• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mn-SOD

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Cytotoxicity of Artemisia argyi Extract Against H9 (ATCC HTB 176) Cell and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities (황해쑥(Artemisia argyi)의 H9 (ATCC HTB176) 세포에 대한 세포독성 및 항산화효소 활성)

  • 김경하;정대영;민태진;박시원
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.598-605
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    • 1999
  • The hot water and mathanol extracts of Artemisia argyi showed considerable cytotoxicities against H9(ATCC HTB 176) cancer cell with IC50 values of $48.6{\;}\mu\textrm{g}/ml$ and $51.9{\;}\mu\textrm{g}/ml$, respectively. These cytotoxicities were found to be dependent on the extract concentrations and culture days. CuZnSOD and MnSOD activities were significantly increased in the cytoplasm and mitochondria fractions of cancer cell, and media in the presence of Artemisia argyi. Such enhanced SOD activities were generally in the range of two to threefolds. In contrast to SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were not detected at all. These results suggest that Artemisia argyi have generated $O_2^-$ in the mitochondria and cytoplasm of H9 cancer cell with concurrent induction of CuZnSOD and MnSOD in situ, which dismutate $O_2^-{\}to{\;}H_2O_2$. Without coordinated actions of catalase and/or glutathione peroxidase $H_2O_2$ is easily converted to very toxic OH and these reactive oxygen species together might have induced necrosis and/or apoptosis of H9 cell.

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Cytotoxicity of Environmental Estrogenic Compound, Bisphenol A, via Generation of Free Radicals (내분비계 장애물질인 Bisphenol A의 free radical 생성을 통한 독성발현)

  • 안광현;김봉희
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2003
  • Bisphenol A shares similarities in structure, metabolism and action with DES, a known human teratogen and carcinogen. Bisphenol A, a monomer of polycarbonate and epoxy resins, has been detected in canned food and human saliva. The purpose of the this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, cell proliferation of bisphenol A In the presence of a rat liver S9 mix, contaning cytochrome P450 enzymes, and Cu (II). In the present study, Bisphenol A in combination with Cu (II) exhibited a enhancement in cytotoxicity which were inhibited by free radical scavengers. The content of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, was also found to increase with concentration of bisphenol A. Also, we examined the change of CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, catalase and GPx activities in the MCF-7 cells exposed to bisphenol A. The activities of CuZn-SOD, CPx, catalase were found to decrease with bisphenol A concentration. Meanwhile, the activity of Mn-SOD was unchanged. This indicated that elevated oxidative stress caused by imbalance between the production and removal of free radicals occurred in cells.

Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Isoforms in Inflamed Gingiva (염증성 치은에서 superoxide dismutase isoform의 발현에 대한 연구)

  • Na, Hei-Jin;Kim, Ok-Su;Park, Byung-Ju
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.97-112
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    • 2006
  • 유리 라디칼과 활성 산소종, 산화방지제 간의 불균형이 염증성 구강내 질환의 발생과 진행에 있어 중요한 역할을 한다는 주장이 제기되었고 최근에는 만성 염증성 치주질환에서도 산화에 의한 소실이 관찰되었다. 다양한 내적인 항산화 방어 기전 중 superoxide dismutase 가 $O_2$$H_2O_2$로 효과적으로 전환시킴으로써 활성산소종에 대한 일차적인 방어를 맡고 있다. 현재까지 인간에서 발견된 superoxide dismutase 는 cytoplasmic copper-zinc SOD와 mitochondrial manganase SOD, extracellular SOD의 3가지 아형이다. 이번 연구는 만성 치주질환을 가전 환자의 치주조직에서 효소 항산화제인 SOD의 발현정도를 알아봄으로써 질환조직 내의 산화자극 정도를 평가해 보고자하였다. 전남대학교 치주과에 내원한 33명의 만성 치주질환자와 20명 의 임상적으로 건강한 대상으로부터 조직을 얻어 Cu/Zn-SOD와 Mn-SOD, EC-SOD를 이용한 면역조직화학 염색을 시행하였다. 임상적 소견과 조직학적 소견이 일치하지 않아 조직학적 소견을 기준으로 건강한 조직, 경도, 중등도, 중도 치주질환 조직으로 그룹을 나누고 완전한 상피와 결합조직을 가진 27개의 표본에 대한 분석을 시행하였다. 치주질환 조직에서 건강한 조직에 비해 Cu/Zn-SOD가 상피의 기저층과 상피에 근접한 결합조직에서 발현되고 Mn-SOD는 염증이 증가함에 따라 크게 상피의 과립증과 각화층, 그리고 상피에 근접한 결합조직에서 발현됨으로써 활성산소종이 치주조직 파괴에 관여한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 세 아형 모두 혈관주위에서 발현되었고 특히 EC-SOD는 작은 모세혈관주위에서만 발현되었으나 염증에 의해 혈관벽이 두꺼워지고 혈관 수가 증가한 곳에서 뚜렷하게 염색되었다. 이번 연구는 염증성 치주조직내 증가된 SOD의 활성이 치주질환자의 산화자극 정도와 관련되어 있음을 시사하였다.

Oxygen Toxicity of Superoxide Dismutase-Deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Paraquat (Paraquat에 의해 유도된 Superoxide Dismutase 결핍 효모의 산소 독성)

  • 김지면;남두현용철순허근
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.561-567
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    • 1995
  • Using superoxide dismutase (SOD)-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the oxygen toxicity induced by paraquat was studied. In aerobic culture condition, yeasts lacking MnSOD (milochondrial SOD) showed more significant growth retardation than CuZnSOD (cytoplasmic SOD)-deficient yeasts. However, not so big differences in growth pattern of those mutants compared with wild type were observed under anaerobic condition. When exposed to paraquat, the growth of yeasts lacking CuZnSOD was severely affected by higher than 0.01mM of paraquat in culture medium. By the analysis of several cellular components ivolved in free radical generating and scavenging system, it was found that, under aerobic condition, the content of lipid peroxides in cell membrane as well as cellular activity of glutathion peroxidase of CuZnSOD-deficient mutants was increased in the presence of paraquat, although significant decrease of catalase activity was observed in those stratns. In MnSOD-deficient yeast, however, increment in cellular activity of glutathion peroxldase and catalase by paraquat was observed without any deterioration of membrane lipid. It implies that the lack of mitochondrial SOD could be compensated by both of glutathion peroxldase and catalase, but that only glutathion peroxidase might act for CuZnSOD in cytoplasm. In contrast, all of SOD-deficient mutants showed a significant decrease in catalase activity, but slight increase in the activities of glutathion peroxidase, when cultivated anaerobically in the medium containing paraquat. Nevertheless, any significant changes of lipid peroxides in cell membranes were not observed during anaerobic cultivation of SOD-deficient mutants. It suggests that a little amount of free radicals generated by paraquat under anaerobic condition could be sufficiently overcome by glutathion peroxidase but not by catalase.

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Photochemical Damage and Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rice Leaves Induced to Light-Chilling (Light-chilling에 의해 유도된 벼 잎에서의 광합성 변화와 항산화 효소의 반응)

  • Koo, Jeung-Suk;Choo, Yeon-Sik;Lee, Chin-Bum
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.442-448
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    • 2009
  • We investigated photooxidation and responses of antioxidant enzymes involved in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) after light-chilling ($4^{\circ}C$) for 2 days and post chilling ($25^{\circ}C$) in rice leaves. Chilling leaves indicated a 50% reduction in photosynthetic efficiency ($F_v/F_m$ ratio) and a 48% increase of $H_2O_2$, respectively, compared to the control group. In comparison with the control, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased at light-chilling and post-chilling. CuZn-SOD and Mn-SOD among SOD forms were detected in rice leaves, while Fe-SOD was not found. The increase of SOD and GR activity may serve as a basis for defense against chilling injury as it dismutase superoxide generated by light-chilling. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased during light-chilling, while activity of APX showed remarkable increase during light-chilling in rice leaves. Among CAT isoforms analyzed by 10% native PAGE, activities of isoform -2 and -3 were inhibited during light-chilling. From the elevated APX activity and decreased CAT activity, we suggest that these two enzymes show mutual supplementary relationships, indicating different tendency during light-chilling.

Changes of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in light damaged rat retina

  • Kaidzu, Sachiko;Tanito, Masaki;Takanashi, Taiji;Ohira, Akihiro
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.430-432
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    • 2002
  • The changes in expression of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in light-damaged rat retinas were examined. Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 6-weeks-old) were maintained on a cyclic photoperiod (12 hours light and 12 hours darkness) for 2 weeks. The illumination intensity during the light period was 80 lux. To induce light damage to the retina, a high-intensity illumination (3000-lux) was applied to the animals for 24 hours. After light exposure, the animals were returned to cyclic lighting. Eyes were enucleated 12 and 24 hours after light exposure started or 1,3, and 7 days after light exposure ended. Eyes were fixed and embedded in paraffin wax. Tissues were cut into 4${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$-thick sections. Sections were immunostained using antibody against CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, GPX and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanocine (8-OHdG) as oxidative stress marker. 8-OHdG was observed in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) during light exposure. In light-damaged retinas CuZn-SOD labeling was up regulated in the ONL and RPE. Mn-SOD labeling was up regulated in rod inner segments (RIS) during light exposure and that in the RPE was up regulated after exposure. GPX labeling was observed in rod outer segments (ROS) during light exposure. GPX labeling was also observed in the RPE during and after light exposure. All three enzymes were observed in the outer retina, which suffered light damage, but occurred in defferent layers except within the RPE, in which case all three were expressed. These enzymes may play complementary roles as protective factors in light-damaged retinas.

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Characterization of Superoxide Dismutase in Lactococcus lactis

  • Chang, Woo-Suk;So, Jae-Seong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.732-736
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    • 1999
  • The superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Lactococcus lactis was measured quantitatively and qualitatively under various culture conditions. The L. lactis SOD was induced by oxidative stress. As the concentration of paraquat to produce superoxide radicals increased, the growth of L. lactis decreased with concomitant increase of SOD activity. The SOD activity was found to be growth-phase dependent: when aerobically grown cells entered to the stationary phase, the activity increased gradually until the late stationary phase. From inhibition studies, L. lactis SOD was found to be insensitive to KCN and $H_2O_2$ which are known to inhibit Cu/ZnSOD and FeSOD, respectively. Moreover, as the concentration of manganese in the medium increased, the activity of SOD also increased. These data strongly suggested that L. lactis possessed a single manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD). Finally, a putative sod gene fragment of 510 bp was identified in L. lactis using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate primers designed from the deduced DNA sequences of known SOD genes.

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Effect of Brown Algae (Undaria pinnatifida)-Noodle on Oxygen Radicals and Their Scavenger Enzymes in Liver of Sprague-Dawley Rats (미역 (Undaria pinnatifida) 국수의 투유가 랫트 간장중의 활성산소 및 제거효소에 미치는 영향)

  • CHOI Jin-Ho;KIM Dae-Ik;PARK Soo-Hyun;KIM Dong-Woo;BEAK Yeong-Ho;KIM Chang-Mok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2000
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects og $10{\%},\;20{\%}\;and\;40{\%}$-addition of functional brown algae (FBA)-noodles on oxygen radicals and their scavenger enzymes in liver of Sprague-Dawley(SD) male rats. Hydroxyl radicals$({\cdot}OH)$ formations were significantly inhibited$(20{\~}35{\%}\;and\;12{\~}20{\%})$ in liver mitochondria and microsomes of rats administered $0{\%},\;20{\%}\;and\;40{\%}$ FBA-noodles compared with that of control group. Significant differences in $H_2O_2$ formations of liver microsome in these FBA-noodles fed groups could not be obtained, but superoxide-radical $(O_2^({\cdot}-))$ formations of liver cytosol resulted in a significant decrease about $10{\%}\;in\;20{\%}\;and\;40{\%}$ FBA-noodles compared with control group. Mn-SOD activities in liver mitochondria were significanlty increased $(10{\~}15{\%})$ in the groups fed $10{\%},\;20{\%}\;and\;40{\%}$ FBA-noodles, while a group administered $40{\%}$ FBA-noodle only resulted In a significant increases $(about 12{\%})$ in Mn-SOD activity of liver microsomes compared with control group. Cu, Zn-SOD activities in liver cytosol were significantly increased $(10{\~}20{\%})\;in\;10{\%},\;20{\%}\;and\;40{\%}$ FEA-noodles compared with control group. Administration of $10{\%},\;20{\%}\;and\;40{\%}$ FBA-noodles resulted in a marked increases$(20{\~}40{\%})$ in liver cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) compared with control group. Significant differences in lipid peroxide (LPO) levels of mitochondria and microsomes in $10{\%}$ FBA-noodle could not be obtained, while LPO levels of $20{\%} and 40{\%}$ FBA-noodles were significantly inhibited about $10{\%}$ in mitochondria and microsomes compared with control group. These results suggest that these FBA-noodles may play a desirable role in attenuating an oxygen radical formations and increasing a scavenger enzymes activity by some brown algae (Undaria pinnatifida) components.

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A Mechanistic Study on the Early Stage-Events Involved in Low Temperature Stress in Clamydomonas reinhardtii (Clamydomonas reinhardtii의 냉해 초기과정에 관한 기작론적 연구)

  • Cho, Hyun-Soon;Kim, Chang-Sook;Jung, Jin
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.433-440
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    • 1994
  • The exposure of Clamydomonas reinhardtii to low temperatures resulted in an accumulation of cellular pyruvate that dissipated when the chilled cells returned to ambient temperature. The dissipation of pyruvate accumulation was accompanied by an increase in the production level of superoxide radicals $(O_2^-)$ in cells. The formation of $O_2^-$ at an excessive level during the post-chilling period was apparently countered by a substantial activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD). All these results are similar to those observed previously in rice seedlings subjected to the cold-treatment, implicating that a common mechanism is probably underlying for the primary processes of chilling injury both in higher plants and in algae. It was also observed that the activation of Mn-containing SOD contributes the major share in the increase of SOD activity of whole algal cells. Because Mn-SOD is present only in mitochondria, the observation corroborates the concept that the $O_2^-$ scavenging enzyme would be induced to cope with the cold treatment-caused adverse situation in mitochondria where the toxic active oxygen is produced at rates far exceeding the normal rate.

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Predominant Genotypes and Alleles of Two Functional Polymorphisms in the Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene are Not Associated with Thai Cervical or Breast Cancer

  • Attatippaholkun, Watcharee;Wikainapakul, Kornwipa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3955-3961
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    • 2013
  • Background: Defects of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) have long been implicated in generation of oxidative stress and risk susceptibility to various cancers. Two functional polymorphisms within the MnSOD gene, including the Val-9Ala of the mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) and the Ile58Thr of the exon-3, have been proposed to reduce its enzyme activity and antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: A high-throughput multiplex SNaPshot$^{(R)}$ system was developed herein for simultaneous analyses of Val-9Ala and Ile58Thr in a single reaction. Genomic DNA extracted from each whole blood sample of 248 patients including 107 with cervical cancer and 141 with breast cancer and from 136 healthy women as controls was analyzed by the multiplex SNaPshot$^{(R)}$ system. Results: The Val/Val, Val/Ala genotypes and the Val allele of the MTS were predominant in patients with cervical or breast cancer as well as healthy women in Thailand. The Ile/Ile genotype and the Ile allele of the exon-3 were found in all of them whereas none of the Ile/Thr, the Thr/Thr genotypes and the Thr allele was detected. Genotypic association of both Val-9Ala and Ile58Thr polymorphisms with cervical cancer and breast cancer of these patients comparing to healthy women was not statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: The Val/Val, Val/Ala genotypes and the Val allele of the MTS were found predominantly but the Ile/Ile genotype and the Ile allele of the exon-3 were detected in patients with cervical cancer, breast cancer and healthy women in Thailand. These two functional polymorphisms (Val-9Ala and Ile58Thr) in MnSOD gene did not associate with susceptibility risk of these cancer patients in Thailand.