• Title, Summary, Keyword: Molting

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Analysis of excreta bacterial community after forced molting in aged laying hens

  • Han, Gi Ppeum;Lee, Kyu-Chan;Kang, Hwan Ku;Oh, Han Na;Sul, Woo Jun;Kil, Dong Yong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.11
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    • pp.1715-1724
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    • 2019
  • Objective: As laying hens become aged, laying performance and egg quality are generally impaired. One of the practical methods to rejuvenate production and egg quality of aged laying hens with decreasing productivity is a forced molting. However, the changes in intestinal microbiota after forced molting of aged hens are not clearly known. The aim of the present study was to analyze the changes in excreta bacterial communities after forced molting of aged laying hens. Methods: A total of one hundred 66-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were induced to molt by a 2-d water removal and an 11-d fasting until egg production completely ceased. The excreta samples of 16 hens with similar body weight were collected before and immediately after molting. Excreta bacterial communities were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the three major bacterial phyla in pre-molting and immediate post-molting hens, accounting for more than 98.0%. Lactobacillus genus had relatively high abundance in both group, but decreased by molting (62.3% in premolting and 24.9% in post-molting hens). Moreover, pathogenic bacteria such as Enterococcus cecorum and Escherichia coli were more abundant in immediate post-molting hens than in pre-molting hens. Forced molting influenced the alpha diversity, with higher Chao1 (p = 0.012), phylogenetic diversity whole tree (p = 0.014), observed operational taxonomic unit indices (p = 0.006), and Simpson indices (p<0.001), which indicated that forced molting increased excreta bacterial richness of aged laying hens. Conclusion: This study improves the current knowledge of bacterial community alterations in the excreta by forced molting in aged laying hens, which can provide increasing opportunity to develop novel dietary and management skills for improving the gastrointestinal health of aged laying hens after molting.

Phenotypic Characteristics of New Mutant, Non-molting f(nm-f) of Bombyx mori (신돌연변이 불면잠 nm-f의 유전형질)

  • 선희숙;노시갑
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.86-92
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    • 2000
  • Studies were carried out to investigate the phenotypic characteristics of the non-molting mutant (nm-f) which was mapped on the 2nd linkage group. The results obtained were as follows : The nm-f mutant was distinguishable in the 3rd day of hatching. About 80 percentage of the non-molting mutant larvae died at the first instar within 10 days of hatching. The remaining larvae survived to the 2nd ad the 3rd instar but did not live to the final instar. There was no difference in non-molting nutant manifestation between hibernating and artificial hatching eggs. As a result of hemolymph protein analysis, the protein content on nm-f mutant was less than the normal larvae's. Therefore, we conclude that the characterization of nm-f is similar to the already known strains of non-molting mutant and the shortage of hemolymph protein is closely related to the non-molting characteristic in nm-f.

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Study on the Reproductive Biology of the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) 1. Molting Behavior and Effect of Rearing Termperature on Molt (대형 담수산새우, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)의 생식생리에 관한 연구 I. 탈피행동과 수온이 탈피에 미치는 영향)

  • 권진수
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 1997
  • This study has been conducted to investigate the molting behavior and the effects of rearing temperature and day length on molting in the behavior and the effects of rearing temperature and day length on molting in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii reared in the laboratory. The results obtained were summarized as follow: 1. After pre-spawning molting, the protopodites of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th except 5th pleopod bore new breeding setae which conserve eggs in the brooding chamber and the basis of 3rd, 4th, and 5th pereiopods bore new breeding dresses which transport the ovulated eggs into the brooding chamber. 2. Adult females reared in 27.5-$29.4^{\circ}C$ molted 10-12 times per year at interval of 27-35 days, of which four or six moltings were common molting for growth and another four or five moltings were pre-spawning molting for spwaning and brooding. In winter season, pre-spawning molting did not happen to most of adult females in spite of the same temperature. 3. Duration of intermolt cycle was 31-38 days and 26-30 days at 25.3- $26.5^{\circ}C$ and 28.7- $30.4^{\circ}C$ of rearing temperature, respectively.

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A potential role for fatty acid biosynthesis genes during molting and cuticle formation in Caenorhabditis elegans

  • Li, Yingxiu;Paik, Young-Ki
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.285-290
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    • 2011
  • Caenorhabditis elegans undergoes a developmental molting process that involves a coordinated interplay among diverse intracellular pathways. Here, we investigated the functions of two fatty acid biosynthesis genes; pod-2, encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fasn-1, encoding fatty acid synthase, in the C. elegans molting process. Although both the pod-2 and fasn-1 genes were expressed at constant levels throughout C. elegans development, knockdown of the proteins encoded by these genes using RNA interference produced severe defects in triglyceride production, molting, and reproduction that were coupled to suppression of NAS-37, a metalloprotease. An assessment of the structure and integrity of the cuticle using a COL-19::GFP marker and Hoechst 33258 staining showed that downregulation of either pod-2 or fasn-1 impaired cuticle formation and disrupted the integrity of the cuticle and the hypodermal membrane.

Effects of Feeding Induced Molting on the Performance, Egg Quality, and Visceral Organs in Laying Hens (산란계에서 급이환우가 산란계의 생산성과 계란의 품질 및 주요 장기에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, E.C.;Na, J.C.;You, D.C.;Jang, B.G.;Kim, H.K.;Choi, Y.H.;Park, H.D.;HwangBo, J.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.197-205
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to compare the effect of feeding molting and fasting molting on the performance, egg quality, and visceral organs in laying hens for animal welfare. Eighty one 62-wk-old White Leghorn hens that egg production was over 80% and average weight was $1.6{\pm}0.3\;kg$ were used in this study. Treatments were control (non-molt treatment), feeding molt treatment, and fasting molt treatment. The three treatments were administered to three replicate group of nine hens wherein each group. All treatment groups were fed the basal diet (CP 15%, ME 2,700 kal/kg) for two weeks as the adaptation period. Induced molt diets contains low CP (6.7%) and low energy (2,200 kal/kg). Test periods were 14 days for feeding molting and 10 days for fasting molting. Egg production decreased to be 0% at 10 days of feeding molting treatment, but at 2 or 3 days of fasting molting treatment. Egg production restarted after 19 days ending molt at feeding molting treatment, while after 24 days at fasting molting treatment. On the egg quality was improved at molting treatments (p<0.05) except egg yolk. Egg shell tissue was crowded at molting treatment to compare to control. Liver weights, heart weight, and oviduct weight of laying hens decreased at molting treatments (p<0.05). Finally, feeding molting might could be replaced fasting molting on the welfare and further studies were needed about molting program.

Effects of Feeding Non-Salt Diet on the Induced Molting in Laying Hens (무염 사료의 급여가 유도환우에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, E.C.;Na, J.C.;You, D.C.;Kim, H.K.;Chung, W.T.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, I.H.;HwangBo, J.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to induce molting with DDGS and non-salt diet and compare the effect of feeding molting and fasting molting on the performance, egg quality, and visceral organs in laying hens for animal welfare. One-hundredeight 62-wk-old White Leghorn hens that egg production was over 80% and average weight was $1.8{\pm}0.1kg$ were used in this study. Treatments were control(non-molt treatment), feeding molt treatment(DDGS, non-salt diet), and fasting molt treatment. The four treatments were administered to three replicate group of nine hens wherein each group. All treatment groups were fed the basal diet(CP 15%, ME 2,700 kal/kg) for two weeks as the adaptation period. Test Periods were 28 days at all treatments. Egg production decreased for 18 days to be 0% at feeding molting treatment, and for 17 days to be 0% at non-salt feeding molting treatment. Egg production stopped for 6 days at fasting molting treatment. Egg production restarted after 12 days molt at feeding molting treatment, while after 16 days at fasting molting treatment. On the egg quality was improved at molting treatments (p<0.05) except egg yolk. Egg shell tissue was crowded at molting treatment to compare to control. Liver weights, heart weight, and oviduct weight of laying hens decreased at molting treatments(p<0.05). Finally, feeding molting might could be replaced fasting molting on the welfare and further studies were needed about molting program.

Probiotics in Drinking Water Alleviate Stress of Induced Molting in Feed-deprived Laying Hens

  • Khajali, Fariborz;Karimi, S.;Qujeq, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1196-1200
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    • 2008
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the physiological changes of laying hens subjected to feed removal during induced molting while received probiotics in the drinking water. Post-molt performance and egg quality criteria were also studied. Ninety 78-week-old Hy-line W36 laying hens were divided into two treatment groups according to equal body weight and subjected to induced molting by continuous feed removal until around 30% BW reduction. The experiment lasted 12 wks consisting of 4-wk molting and 8-wk post-molt periods. Treatment 1 received no probiotics and was considered as the control. Treatment 2 was similar to the control except that hens received probiotics in the drinking water at 400 mg/L during feed deprivation. The results indicated that hens in both groups went out of production by Day 5. However, hens received probiotics reached 5 and 50% egg production sooner than the control (30 and 52 days vs. 31 and 54 days). Starvation during molting increased heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, hematocrit and plasma T4 and $Na^+$ levels while plasma T3 and Cl- levels were decreased. Probiotics had no significant impact on BW reduction during molt. Post-molt egg production and egg mass were higher in hens which previously received probiotics, but these responses were not significant. However, feed conversion ratio was significantly better in hens which received probiotics. Hematocrit, plasma thyroid hormone concentrations (T3 and T4) and plasma $Na^+$, $K^+$ and Cl- levels during molting were not significantly influenced by supplementation of probiotics. However, H/L ratio showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in birds which received probiotics suggesting beneficial effects of this product for feed-deprived laying hens. No significant difference was observed in post-molt egg quality criteria.

Pheontypic Characterization of Non-molting Mutants in Postembryonic Development of the Silkworm, Bomyx mori. (누에의 후배자발생 초기에 있어서 돌연변이 불면잠계통간의 형질발현 특성)

  • No, Si-Gap;Seon, Hui-Suk;Banno, Yutaka
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 1998
  • Studies were carried out to investigate phenotypic expression, mortality and biochemical analysis of haemolymph proteins of nm-d, nm-f, nm-k and nmn bib-molting mutants of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The non-molting mutants characters were expressed in the homozygote of each mutant genes. All strains of non-molting mutants were similar with each other in physiological characteristics, but the expression varied with each strains. The larvae of nm-d, nm-i and nmn died between day 5 and day 9 after hatching without the first molt. The nm-f and nm-k mutants died between day 5 and day 16 with a slight increase of body weight and, more than 90% of the mutants larvae died before the first molt and a few of them survived to the 2nd and the 3rd instar and died. The haemolymph protein components of nm-d, nm-i, and nmn were rapidly reduced, and on the other hand those of nm-f and nm-k consistently until they died. And there were no distinguishable difference in haemolymph components of non-molting mutants, as compared to those normals.

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Molting Patterns of Flight Feathers of Immature Steller's Sea Eagle(Haliaeetus pelagicus) Raised in Captivity (사육상태에서 자란 참수리(Haliaeetus pelagicus) 미성조 날개깃의 깃갈이 방식)

  • Kang, Seung-Gu;Lee, In-Sup
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.58-64
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to know the molting sequence and the aging points of flight feathers of steller's sea eagles (Haliaeetus pelagicus). For this study, two captive immature steller's sea eagles raised at the Ornithology Laboratory attached to Kyungsung University were surveyed for five years from Nov. 2000 to Nov. 2005. The survey indicated that the first molting began in July of the second year, and the primaries of P1-3, the secondaries of S18-19 (female), S17-18 (male), and S1 and S4 were replaced by one-time with second generation feathers. Generally molting stopped during the winter period, but a few feathers continued to molt during the winter. The two secondaries of S18-19 (female) and S17-18 (male) always molted every year but some of the juvenile secondaries (male: S10, S11, etc) retained for 2 or 3 years. In the molting order of primaries, the first molting started at P1 and it proceeded to P10 of outside. In the secondaries, the first molting started at S17(male) and S19(female), and it proceeded to outside. After that molting it started at S1 and proceeded to inside. In the other secondaries, the pattern of molting which proceeded in the mid-part of the secondaries was usually beginning in several different points at the same time. The molting seemed as if it depends on both the conditions of the individuals and the environment, so it was very difficult to explain the molting pattern in the mid-part of the secondaries. The longer quills (P7, P8) required for more than 68 days to develop. In the comparison of the length in the remiges between the first and the second generation feathers, the first generation feathers were the larger than that of the second. And the reduction of the length between the second and the third generation feathers was a few. The reduction of the length between the third and the fourth generation feathers was slight. The juvenile primaries were dark brown with a whitish base, which could be observed until the second or the third generation feathers (in their third or fourth winter plumage).

Changes of Blood $Mg^{2+}$ and $K^+$ after Starvation during Molting in Laying Hens (환우(換羽, molting)에 의한 절식 후 산란계의 혈액 $Mg^{2+}$$K^+$ 변동)

  • Go, Hyeon-Kyu;Lee, Sei-Jin;Cho, In-Gook;Lee, Mun-Young;Park, Hye-Min;Mun, A-Reum;Kim, Jeong-Gon;Kim, Gi-Beum;Kim, Jin-Shang;Kang, Hyung-Sub;Kim, Shang-Jin
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.581-585
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    • 2011
  • Either the fasting during natural molting or the starvation in induced molting would be a severe metabolic stress to laying hens. The metabolic stress during starvation and subsequent refeeding syndrome could lead to unbalance of mineral homeostasis, including $Mg^{2+}$, $K^+$ and P required by ATP synthesis. Since $Mg^{2+}$ is a fundamental ion for normal metabolic processes and stress may not only increase in demands of $Mg^{2+}$ but also produce consequence of $Mg^{2+}$ deficiency, we investigated the changes of blood ionized and total ions related to starvation during molting in laying hens. We founded the significant decrease in blood $Mg^{2+}$ and $K^+$ accompanied by the changes of biochemical parameters relating to increased metabolic stress after molting. These results suggested that appropriate $Mg^{2+}$ and $K^+$ supplements to laying hens could have beneficial effects during molting and subsequent refeeding that could produce a severe hypomagnesemia and hypokalcemia.