• Title, Summary, Keyword: Monomer

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Study of Emulsion Polymerization Condition of Aqueous Adhesive (유화중합을 이용한 수분산성접착제의 중합조건에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, HaengJa;Park, JiSun;Lee, SangRok;Kim, JongMin;Chang, SangMok
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.470-475
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    • 2009
  • To study the optimal synthesis conditions of aqueous acrylic adhesive using emulsion polymerization, the effects of monomer, surfactant and initiator on the adhesive properties, such as conversion rate, particle size, peel strength, and glass transition temperature, were investigated. 2-EHA, n-BA and MMA were used as main monomers, 2-HEMA and AAc as functional monomers, SLS as surfactant and APS as initiator, respectively. The conversion rate was over 95% at 3.75% surfactant(SLS/monomer), 0.612% initiator(APS/monomer) and $82^{\circ}C$ reaction temperature. When the excess amount of surfactant or initiator was used, the peel strength represented decreasing tendency. The maximum conversion rate and peel strength were obtained at 65% 2-EHA/monomer, 20% BA/monomer, and 10% MMA/monomer.

THE LEVEL OF RESIDUAL MONOMER IN INJECTION MOLDED DENTURE BASE MATERIALS

  • Lee Hyeok-Jae;Kim Chang-Whe;Kim Yung-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.360-368
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    • 2003
  • Statement of Problem: The residual monomer of denture base materials causes hypersensitivity on oral mucosa and intereferes with the mechanical properties of the cured resin. The amount of residual monomer is influenced by materials, curing cycle, processing method, and etc. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the residual methyl methacrylate(MMA) content of injection molded denture base polymer, and to compare this with the self-cured resin and the conventional compression molded heat-cured resin. Materials and Methods: Disc shaped test specimens (50mm in diameter and 3mm thick) were prepared in a conventional flasking technique with gypsum molding. One autopolymerized denture base resins (Vertex Sc. Dentimex. Netherlands) and two heat-cured denture base resins (Vertex RS. Dentimex. Netherlands, Ivocap. Ivoclar Vivadent, USA) were used. The three types of specimens were processed according to the manufacturer's instruction. After polymerization, all specimens were stored in the dark at room temperature for 7 days. There were 10 specimens in each of the test groups. 3-mm twist drills were used to obtain the resin samples and 650mg of the drilled sample were collected for each estimation. Gas chromatography (Agillent 6890 Plus Gas Chromatograph, Agillent Co, USA) was used to determine the residual MMA content of 10 test specimens of each three types of polymer. Results: The residual monomer content of injection molded denture base resins was $1.057{\pm}0.141%$. The residual monomer content of injection molded denture base resins was higher than that of compression molded heat cured resin ($0.867{\pm}0.169%$). However, there was no statistical significant difference between two groups (p>0.01). The level of residual monomer in self cured resin($3.675{\pm}0.791$) was higher than those of injection molded and compression molded heat cured resins (p<0.01). Conclusion: With respect to ISO specification pass / fail test (2.2% mass fraction) of residual monomer, injection molding technique($1.057{\pm}0.141%$) is a clinically useful and safe technique in terms of residual monomer.

Effect of Monomers in Vinyl Urethane Macromonomers on Dispersion Polymerization of Polystyrene

  • Lee, Kangseok;Shim, Sang Eun
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.154-160
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    • 2016
  • The four different vinyl monomers in the reaction of isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer were used for the preparation of macromonomers and successfully employed in the dispersion polymerization of styrene. The chemical structures of vinyl monomer in macromonomers influenced on the polystyrene particle characteristics, such as the conversion, weight average molecular weights ($M_w$), polydispersity index (PDI), weight average diameter ($D_w$), and uniformity. The conversion of polystyrene increased with amounts of methyl group in vinyl monomer. Also the uniformity of polystyrene particles increased with amounts of methyl group in vinyl monomer.

Preparation Mechanism of Glycoprotein by Periodate-oxidized Soluble Starch and Maltooligosaccharides (과요오드산 산화당에 의한 인공단백질의 조제 메카니즘)

  • Ann, Yong-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.482-487
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    • 1999
  • Periodate-oxidized soluble starch and maltohexaose reacted with ${\alpha}-NH_2$ group of free amino acids and ${\varepsilon}-NH_2$ group of peptidyl lysine. The result shows that periodate-oxidized soluble starch and maltooligosaccharides reacted with protein and formed Schiff base between CHO group of oxidized sugar and ${\varepsilon}-NH_2$ group of surface lysine of protein molecule. Carbon and hydrogen composition of sweet potato ${\beta}-amylase$ modified with oxidized soluble starch increased and it's nitrogen composition decreased. Carbohydrate contents of sweet potato ${\beta}-amylase$ modified with oxidized soluble starch were 13.2% (pentamer), 13.4% (monomer), and with oxidized maltohexaose were 9.7% (pentamer), 9.3% (monomer) by $phenol-H_2SO_4$ method. Alpha-amino group of N-terminal, and ${\varepsilon}-NH_2$ group of lysine, of sweet potato ${\beta}-amylase$ were reacted with oxidized soluble starch by dinitrophenylation were 70% (pentamer), 73% (monomer) and 33% (pentamer), 26% (monomer), respectively, in comparison with native enzyme.

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Monofunctional Monomer Effects of The Reflection Mode & Transmission Mode of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

  • Park, Min-Sang;Cho, Young-Hee;Kim, Byung-Kyu
    • KIEE International Transactions on Electrophysics and Applications
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    • v.11C no.3
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2001
  • Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs) have fabricated by irradiating an Ar-ion laser ( ${\lambda}$=514nm) at various intensity on LC/acrylate monomer mixtures which were sandwitched between two ITO coated glass plates. Monomer systems were composed of dipentaerythritol-hydroxy penta acrylate (DPHPA, f=5)/monofunctional acrylate monofunctional monomers. The LC used in this system was E7 (BL001, Merck). Gratings were fabricated by periodic interference of twobeams. Reflection efficiency-irradiation intensity-monomer type relationships were obtained from the UV-visible spectra of the HPDLC films. Peaks were found at a bit smaller wavelength than 514nm, due to the shrinkage of mixture volume upon polymerization. Real time measurements of diffraction efficiency have been obtained according to monomer types and LC contents.

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High Molecular Weight Poly(L-lactide) Synthesized in Supercritical Fluids

  • Kim, Soo-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Polymer Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.210-211
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    • 2006
  • A series of L-LA polymerizations initiated by $Sn(Oct)_{2}\;([LA]_{0}/[Sn]_{0}=200)$ were carried out in scR22 at $130^{\circ}C$ and 300 bar, where $[LA]_{0}$ is the initial L-lactide concentration and $[Sn]_{0}$ is the initial $Sn(Oct)_{2}$ concentration. The reaction time dependences of monomer conversion and PLLA MW improved. The monomer conversion and PLLA MW increased with increasing reaction time. The effect of temperature on monomer conversion and PLLA MW was investigated in a series of polymerizations conducted at temperatures ranging from 90 to $150^{\circ}C$ and at a constant pressure of 200 bar. In all of these experiments, the ratio of monomer to R22 concentration was held constant at 12.4 wt.-%. Increasing the reaction temperature from 90 to $130^{\circ}C$ resulted in increased monomer conversion from 11.5 to 72.2 %.

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Formation of High-Performance Polymer Walls in a Liquid Crystal Cell by Phase Separation of Fluorinated Polymer Mixture

  • Baek, Jong-In;Shin, Jong-Ba;Oh, Min-Cheol;Kim, Jae-Chang;Yoon, Tae-Boon
    • Journal of Information Display
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, we report the fabrication of high quality polymer walls by using a monomer containing fluorine (F-monomer). Polymer walls with no phase retardation were fabricated by using photo-polymerization induced anisotropic phase separation of the mixture composed of liquid crystal (LC) and F-monomer. Thanks to the immiscibility of fluoride, we could form high quality polymer walls with no light leakage. We measured electro-optic characteristics of a twisted-nematic (TN) LC cell whose polymer walls were fabricated by using the F-monomer, and the measurements were compared with that fabricated by using the monomer without fluorine.

Dispersion Polymerization of Acrylamide in Methanol/Water Media

  • Lee, Ki-Chang;Lee, Seung-Eun;Song, Bong-Keun
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.140-144
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    • 2002
  • Dispersion polymerization of acrylamide was carried out in the media of methyl alcohol/$H_2O$ mixtures using hydroxypropyl cellulose and ammonium persulfate as steric stabilizer and initiator, respectively. The effects of concentrations of initiator and steric stabilizer, amount of monomer, polymerization temperature, methyl alcohol/$H_2O$ ratio, and purification of monomer and nitrogen purge on the particle size of the latices and molecular weight of the polymers were investigated. The average particle diameter increased with increasing concentration of initiator, water content in methyl alcohol/$H_2O$ media, and polymerization temperature, but decreased with monomer and stabilizer concentrations. The viscosity average molecular weight increased with increasing concentrations of monomer, steric stabilizer, and water content in dispersion media, but decreased with initiator concentration and polymerization temperature. The PAM polymers prepared with the purified monomer and the nitrogen purging before the reaction showed the highest molecular weight.

A Study on the Polymerization of Energetic Poly(NEO) (에너지를 함유한 선 폴리머인 poly(NEO) 제조 공정 연구)

  • Cheun Young Gu;Kim Jin Seuk
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2004
  • We synthesized energetic prepolymer(2-nitrato ethyl oxirane, NEO) for plastic-bonded explosive and measured its thermodynamic parameters. 2-Nitrato ethyl oxirane(NEO) as a monomer was synthesized from 4-butene-ol, the first-step was preparation of 1-nitrate-3-butene and second-step was synthesized 2-nitrate-ethyl oxirane from 1nitrate-3-butene and then polymerized by cationic ring opening polymerization. The unreacted monomer concentration was measured by GC. The thermodynamic parameters were obtained from the ceiling temperature(Tc) values of 1 mole monomer at each reaction temperature. We varied feed rate of monomer, concentration of initiator and monomer to control molecular weight and polydispersity of perpolymer(NEO). Number average molecular weight(Mn), polydispersity(PD), and glass transition temperature(Tg), viscosity of prepolymer(NEO) were 2000, 1.07, $-55^{\circ}C$ and 300 poise respectively.

A study on the polymerization of energetic prepolymer(GDNPF) (에너지를 함유한 선 폴리머인 Prepolymer(GDNPF) 제조 공정 연구)

  • Cheun, Young-Gu;Kim, Jin-Seuk
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 2005
  • We synthesized an energetic prepolymer(glycidyl dinitro propyl formal, GDNPF) for plastic-bonded explosive and measured its thermodynamic parameters. Glycidyl dinitro propyl formal(GDNPF) as an energetic monomer was epoxidized from allyl-2,2-dinitro propyl formal which is reacted with dinitro propyl alcohol and excess allyl alcohol, and then energetic polymer of GDNPF was polymerized by cationic ring opening polymerization. Thermodynamic parameters were obtained from the ceiling temperature($T_c$) values of 1 mole monomer at reaction temperature. We varied feed rate of monomer, concentration of initiator and monomer to control molecular weight and polydispersity of prepolymer (GDNPF). The activated monomer polymerization has been executed with precisely controlled feed of GDNPF monomer to reactor in the complex state catalyst generated by $BF_3{\cdot}(C_3H_5)_2$ and 1,4-butanediol in $C_2H_4Cl_2$. Number average molecular weight(Mn), polydispersity(Pd), hydroxy number and glass transition temperature($T_g$) of prepolymer(GDNPF) were $2,500{\sim}3,000,\;1.2{\sim}1,3,\;0.6{\sim}0.8eq/kg\;and\;-20{\sim}-25^{\circ}C$ respectively.