of Jumunjin for unit facility (one main line) are estimated to 5-20 tons, and required anchor weights are 10-40 tons in the case of 2-point mooring system. Though the present facilities are stable to steady currents, but is unstable to the extreme wave condition of return period of 10 years. 2) The dimensions and depth of array systems must be designed considering the ecological environments as well as the physical characteristics including the mooring and holding forces that are proportional to the length and relative depth of main line to wave length, and the number of buoys and nets. 3) Oscillation of the facility is influenced by water particle motion and the weight of hanging net, and is excited at both edge, especially at the lee side. To reduce the motion of the nets, the vertical anchoring system and the resistence disc method are recommended by the experimental results, 4) The damage of rope near the anchor by abrasion should be prevented using the ring-type connection parts or anchor chains.

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Erection Simulation Considering Interaction between a Floating Crane and a Heavy Cargo (해상크레인과 대형 중량물의 상호 작용을 고려한 탑재 시뮬레이션)

  • Cha, Ju-Hwan;Lee, Kyu-Yeul
    • Korean Journal of Computational Design and Engineering
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.70-83
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    • 2010
  • Recently, floating cranes are mainly used to erect heavy blocks or cargos for constructing ships in many shipyards. It is important to estimate the dynamic motion of the heavy cargo suspended by a floating crane and the tension of the wire ropes between the floating crane and the heavy cargo. In this paper, the coupled dynamic equations of motion are set up for considering the 6 degree-of-freedom floating crane and the 6-degrees-of-freedom heavy cargo based on multibody system dynamics. Depending on the cargo weight, the motion of the floating crane would be changed to nonlinear state. The nonlinear terms in the equation of motion are considered. In addition, the nonlinear hydrostatic force, the linear hydrodynamic force, wire rope force, mooring force and gravity force are considered as the external forces. As the result of this paper, we analyze the engineering effect for erecting the heavy cargo by using the floating crane.

Behavior Analysis and Control of a Moored Training Ship in an Exclusive Wharf (전용부두 계류중인 실습선의 선체거동 해석 및 제어에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Ik-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2017
  • Recently, gusts, typhoon and tsunamis have been occurring more frequently around the world. In such an emergency situation, a moored vessel can be used to predict and analyze other vessel behavior, but if the mooring system is destroyed, marine casualties can occur. Therefore, it is necessary to determine quantitatively whether a vessel should be kept in the harbour or evacuate. In this study, moored ship safety in an exclusive wharf according to swell effects on motion and mooring load have been investigated using numerical simulations. The maximum tension exerted on mooring lines exceeded the Safety Working Load for intervals 12 and 15 seconds. The maximum bollard force also exceeded 35 tons (allowable force) in all evaluation cases. The surge motion criteria result for safe working conditions exceeded 3 meters more than the wave period 12 seconds with a wind speed of 25 knots. As a result, a risk rating matrix (risk category- very high risk, high risk and moderate risk) was developed with reference to major external forces such as wind force, wave height and wave periods to provide criteria for determining the control of capabilities of mooring systems to prevent accidents.