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A Study on Improvement for Fishing Gear and Method of Pound Net - I - Net Shapes of the Commerical Net in the Flow - (정치망 어구어법의 개발에 관한 연구-I - 현용어구의 흐름에 대한 형상 변화 -)

  • Yun, Il-Bu;Lee, Ju-Hee;Kwon, Byeong-Guk;Cho, Young-Bok;Yoo, Jae-Bum;Kim, Seong-Hun;Kim, Boo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.268-281
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    • 2004
  • A study was carried out in order to estimate the deformation of the pound net according to the current by the model test in the circulating water channel. The tension of the frame rope and the variation of net shape were measured to investigate the deforming of the model pound net in the flow. The results are obtained as follows; 1. The experimental equation between tensions (R) of the frame rope and velocity (ν)was found to be R=$19.58v^{1.98}$($r^2$=0.98) in case of the upperward flow with fish court net and R=$26.90v^{1.72}$($r^2$=0.95)at the upperward flow with bag net according to the velocity from 0.0m/s to 0.6m/s, respectively. 2. As the variation of flow speed inside of the model net was gradually decreased according as which is passed through netting panels, in case of the upperward flow with fish court net, the flow speed was about 70% of initial flow speed at 0.1m/s, 60% at 0.2m/s, 50% at 0.3m/s and 40% 0.4~0.6m/s at the measurement point(h) inside of the first bag net, respectively. In case of the upperward flow with bag net, as the flow speed was steeply decreased according as which if passed through the second bag net, it was 30~60% of the initial flow speed and was 20~30% inside of the first bag net and was about 10~20% inside of the inclined passage net. 3. In case of the upperward flow with fish court net, the variation of deformed angle of fish court net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 70$^{\circ}$and that of inclined passage net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 63$^{\circ}$and that of the second bag net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 47$^{\circ}$ . 4. In case of the upperward flow with fish court net, the variation of deformed angle of the second bag net was changed from 0$^{\circ}$ to 70$^{\circ}$and that of the inclined passage net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 55$^{\circ}$ and that of the fish court net was from 0$^{\circ}$ to 50$^{\circ}$. The depth ratio of the first bag net was changed from 0% to 35% and that of the second bag net was from 0% to 20% and that of the inclined passage net was from 0% to 35%. In the flow speed 0.5m/s, the inclined passage net was raised up to the entry of the bag net and then prevented it more over 90%. 5. To be increased the opening volume of pound net, it needs to attach the added weight outside of the fish court net, inclined passage net and bag net. At the same time, it needs to adjust the tension of the twine for maintenance of the shape.

The Effects of the Computer Aided Innovation Capabilities on the R&D Capabilities: Focusing on the SMEs of Korea (Computer Aided Innovation 역량이 연구개발역량에 미치는 효과: 국내 중소기업을 대상으로)

  • Shim, Jae Eok;Byeon, Moo Jang;Moon, Hyo Gon;Oh, Jay In
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.25-53
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    • 2013
  • This study analyzes the effect of Computer Aided Innovation (CAI) to improve R&D Capabilities empirically. Survey was distributed by e-mail and Google Docs, targeting CTO of 235 SMEs. 142 surveys were returned back (rate of return 60.4%) from companies. Survey results from 119 companies (83.8%) which are effective samples except no-response, insincere response, estimated value, etc. were used for statistics analysis. Companies with less than 50billion KRW sales of entire researched companies occupy 76.5% in terms of sample traits. Companies with less than 300 employees occupy 83.2%. In terms of the type of company business Partners (called 'partners with big companies' hereunder) who work with big companies for business occupy 68.1%. SMEs based on their own business (called 'independent small companies') appear to occupy 31.9%. The present status of holding IT system according to traits of company business was classified into partners with big companies versus independent SMEs. The present status of ERP is 18.5% to 34.5%. QMS is 11.8% to 9.2%. And PLM (Product Life-cycle Management) is 6.7% to 2.5%. The holding of 3D CAD is 47.1% to 21%. IT system-holding and its application of independent SMEs seemed very vulnerable, compared with partner companies of big companies. This study is comprised of IT infra and IT Utilization as CAI capacity factors which are independent variables. factors of R&D capabilities which are independent variables are organization capability, process capability, HR capability, technology-accumulating capability, and internal/external collaboration capability. The highest average value of variables was 4.24 in organization capability 2. The lowest average value was 3.01 in IT infra which makes users access to data and information in other areas and use them with ease when required during new product development. It seems that the inferior environment of IT infra of general SMEs is reflected in CAI itself. In order to review the validity used to measure variables, Factors have been analyzed. 7 factors which have over 1.0 pure value of their dependent and independent variables were extracted. These factors appear to explain 71.167% in total of total variances. From the result of factor analysis about measurable variables in this study, reliability of each item was checked by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. All measurable factors at least over 0.611 seemed to acquire reliability. Next, correlation has been done to explain certain phenomenon by correlation analysis between variables. As R&D capabilities factors which are arranged as dependent variables, organization capability, process capability, HR capability, technology-accumulating capability, and internal/external collaboration capability turned out that they acquire significant correlation at 99% reliability level in all variables of IT infra and IT Utilization which are independent variables. In addition, correlation coefficient between each factor is less than 0.8, which proves that the validity of this study judgement has been acquired. The pair with the highest coefficient had 0.628 for IT utilization and technology-accumulating capability. Regression model which can estimate independent variables was used in this study under the hypothesis that there is linear relation between independent variables and dependent variables so as to identify CAI capability's impact factors on R&D. The total explanations of IT infra among CAI capability for independent variables such as organization capability, process capability, human resources capability, technology-accumulating capability, and collaboration capability are 10.3%, 7%, 11.9%, 30.9%, and 10.5% respectively. IT Utilization exposes comprehensively low explanatory capability with 12.4%, 5.9%, 11.1%, 38.9%, and 13.4% for organization capability, process capability, human resources capability, technology-accumulating capability, and collaboration capability respectively. However, both factors of independent variables expose very high explanatory capability relatively for technology-accumulating capability among independent variable. Regression formula which is comprised of independent variables and dependent variables are all significant (P<0.005). The suitability of regression model seems high. When the results of test for dependent variables and independent variables are estimated, the hypothesis of 10 different factors appeared all significant in regression analysis model coefficient (P<0.01) which is estimated to affect in the hypothesis. As a result of liner regression analysis between two independent variables drawn by influence factor analysis for R&D capability and R&D capability. IT infra and IT Utilization which are CAI capability factors has positive correlation to organization capability, process capability, human resources capability, technology-accumulating capability, and collaboration capability with inside and outside which are dependent variables, R&D capability factors. It was identified as a significant factor which affects R&D capability. However, considering adjustable variables, a big gap is found, compared to entire company. First of all, in case of partner companies with big companies, in IT infra as CAI capability, organization capability, process capability, human resources capability, and technology capability out of R&D capacities seems to have positive correlation. However, collaboration capability appeared insignificance. IT utilization which is a CAI capability factor seemed to have positive relation to organization capability, process capability, human resources capability, and internal/external collaboration capability just as those of entire companies. Next, by analyzing independent types of SMEs as an adjustable variable, very different results were found from those of entire companies or partner companies with big companies. First of all, all factors in IT infra except technology-accumulating capability were rejected. IT utilization was rejected except technology-accumulating capability and collaboration capability. Comprehending the above adjustable variables, the following results were drawn in this study. First, in case of big companies or partner companies with big companies, IT infra and IT utilization affect improving R&D Capabilities positively. It was because most of big companies encourage innovation by using IT utilization and IT infra building over certain level to their partner companies. Second, in all companies, IT infra and IT utilization as CAI capability affect improving technology-accumulating capability positively at least as R&D capability factor. The most of factor explanation is low at around 10%. However, technology-accumulating capability is rather high around 25.6% to 38.4%. It was found that CAI capability contributes to technology-accumulating capability highly. Companies shouldn't consider IT infra and IT utilization as a simple product developing tool in R&D section. However, they have to consider to use them as a management innovating strategy tool which proceeds entire-company management innovation centered in new product development. Not only the improvement of technology-accumulating capability in department of R&D. Centered in new product development, it has to be used as original management innovative strategy which proceeds entire company management innovation. It suggests that it can be a method to improve technology-accumulating capability in R&D section and Dynamic capability to acquire sustainable competitive advantage.

The Effects on CRM Performance and Relationship Quality of Successful Elements in the Establishment of Customer Relationship Management: Focused on Marketing Approach (CRM구축과정에서 마케팅요인이 관계품질과 CRM성과에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Hyeong-Yu
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.119-155
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    • 2008
  • Customer Relationship Management(CRM) has been a sustainable competitive edge of many companies. CRM analyzes customer data for designing and executing targeted marketing analysing customer behavior in order to make decisions relating to products and services including management information system. It is critical for companies to get and maintain profitable customers. How to manage relationships with customers effectively has become an important issue for both academicians and practitioners in recent years. However, the existing academic literature and the practical applications of customer relationship management(CRM) strategies have been focused on the technical process and organizational structure about the implementation of CRM. These limited focus on CRM lead to the result of numerous reports of failed implementations of various types of CRM projects. Many of these failures are also related to the absence of marketing approach. Identifying successful factors and outcomes focused on marketing concept before introducing a CRM project are a pre-implementation requirements. Many researchers have attempted to find the factors that contribute to the success of CRM. However, these research have some limitations in terms of marketing approach without explaining how the marketing based factors contribute to the CRM success. An understanding of how to manage relationship with crucial customers effectively based marketing approach has become an important topic for both academicians and practitioners. However, the existing papers did not provide a clear antecedent and outcomes factors focused on marketing approach. This paper attempt to validate whether or not such various marketing factors would impact on relational quality and CRM performance in terms of marketing oriented perceptivity. More specifically, marketing oriented factors involving market orientation, customer orientation, customer information orientation, and core customer orientation can influence relationship quality(satisfaction and trust) and CRM outcome(customer retention and customer share). Another major goals of this research are to identify the effect of relationship quality on CRM outcomes consisted of customer retention and share to show the relationship strength between two factors. Based on meta analysis for conventional studies, I can construct the following research model. An empirical study was undertaken to test the hypotheses with data from various companies. Multiple regression analysis and t-test were employed to test the hypotheses. The reliability and validity of our measurements were tested by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and principal factor analysis respectively, and seven hypotheses were tested through performing correlation test and multiple regression analysis. The first key outcome is a theoretically and empirically sound CRM factors(marketing orientation, customer orientation, customer information orientation, and core customer orientation.) in the perceptive of marketing. The intensification of ${\beta}$coefficient among antecedents factors in terms of marketing was not same. In particular, The effects on customer trust of marketing based CRM antecedents were significantly confirmed excluding core customer orientation. It was notable that the direct effects of core customer orientation on customer trust were not exist. This means that customer trust which is firmly formed by long term tasks will not be directly linked to the core customer orientation. the enduring management concerned with this interactions is probably more important for the successful implementation of CRM. The second key result is that the implementation and operation of successful CRM process in terms of marketing approach have a strong positive association with both relationship quality(customer trust/customer satisfaction) and CRM performance(customer retention and customer possession). The final key fact that relationship quality has a strong positive effect on customer retention and customer share confirms that improvements in customer satisfaction and trust improve accessibility to customers, provide more consistent service and ensure value-for-money within the front office which result in growth of customer retention and customer share. Particularly, customer satisfaction and trust which is main components of relationship quality are found to be positively related to the customer retention and customer share. Interactive managements of these main variables play key roles in connecting the successful antecedent of CRM with final outcome involving customer retention and share. Based on research results, This paper suggest managerial implications concerned with constructions and executions of CRM focusing on the marketing perceptivity. I can conclude in general the CRM can be achieved by the recognition of antecedents and outcomes based on marketing concept. The implementation of marketing concept oriented CRM will be connected with finding out about customers' purchasing habits, opinions and preferences profiling individuals and groups to market more effectively and increase sales changing the way you operate to improve customer service and marketing. Benefiting from CRM is not just a question of investing the right software, but adapt CRM users to the concept of marketing including marketing orientation, customer orientation, and customer information orientation. No one deny that CRM is a process or methodology used to develop stronger relationships being composed of many technological components, but thinking about CRM in primarily technological terms is a big mistake. We can infer from this paper that the more useful way to think and implement about CRM is as a process that will help bring together lots of pieces of marketing concept about customers, marketing effectiveness, and market trends. Finally, a real situation we conducted our research may enable academics and practitioners to understand the antecedents and outcomes in the perceptive of marketing more clearly.

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A Study on Perceived Quality affecting the Service Personal Value in the On-off line Channel - Focusing on the moderate effect of the need for cognition - (온.오프라인 채널에서 지각된 품질이 서비스의 개인가치에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 -인지욕구의 조정효과를 중심으로-)

  • Sung, Hyung-Suk
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.111-137
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    • 2010
  • The basic purpose of this study is to investigate perceived quality and service personal value affecting the result of long-term relationship between service buyers and suppliers. This research presented a constructive model(perceived quality affecting the service personal value and the moderate effect of NFC) in the on off line and then propose the research model base on prior researches and studies about relationships among components of service. Data were gathered from respondents who visit at the education service market. For this study, Data were analyzed by AMOS 7.0. We integrate the literature on services marketing with researches on personal values and perceived quality. The SERPVAL scale presented here allows for the creation of a common ground for assessing service personal values, giving a clear understanding of the key value dimensions behind service choice and usage. It will lead to a focus of future research in services marketing, extending knowledge in the field and stimulating further empirical research on service personal values. At the managerial level, as a tool the SERPVAL scale should allow practitioners to evaluate and improve the value of a service, and consequently, to define strategies and actions to address services for customers based on their fundamental personal values. Through qualitative and empirical research, we find that the service quality construct conforms to the structure of a second-order factor model that ties service quality perceptions to distinct and actionable dimensions: outcome, interaction, and environmental quality. In turn, each has two subdimensions that define the basis of service quality perceptions. The authors further suggest that for each of these subdimensions to contribute to improved service quality perceptions, the quality received by consumers must be perceived to be reliable, responsive, and empathetic. Although the service personal value may be found in researches that explore individual values and their consequences for consumer behavior, there is no established operationalization of a SERPVAL scale. The inexistence of an established scale, duly adapted in order to understand and analyze personal values behind services usage, exposes the need of a measurement scale with such a purpose. This need has to be rooted, however, in a conceptualization of the construct being scaled. Service personal values can be defined as a customer's overall assessment of the use of a service based on the perception of what is achieved in terms of his own personal values. As consumer behaviors serve to show an individual's values, the use of a service can also be a way to fulfill and demonstrate consumers'personal values. In this sense, a service can provide more to the customer than its concrete and abstract attributes at both the attribute and the quality levels, and more than its functional consequences at the value level. Both values and services literatures agree, that personal value is the highest-level concept, followed by instrumental values, attitudes and finally by product attributes. Purchasing behaviors are agreed to be the end result of these concepts' interaction, with personal values taking a major role in the final decision process. From both consumers' and practitioners' perspectives, values are extremely relevant, as they are desirable goals that serve as guiding principles in people's lives. While building on previous research, we propose to assess service personal values through three broad groups of individual dimensions; at the self-oriented level, we use (1) service value to peaceful life (SVPL) and, at the social-oriented level, we use (2) service value to social recognition (SVSR), and (3) service value to social integration (SVSI). Service value to peaceful life is our first dimension. This dimension emerged as a combination of values coming from the RVS scale, a scale built specifically to assess general individual values. If a service promotes a pleasurable life, brings or improves tranquility, safety and harmony, then its user recognizes the value of this service. Generally, this service can improve the user's pleasure of life, since it protects or defends the consumer from threats to life or pressures on it. While building upon both the LOV scale, a scale built specifically to assess consumer values, and the RVS scale for individual values, we develop the other two dimensions: SVSR and SVSI. The roles of social recognition and social integration to improve service personal value have been seriously neglected. Social recognition derives its outcome utility from its predictive utility. When applying this underlying belief to our second dimension, SVSR, we assume that people use a service while taking into consideration the content of what is delivered. Individuals consider whether the service aids in gaining respect from others, social recognition and status, as well as whether it allows achieving a more fulfilled and stimulating life, which might then be revealed to others. People also tend to engage in behavior that receives social recognition and to avoid behavior that leads to social disapproval, and this contributes to an individual's social integration. This leads us to the third dimension, SVSI, which is based on the fact that if the consumer perceives that a service strengthens friendships, provides the possibility of becoming more integrated in the group, or promotes better relationships at the social, professional or family levels, then the service will contribute to social integration, and naturally the individual will recognize personal value in the service. Most of the research in business values deals with individual values. However, to our knowledge, no study has dealt with assessing overall personal values as well as their dimensions in a service context. Our final results show that the scales adapted from the Schwartz list were excluded. A possible explanation is that although Schwartz builds on Rokeach work in order to explore individual values, its dimensions might be especially focused on analyzing societal values. As we are looking for individual dimensions, this might explain why the values inspired by the Schwartz list were excluded from the model. The hierarchical structure of the final scale presented in this paper also presents theoretical implications. Although we cannot claim to definitively capture the dimensions of service personal values, we believe that we come close to capturing these overall evaluations because the second-order factor extracts the underlying commonality among dimensions. In addition to obtaining respondents' evaluations of the dimensions, the second-order factor model captures the common variance among these dimensions, reflecting the respondents' overall assessment of service personal values. Towards this fact, we expect that the service personal values conceptualization and measurement scale presented here contributes to both business values literature and the service marketing field, allowing for the delineation of strategies for adding value to services. This new scale also presents managerial implications. The SERPVAL dimensions give some guidance on how to better pursue a highly service-oriented business strategy. Indeed, the SERPVAL scale can be used for benchmarking purposes, as this scale can be used to identify whether or not a firms' marketing strategies are consistent with consumers' expectations. Managerial assessment of the personal values of a service might be extremely important because it allows managers to better understand what customers want or value. Thus, this scale allows us to identify what services are really valuable to the final consumer; providing knowledge for making choices regarding which services to include. Traditional approaches have focused their attention on service attributes (as quality) and service consequences(as service value), but personal values may be an important set of variables to be considered in understanding what attracts consumers to a certain service. By using the SERPVAL scale to assess the personal values associated with a services usage, managers may better understand the reasons behind services' usage, so that they may handle them more efficiently. While testing nomological validity, our empirical findings demonstrate that the three SERPVAL dimensions are positively and significantly associated with satisfaction. Additionally, while service value to social integration is related only with loyalty, service value to peaceful life is associated with both loyalty and repurchase intent. It is also interesting and surprising that service value to social recognition appears not to be significantly linked with loyalty and repurchase intent. A possible explanation is that no mobile service provider has yet emerged in the market as a luxury provider. All of the Portuguese providers are still trying to capture market share by means of low-end pricing. This research has implications for consumers as well. As more companies seek to build relationships with their customers, consumers are easily able to examine whether these relationships provide real value or not to their own lives. The selection of a strategy for a particular service depends on its customers' personal values. Being highly customer-oriented means having a strong commitment to customers, trying to create customer value and understanding customer needs. Enhancing service distinctiveness in order to provide a peaceful life, increase social recognition and gain a better social integration are all possible strategies that companies may pursue, but the one to pursue depends on the outstanding personal values held by the service customers. Data were gathered from 284 respondents in the korean discount store and online shopping mall market. This research proposed 3 hypotheses on 6 latent variables and tested through structural equation modeling. 6 alternative measurements were compared through statistical significance test of the 6 paths of research model and the overall fitting level of structural equation model. and the result was successful. and Perceived quality more positively influences service personal value when NFC is high than when no NFC is low in the off-line market. The results of the study indicate that service quality is properly modeled as an antecedent of service personal value. We consider the research and managerial implications of the study and its limitations. In sum, by knowing the dimensions a consumer takes into account when choosing a service, a better understanding of purchasing behaviors may be realized, guiding managers toward customers expectations. By defining strategies and actions that address potential problems with the service personal values, managers might ultimately influence their firm's performance. we expect to contribute to both business values and service marketing literatures through the development of the service personal value. At a time when marketing researchers are challenged to provide research with practical implications, it is also believed that this framework may be used by managers to pursue service-oriented business strategies while taking into consideration what customers value.

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The Effect of Corporate Association on the Perceived Risk of the Product (소비자의 제품 지각 위험에 대한 기업연상과 효과: 지식과 관여의 조절적 역활을 중심으로)

  • Cho, Hyun-Chul;Kang, Suk-Hou;Kim, Jin-Yong
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1-32
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    • 2008
  • Brown and Dacin (1997) have investigated the relationship between corporate associations and product evaluations. Their study focused on the effects of associations with a company's corporate ability (CA) and its corporate social responsibility (CSR) on consumers' product evaluations. Their study has found that both of CA and CSR influenced product evaluation but CA association has a stronger effect than CSR associations. Brown and Dacin (1997) have, however, claimed that there are few researches on how corporate association impacts product responses. Accordingly, some of researchers have found the variables to moderate or to mediate the relationship between the corporate association and the product responses. In particular, there has been existed a few of studies that tested the influence of the reputation on the product-relevant perceived risk, but the effects of two types of the corporate association on the product-relevant perceived risk were not identified so far. The primary goal of this article is to identify and empirically examine some variables to moderate the effects of CA association and CSR association on the perceived risk of the product. In this articles, we take the concept of the corporate associations that Brown and Dacin (1997) had proposed. CA association is those association related to the company's expertise in producing and delivering its outputs and CSR association reflected the organization's status and activities with respect to its perceived societal obligations. Also, this study defines the risk, which is the uncertainty or loss of the product and corporate that consumers have taken in a particular purchase decision or after having purchased. The risk is classified into product-relevant performance risk and financial risk. Performance risk is the possibility or the consequence of a product not functioning at some expected level and financial risk is the monetary loss one perceives to be incurring if a product does not function at some expected level. In relation to consumer's knowledge, expert consumers have much of the experiences or knowledge of the product in consumer position and novice consumers does not. The model tested in this article are shown in Figure 1. The model indicates that both of CA association and CSR association influence on performance risk and financial risk. In addition, the effects of CA and CSR are moderated by product category knowledge (product knowledge) and product category involvement (product involvement). In this study, the relationships between the corporate association and product-relevant perceived risk are hypothesized as the following form. For example, Hypothesis 1a($H_{1a}$) is represented that CA association has a positive influence on the performance risk of consumer. Also, the hypotheses that identified some variables to moderate the effects of two types of corporate association on the perceived risk of the product are laid down. One of the hypotheses of the interaction effect is Hypothesis 3a($H_{3a}$), it is described that consumer's knowledges of the product moderates the negative relationship between CA association and product-relevant performance risk. A field experiment was conducted in order to examine our model. The company tested was not real but imagined to meet the internal validity. Water purifiers were used for our study. Four scenarios have been developed and described as the imaginary company: Type A with both of superior CA and CSR, Type B with superior CSR and inferior CA, Type C with superior CA and inferior CSR, and Type D with both inferior of CA and CSR. The respondents of this study were classified into four groups. One type of four scenarios (Type A, B, C, or D) in its questionnaire was given to the respondent who filled out questions. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire to the respondents, chosen in convenience. A total of 300 respondents filled out the questionnaire but 207 were used for further analysis. Table 1 indicates that the scales in this study are reliable because the range of coefficients of Cronbach's $\alpha$ are from 0.85 to 0.92. The composite reliability is in the range of 0,85 to 0,92 and average variance extracted is in 0.72-0.98 range that is higher than the base level of 0.6. As shown in Table 2, the values for CFI, NNFI, root-mean-square error approximation (RMSEA), and standardized root-mean-square residual (SRMR) are acceptably close to the standards suggested by Hu and Bentler (1999):.95 for CFI and NNFI,.06 for RMSEA, and.08 for SRMR. We also tested discriminant validity provided by Fornell and Larcker (1981). As shown in Table 2, we found strong evidence for discriminant validity between each possible pair of latent constructs in all samples. Given that these batteries of overall goodness-of-fit indices were accurate and that the model was developed on theoretical bases, and given the high level of consistency across samples, this enables us to proceed the previously defined scales. We used the moderated hierarchical regression analysis to test the influence of the corporate association(CA and CSR associations) on product-relevant perceived risk(performance and financial risks) and to identify the variables moderating the relationship between the corporate association and product-relevant performance risk. In this study, dependent variables are performance and financial risk. CA and CSR associations are described the independent variables. The moderating variables are product category knowledge and product category involvement. The results are, as expected, found that CA association has statistically a significant influence on the perceived risk of the product, but CSR association does not. Product category knowledge and involvement moderate the relationship between the CA association and the perceived risk of the product. However, the effect of CSR association on the perceived risk of the product is not moderated by the consumers' knowledge and involvement. For this result, it is necessary for a corporate to inform its customers CA association more than CSR association so that they could be felt to be the reduction of the perceived risk. The important theoretical contribution of this research is the meanings that two types of corporate association that Brown and Dacin(1997), and Brown(1998) have proposed replicated the difference of the effects on product evaluation. According to Hunter(2001), it was an important affair to accomplish the validity of a particular study and we had to take about ten studies to deduce a strict study. Next, there is the contribution of the this study to find that the effects of corporate association on the perceived risk of the product are varied by the moderator variables. In particular, the moderating effect of knowledge on the relationship between corporate association and product-relevant perceived risk has not been tested in Korea. In the managerial implications of this research, we suggest the necessity to stress the ability that corporate manufactures the product well(CA association) than the accomplishment of corporate's social obligation(CSR association). This study suffers from various limitations that imply future research directions. The moderating effects of product category knowledge and involvement on the relationship between corporate association and perceived risk need to be replicated. Next, future research could explore whether the mediated effects of the perceived risk has the relationship between corporate association and consumer's product purchase. In addition, to ensure the external validity of the study will be needed to use realistic company, not artificial.

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Perceptional Change of a New Product, DMB Phone

  • Kim, Ju-Young;Ko, Deok-Im
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.59-88
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    • 2008
  • Digital Convergence means integration between industry, technology, and contents, and in marketing, it usually comes with creation of new types of product and service under the base of digital technology as digitalization progress in electro-communication industries including telecommunication, home appliance, and computer industries. One can see digital convergence not only in instruments such as PC, AV appliances, cellular phone, but also in contents, network, service that are required in production, modification, distribution, re-production of information. Convergence in contents started around 1990. Convergence in network and service begins as broadcasting and telecommunication integrates and DMB(digital multimedia broadcasting), born in May, 2005 is the symbolic icon in this trend. There are some positive and negative expectations about DMB. The reason why two opposite expectations exist is that DMB does not come out from customer's need but from technology development. Therefore, customers might have hard time to interpret the real meaning of DMB. Time is quite critical to a high tech product, like DMB because another product with same function from different technology can replace the existing product within short period of time. If DMB does not positioning well to customer's mind quickly, another products like Wibro, IPTV, or HSPDA could replace it before it even spreads out. Therefore, positioning strategy is critical for success of DMB product. To make correct positioning strategy, one needs to understand how consumer interprets DMB and how consumer's interpretation can be changed via communication strategy. In this study, we try to investigate how consumer perceives a new product, like DMB and how AD strategy change consumer's perception. More specifically, the paper segment consumers into sub-groups based on their DMB perceptions and compare their characteristics in order to understand how they perceive DMB. And, expose them different printed ADs that have messages guiding consumer think DMB in specific ways, either cellular phone or personal TV. Research Question 1: Segment consumers according to perceptions about DMB and compare characteristics of segmentations. Research Question 2: Compare perceptions about DMB after AD that induces categorization of DMB in direction for each segment. If one understand and predict a direction in which consumer perceive a new product, firm can select target customers easily. We segment consumers according to their perception and analyze characteristics in order to find some variables that can influence perceptions, like prior experience, usage, or habit. And then, marketing people can use this variables to identify target customers and predict their perceptions. If one knows how customer's perception is changed via AD message, communication strategy could be constructed properly. Specially, information from segmented customers helps to develop efficient AD strategy for segment who has prior perception. Research framework consists of two measurements and one treatment, O1 X O2. First observation is for collecting information about consumer's perception and their characteristics. Based on first observation, the paper segment consumers into two groups, one group perceives DMB similar to Cellular phone and the other group perceives DMB similar to TV. And compare characteristics of two segments in order to find reason why they perceive DMB differently. Next, we expose two kinds of AD to subjects. One AD describes DMB as Cellular phone and the other Ad describes DMB as personal TV. When two ADs are exposed to subjects, consumers don't know their prior perception of DMB, in other words, which subject belongs 'similar-to-Cellular phone' segment or 'similar-to-TV' segment? However, we analyze the AD's effect differently for each segment. In research design, final observation is for investigating AD effect. Perception before AD is compared with perception after AD. Comparisons are made for each segment and for each AD. For the segment who perceives DMB similar to TV, AD that describes DMB as cellular phone could change the prior perception. And AD that describes DMB as personal TV, could enforce the prior perception. For data collection, subjects are selected from undergraduate students because they have basic knowledge about most digital equipments and have open attitude about a new product and media. Total number of subjects is 240. In order to measure perception about DMB, we use indirect measurement, comparison with other similar digital products. To select similar digital products, we pre-survey students and then finally select PDA, Car-TV, Cellular Phone, MP3 player, TV, and PSP. Quasi experiment is done at several classes under instructor's allowance. After brief introduction, prior knowledge, awareness, and usage about DMB as well as other digital instruments is asked and their similarities and perceived characteristics are measured. And then, two kinds of manipulated color-printed AD are distributed and similarities and perceived characteristics for DMB are re-measured. Finally purchase intension, AD attitude, manipulation check, and demographic variables are asked. Subjects are given small gift for participation. Stimuli are color-printed advertising. Their actual size is A4 and made after several pre-test from AD professionals and students. As results, consumers are segmented into two subgroups based on their perceptions of DMB. Similarity measure between DMB and cellular phone and similarity measure between DMB and TV are used to classify consumers. If subject whose first measure is less than the second measure, she is classified into segment A and segment A is characterized as they perceive DMB like TV. Otherwise, they are classified as segment B, who perceives DMB like cellular phone. Discriminant analysis on these groups with their characteristics of usage and attitude shows that Segment A knows much about DMB and uses a lot of digital instrument. Segment B, who thinks DMB as cellular phone doesn't know well about DMB and not familiar with other digital instruments. So, consumers with higher knowledge perceive DMB similar to TV because launching DMB advertising lead consumer think DMB as TV. Consumers with less interest on digital products don't know well about DMB AD and then think DMB as cellular phone. In order to investigate perceptions of DMB as well as other digital instruments, we apply Proxscal analysis, Multidimensional Scaling technique at SPSS statistical package. At first step, subjects are presented 21 pairs of 7 digital instruments and evaluate similarity judgments on 7 point scale. And for each segment, their similarity judgments are averaged and similarity matrix is made. Secondly, Proxscal analysis of segment A and B are done. At third stage, get similarity judgment between DMB and other digital instruments after AD exposure. Lastly, similarity judgments of group A-1, A-2, B-1, and B-2 are named as 'after DMB' and put them into matrix made at the first stage. Then apply Proxscal analysis on these matrixes and check the positional difference of DMB and after DMB. The results show that map of segment A, who perceives DMB similar as TV, shows that DMB position closer to TV than to Cellular phone as expected. Map of segment B, who perceive DMB similar as cellular phone shows that DMB position closer to Cellular phone than to TV as expected. Stress value and R-square is acceptable. And, change results after stimuli, manipulated Advertising show that AD makes DMB perception bent toward Cellular phone when Cellular phone-like AD is exposed, and that DMB positioning move towards Car-TV which is more personalized one when TV-like AD is exposed. It is true for both segment, A and B, consistently. Furthermore, the paper apply correspondence analysis to the same data and find almost the same results. The paper answers two main research questions. The first one is that perception about a new product is made mainly from prior experience. And the second one is that AD is effective in changing and enforcing perception. In addition to above, we extend perception change to purchase intention. Purchase intention is high when AD enforces original perception. AD that shows DMB like TV makes worst intention. This paper has limitations and issues to be pursed in near future. Methodologically, current methodology can't provide statistical test on the perceptual change, since classical MDS models, like Proxscal and correspondence analysis are not probability models. So, a new probability MDS model for testing hypothesis about configuration needs to be developed. Next, advertising message needs to be developed more rigorously from theoretical and managerial perspective. Also experimental procedure could be improved for more realistic data collection. For example, web-based experiment and real product stimuli and multimedia presentation could be employed. Or, one can display products together in simulated shop. In addition, demand and social desirability threats of internal validity could influence on the results. In order to handle the threats, results of the model-intended advertising and other "pseudo" advertising could be compared. Furthermore, one can try various level of innovativeness in order to check whether it make any different results (cf. Moon 2006). In addition, if one can create hypothetical product that is really innovative and new for research, it helps to make a vacant impression status and then to study how to form impression in more rigorous way.

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Human Lung Cancer Cell Xenografts Implanted under the Capsule of Kidney, Spleen and Liver (폐암 세포주를 사용한 신, 비장 및 간 피막하 분식법의 비교)

  • 김수현;김종인;이해영;조봉균;박성달;김송명
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.36 no.10
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    • pp.711-720
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    • 2003
  • Bakground : Complete resection by the surgery has been selected as the treatment of choice in lung cancer patients, but in cases of recurrence after excision or inoperable cases, the importance of anticancer chemotherapy has been emphasized. If one can select a set of the sensitive chemotherapeutic agents before anticancer chemotherapy, it will give more favourable results. Subrenal capsular assay has been recognized as a useful in-vivo chemosensitivity test of thoracic and abdominal tumors and it can be done in a short time for a rapid interpretation of tumor responsiveness to anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs. It has been reported that various kinds of cancer cells can be implantable to the kidney, but so far there is no comparative study of xenogeneic cell implantation on liver, spleen and kidney. The author implanted the human lung cancer cells under the capsule of S.D rat's liver, spleen and kidney respectively and compared the pattern of growth and histology. Material and Method: After incubation of human lung cancer cell line (SW-900 G IV) in RPMI 1640 (Leibovitz L-15 medium) culture media, 3${\times}$3${\times}$3 mm size fibrin clots which contain 108 cancer cells were made. Thereafter the fibrin clots were implanted at subcapsule area of liver, spleen and kidney of S.D. female rat. For immune suppression, cyclosporin-A (80 mg/Kg) was injected subcutaneously daily from post-implantation first day to sixth day. The body weight was measured at pre and post implantation periods. The growth pattern and the size of tumor mass were observed and the pathologic examination and serum tumor marker tests were performed. Result: Body weight increased in both of control and experimental groups. Serum Cyfra 21-1 was not detected. Serum levels of CEA and NSE revealed no significant change. The SCC-Ag increased significantly in implanted group. The growth rate of human lung cancer cells which was implanted on spleen was higher than on liver or kidney. The surface area, thickness, and volume of tumor mass were predominant at spleen. The success rates of implantation were 80% on kidney, 76.7% on spleen and 43.3% on liver. Pathologic examination of implanted tumors showed characteristic findings according to different organs. Tumors that were implanted on kidney grew in a round shape, small and regular pattern. In the spleen, tumors grew well and microscopic neovascularization and tumor thrombi were also found, but the growth pattern was irregular representing frequent daughter mass. Human lung cancer cells that were implanted in the liver, invaded to the liver parenchyme, and had low success rate of implantation. Microscopically, coagulation necrosis and myxoid fibrous lesion were observed. Conclusion: The success rate of implantation was highest in the kidney. And the mass revealed regular growth that could be measured easily. The SCC-Ag was presented earlier than CEA or Cyfra21-1. The Cyfra21-1 was not detected at early time after implantation. The best model for tumor implantation experiment for chemosensitivity test was subrenal capsular analysis than liver and spleen and the useful serum tumor marker in early period of implantation was the SCC-Ag.

An Exploratory Study of Hospice Care to Patients with Advanced Cancer (암환자를 위한 호스피스 케어에 관한 탐색적 연구)

  • Park, Hye-Ja
    • The Korean Nurse
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.52-67
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    • 1989
  • True nursing care means total nursing care which includes physical, emotional and spiritual care. The modern nursing care has tendency to focus toward physical care and needs attention toward emotional and spiritual care. The total nursing care is mandatory for patients with terminal cancer and for this purpose, hospice care became emerged. Hospice case originated from the place or shelter for the travellers to Jerusalem in medieval stage. However, the meaning of modem hospice care became changed to total nursing care for dying patients. Modern hospice care has been developed in England, and spreaded to U.S.A. and Canada for the patients with terminal cancer. Nowaday, it became a part of nursing care and the concept of hospice care extended to the palliative care of the cancer patients. Recently, it was introduced to Korea and received attention as model of total nursing care. This study was attempted to assess the efficacy of hospice care. The purpose of this study was to prove a difference in terms of physical, emotional a d spiritual aspect between the group who received hospice care and who didn't receive hospice care. The subject for this study were 113 patients with advanced cancer who were hospitalized in the S different hospitals. 67 patients received hospice care in 4 different hospitals, and 46 patients didn't receive hospice care in another 4 different hospitals. The method of this study was the questionaire which was made through the descriptive study. The descriptive study was made by individual contact with 102 patients cf advanced cancer for 9 months period. The measurement tool for questionaire was made by author through the descriptive study, and included the personal religious orientation obtained from chung(originated R. Fleck) and 5 emotional stages before dying from Kubler Ross. The content ol questionaire consisted in 67 items which included 11 for general characteristics, 10 for related condition with cancer, 13 for wishes far physical therapy, 13 for emotional reactions and 20 for personal religious orientation. Data for this study was collected from Aug. 25 to Oct. 6 by author and 4 other nurse's who received education and training by author for the collection of data. The collected data were ana lysed using descriptive statistics, $X^2-test$, t-test and pearson correlation coefficient. Results of the study were as follows: "H.C Group" means the group of patient with cancer who received hospice care. "Non H.C Group" means the group of patient with cancer who did not receive hospice care. 1. There is a difference between H.C Group and Non H.C Group in term of the number of physical symptoms, subjective degree of pain sensation and pain control, subjective beliefs in physical cure, emotional reaction, help of present emotional and spiritual care from other personal, needs of emotional and spiritual care in future, selection of treatment method by patients and personal religious orientation. 2. The comparison of H.C Group and Non H.C Group 1) There is no difference in wishes for physical therapy between two groups(p=.522). Among Non H.C Group, a group, who didn't receive traditional therapy and herb medicine was higher than a group who received these in degree of belief that the traditional therapy and herb medicine can cure their disease, and this result was higher in comparison to H.C Group(p=.025, p=.050). 2) Non H.C Group was higher than H.C Group in degree of emotional reaction(p=.050). H.C Group was higher than Non H.C Group in denial and acceptant stage among 5 different emotional stages before dying described by Kubler Ross, especially among the patient who had disease more than 13 months(p=.0069, p=.0198). 3) Non H.C Group was higher than H. C Group in demanding more emotional and spiritual care to doctor, nurse, family and pastor(p=. 010). 4) Non H.C Group was higher than H.C Group in demanding more emotional and spiritual care to each individual of doctor, nurse and family (p=.0110, p=.0029, P=. 0053). 5) H.C Group was higher th2.n Non H.C Group in degree of intrinsic behavior orientation and intrinsic belief orientation of personal religious orientation(p=.034, p=.026). 6) In H.C Group and Non H.C Group, the degree of emotional demanding of christians was significantly higher than non christians to doctor, nurse, family and pastor(p=. 000, p=.035). 7) In H.C Group there were significant positive correlations as following; (1) Between the degree of emotional demandings to doctor, nurse, family & pastor and: the degree of intrinsic behavior orientation in personal religious orientation(r=. 5512, p=.000). (2) Between the degree of emotional demandings to doctor, nurse. family & pastor and the degree of intrinsic belief orientation in personal religious orientation(r=.4795, p=.000). (3) Between the degree of intrinsic behavior orientation and the degree of intrinsic: belief orientation in personal religious orientation(r=.8986, p=.000). (4) Between the degree of extrinsic religious orientation and the degree of consensus religious orientation in personal religious orientation (r=. 2640, p=.015). In H.C. Group there were significant negative correlations as following; (1) Between the degree of intrinsic behavior orientation and extrinsic religious orientation in personal religious orientation (r=-.4218, p=.000). (2) Between the degree or intrinsic behavior orientation and consensus religious orientation in personal religious orientation(r=-. 4597, p=.000). (3) Between the degree of intrinsic belief orientations and the degree of extrinsic religious orientation in personal religious orientation(r=-.4388, p=.000). (4) Between the degree of intrinsic belief orientation and the degree of consensus religious orientation in personal religious orientation(r=-. 5424, p=.000). 8) In Non H.C Group there were significant positive correlation as following; (1) Between the degree of emotional demandings to doctor, nurse, family & pastor and the degree of intrinsic behavior orientation in personal religious orientation(r= .3566, p=.007). (2) Between the degree of emotional demandings to doctor, nurse, family & pastor and the degree of intrinsic belief orientation in personal religious orientation(r=.3430, p=.010). (3) Between the degree of intrinsic behavior orientation and the degree of intrinsic belief orientation in personal religious orientation(r=.9723, p=.000). In Non H.C Group there were significant negative correlation as following; (1) Between the degree of emotional demandings to doctor, nurse, family & pastor and the degree of extrinsic religious orientation in personal religious orientation(r= -.2862, p=.027). (2) Between the degree of intrinsic behavior orientation and the degree of extrinsic religious orientation in personal religious orientation(r=-. 5083, p=.000). (3) Between the degree of intrinsic belief orientation and the degree of extrinsic religious orientation in personal religious orientation(r=-. 5013, p=.000). In conclusion above datas suggest that hospice care provide effective total nursing care for the patients with terminal cancer, and hospice care is mandatory in all medical institutions.

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Cardioprotective Effect of Calcium Preconditioning and Its Relation to Protein Kinase C in Isolated Perfused Rabbit Heart (적출관류 토끼 심장에서 칼슘 전처치에 의한 심근보호 효과와 Protein Kinase C와의 관계)

  • 김용한;손동섭;조대윤;양기민;김호덕
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.603-612
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    • 1999
  • Background : It has been documented that brief repetitive periods of ischemia and reperfusion (ischemic preconditioning, IP) enhances the recovery of post-ischemic contractile function and reduces infarct size after a longer period of ischemia. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this process. Recent studies have suggested that transient increase in the intracellular calcium may have triggered the activation of protein kinase C(PKC); however, there are still many controversies. Accordingly, the author performed the present study to test the hypothesis that preconditioning with high concentration of calcium before sustained subsequent ischemia(calcium preconditioning) mimics IP by PKC activation. Material and Method : The isolated hearts from the New Zealand White rabbits(1.5∼2.0 kg body weight) Method: The isolated hearts from the New Zealand White rabbits(1.5∼2.0 kg body weight) were perfused with Tyrode solution by Langendorff technique. After stabilization of baseline hemodynamics, the hearts were subjected to 45-minute global ischemia followed by a 120-minute reperfusion with IP(IP group, n=13) or without IP(ischemic control, n=10). IP was induced by single episode of 5-minute global ischemia and 10-minute reperfusion. In the Ca2+ preconditioned group, perfusate containing 10(n=10) or 20 mM(n=11) CaCl2 was perfused for 10 minutes after 5-minute ischemia followed by a 45-minute global ischemia and a 120-minute reperfusion. Baseline PKC was measured after 50-minute perfusion without any treatment(n=5). Left ventricular function including developed pressure(LVDP), dP/dt, heart rate, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure(LVEDP) and coronary flow(CF) was measured. Myo car ial cytosolic and membrane PKC activities were measured by 32P-${\gamma}$-ATP incorporation into PKC-specific pepetide. The infarct size was determined using the TTC (tetrazolium salt) staining and planimetry. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) variance(ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test. Result: IP increased the functional recovery including LVDP, dP/dt and CF(p<0.05) and lowered the ascending range of LVEDP(p<0.05); it also reduced the infarct size from 38% to 20%(p<0.05). In both of the Ca2+ preconditioned group, functional recovery was not significantly different in comparison with the ischemic control, however, the infarct size was reduced to 19∼23%(p<0.05). In comparison with the baseline(7.31 0.31 nmol/g tissue), the activities of the cytosolic PKC tended to decrease in both the IP and Ca2+ preconditioned groups, particularly in the 10 mM Ca2+ preconditioned group(4.19 0.39 nmol/g tissue, p<0.01); the activity of membrane PKC was significantly increased in both IP and 10 mM Ca2+ preconditioned group (p<0.05; 1.84 0.21, 4.00 0.14, and 4.02 0.70 nmol/g tissue in the baseline, IP, and 10 mM Ca2+ preconditioned group, respectively). However, the activity of both PKC fractions were not significantly different between the baseline and the ischemic control. Conclusion: These results indicate that in isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model, calcium preconditioning with high concentration of calcium does not improve post-ischemic functional recovery. However, it does have an effect of limiting(reducing) the infart size by ischemic preconditioning, and this cardioprotective effect, at least in part, may have resulted from the activation of PKC by calcium which acts as a messenger(or trigger) to activate membrane PKC.

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An Analysis on Factors Affecting Local Control and Survival in Nasopharvngeal Carcinoma (비인두암의 국소 종양 치유와 생존율에 관한 예후 인자 분석)

  • Chung Woong-Ki;Cho Jae-Shik;Park Seung Jin;Lee Jae-Hong;Ahn Sung Ja;Nam Taek Keun;Choi Chan;Noh Young Hee;Nah Byung Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 1999
  • Propose : This study was performed to find out the prognostic factors affecting local control, survival and disease free survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinomas treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods : We analysed 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, histologically confirmed and treated at Chonnam University Hospital between July 1986 and June 1996, retrospectively. Range of patients' age were from 16 to 80 years (median; 52 years). Thirty three (70$\%$) patients was male. Histological types were composed of 3 (6$\%$) keratinizing, 30 (64$\%$) nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 13 (28$\%$) undifferentiated carcinoma. Histoiogicai type was not known in 1 patient (2$\%$). We restaged according to the staging system of 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer Forty seven patients were recorded as follows: 71: 11 (23$\%$), T2a; 6 (13$\%$), T2b; 9 (19$\%$), 73; 7 (15$\%$), 74: 14 (30$\%$), and NO; 7 (15$\%$), Nl: 14 (30$\%$), N2; 21 (45%), N3: 5 (10%). Clinical staging was grouped as follows: Stage 1; 2 (4$\%$), IIA: 2 (4$\%$), IIB; 10 (21$\%$), III; 14 (30$\%$), IVA; 14 (30$\%$) and IVB; 5 (11$\%$). Radiation therapy was done using 6 MV and 10 MV X- ray of linear accelerator. Electron beam was used for the Iymph nodes of posterior neck after 4500 cGy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 6120 to 7920 cGy (median; 7020 cGy). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with cisplatin +5-fluorouracil (25 patients) or cisplatin+pepleomycin (17 patients) with one to three cycles. Five patients did not received chemotherapy. Local control rate, survival and disease free suwival rate were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Generalized Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the difference of survival rates between groups. multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model was done for finding prognostic factors. Results: Local control rate was 81$\%$ in 5 year. Five year survival rate was 60$\%$ (median survival; 100 months). We included age, sex, cranial nerve deflicit, histologic type, stage group, chemotherapy, elapsed days between chemotherapy and radiotherapy, total radiation dose, period of radiotherapy as potential prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. As a result, cranial none deficit (P=0.004) had statistical significance in local control rate. Stage group and total radiation dose were significant prognostic factors in survival (P=0.000, P=0.012), and in disease free survival rates (P=0.003, P=0.008), respectively. Common complications were xerostomia, tooth and ear problems. Hypothyroidism was developed in 2 patients. Conclusion : In our study, cranial none deficit was a significant prognostic factor in local control rate, and stage group and total radiation dose were significant factors in both survival and disease free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have concluded that chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in our patients were effective without any serious complication.

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